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tion, neither shadow that is cast by turning.' And
here also the idea of this light without shadow or
eclipse is used to emphasize the fact, previously
referred to, of the essential holiness of One who
cannot be tempted with evil and who Himself
tempteth no man (v. u ).

The darkness against which God's holy light
shines is sometimes represented impersonally (Eph
5 8 , 1 Th 5 5 , 1 P 2 9 ). But in Col I 13 St. Paul gives
thanks to the Father ' who delivered us out of the
power of darkness ' (cf. Lk 22 M ) ; and the word for
power (41-ovffla.) suggests the tyranny of an alien
authority. This is confirmed when in Eph 6 12 we
find the Apostle speaking of the 'world -rulers of
this darkness, the spiritual hosts of wickedness in
the heavenly places.' When we read in 2 Co II 14 ,
'Even Satan fashioneth himself into an angel of
light,' the evident suggestion is that Satan's true
form is that of a prince of darkness, not an angel
of light. In Ac 26 18 there is a significant parallel-
ism between darkness and the power of Satan on
the one hand, and light and the redeeming grace
of God OB the other ; and in 2 Co 6 14f< there is a

similar parallel between light and darkness and
Christ and Belial.

2. Christ. As applied to God, the metaphor of
light points to His essential nature ; as applied to
Christ, it denotes His special function as the
revealer of God to man. In the one case the light
is considered in its intrinsic glory ; in the other,
as shining forth upon the souls of men. It is in
the Fourth Gospel that this conception of Christ
as the light of men a light by which they are at
once illumined and judged is fully worked out
(cf. for the illumination Jn I 4 - 9 8 12 12 46 , and for the
judgment 1 s 3 19 - 1 ). But in 2 Co 4 6 St. Paul de-
clares that God has revealed the light of the know-
ledge of His glory in the face of Jesus Christ, and
in Eph 5 8 he says of those who were once in
darkness that they are now 'light in the Lord.'
Similarly in 1 Jn 2 s , where the revelation of Jesus
Christ and His ' new commandment ' are in view,
the author declares : ' The darkness is passing
away, and the true light already shineth.' In
these passages the reference is to Christ's function
as mediating the gracious Divine light to men and
thus bringing them knowledge and salvation. But
in 1 Co 4 5 Christ appears as a Judge, who by His
coming ' will bring to light the hidden things of
darkness, and make manifest the counsels of the
hearts.' In this case, however, the penetrating
judicial light of Christ is eschatologically conceived,
and is not, as in the Fourth Gospel, a light by
which men are already judged when they love the
darkness rather than the light.

3. Salvation and the Christian life. It is in
this connexion that the metaphors of light and
darkness most frequently occur in the relevant NT
literature. (1) Christian soteriology has to do with
sin and grace ; and these two contrasted moments
of human experience find fitting representation in
terms of darkness and light. Salvation is fre-
quently described as a transition from darkness to
light. St. Paul was sent to the Gentiles ' to open
their eyes, and to turn them from darkness to
light ' (Ac 26 18 ; cf . 13 47 ) ; he says of his converts :
' Ye were once darkness, but are now light in the
Lord' (Eph 5 8 ) ; and so elsewhere he addresses
them as ' sons of light and sons of the day,' who
' are not of the night nor of darkness ' ( 1 Th 5 5 ).
In 2 Co 4* he compares the light of the knowledge
of the glory of God, as it shines into the heart in
the face of Jesus Christ, to the creative light
shining at God's word out of the darkness. St.
Peter contrasts the marvellous light into which
God has called His people with the darkness in
which they lived formerly (1 P 2 9 ) ; while St. John,
with a stronger sense perhaps of the progressive
nature of the work of sanctification, reminds his
' little children ' that the darkness is passing away
before the shining of the true light (1 Jn 2 s ).
The author of Hebrews uses the expression ' en-
lightened ' (^wrtcrWcrej) to denote those who have
had experience of the Christian salvation (6 4 10 82 ),
by which he implies that before tasting of the
heavenly gift they were in a condition of spiritual

(2) In Col I 12t soteriology passes into eschatology.
Christians have been already delivered from the
power of darkness and translated into the kingdom
of God's dear Son ; but ' the inheritance of the
saints in light,' of which the Father has made
them meet to be partakers, has clearly a future as
well as a present reference (cf. Ro 13 12 , ' the night
is far spent, the day is at hand'). In the world to
come the inheritance of the saints in light has its
counterpart in 'the blackness of darkness' spoken
of in 2 P 2 17 , Jude 13 For those who reject the
light of the Divine grace, because they prefer the
darkness to the light, there is reserved a deeper
and impenetrable darkness.




(3) But salvation has a human and ethical side
as well as one that is transcendent and Divine ;
and this also is set forth under the imagery of
light and darkness. "When St. Paul declares that
' the fruit of the light is in all goodness and right-
eousnessand truth' (Eph5 9 [RV]),and contraststhat
shining fruit with ' the unfruitful works of dark-
ness' (v. 11 ), he is giving to light and darkness a
plain moral content. When he asks in another
Epistle, ' What communion hath light with dark-
ness ? ' (2 Co 6 14 ), the words that precede show that
it is the antithesis between righteousness and un-
righteousness that is in his thoughts. And when,
after comparing the world as it exists at present with
the night, and the approaching Parousia with the
day, he adds, ' Let us therefore cast off the works
of darkness, and let us put on the armour of light '
(Ro IS 12 -, cf. 1 Th 5*- 8 ), he is summoning his
readers to that deliberate and strenuous choice
and effort of the will in which all morality consists.
Those who in the soteriological sense are already
' sons of light and sons of the day,' and accordingly
'are not of the night nor of darkness' (1 Th 5 s ),
are not on that account exempt from the dangers
of the encompassing moral and spiritual gloom or
from the duties to which those dangers point. On
the contrary, just because they are sons of the
light they must gird on the armour of light, and
because they are not of the darkness they must
watch and be sober (vv. 6 " 8 ). Similarly in 1 Jn I 6f>
the writer calls upon his readers to ' walk in the
light as Christ is in the light,' and brands as false
those who profess to have fellowship with Him
and yet continue to walk in darkness. And if
they should ask for a definite test by which the
moral life may be judged and its relationship to
light or darkness determined, he refers them to
the new commandment which the Lord has given
(2 7L ; cf. Jn 13 s4 ). ' He that loveth his brother
abideth in the light' (2 10 ). 'But he that hateth
his brother is in darkness, and walketh in
darkness' (v. u ).

LTTBRATCRE. H. Cremer, Bib.-Theol. Lex. of NT Greeks,
1880; B. Weiss, Bib. Theol. of the NT, Eng. tr., 1882-83;
G. B. Stevens, The Theology of the NT*, Edinburgh, 1906, p.
370 ; PRE*, art. ' Erleuchtung ' ; art. ' Light ' in EBi and DCG.


LIGHTNING (dor/jewri}). Lightning, the visible
discharge of atmospheric electricity from one cloud
to another, or from a cloud to the earth, is now
known to be essentially the same as the electric
flashes produced in the laboratory. To the ancients
it seemed supernatural. Terrible in its dazzling
beauty and power to destroy, it was associated
with theophanies (Ex 19 18 20 18 , Ezk I 18 - 14 ), and
became one of the categories of Jewish and Chris-
tian apocalyptic (Rev 4 s 8 II 19 16 18 ). See THUNDER.



LINEN (j3i5(rcroy, from pa, adj. pfacrivos, Xfro0-
Linen was a characteristic product of Egypt, where
the arts of spinning and weaving were carried to
great perfection. Both in that land and in other
lands to which it was imported it was the material
used for priestly vestments. According to Hero-
dotus (ii. 37), the Egyptian priests 'wear linen
garments, constantly fresh washed, and they pay
particular attention to this. . . . The priests wear
linen only.' The Hebrew usage is indicated by
the phrase 'the linen garments, even the holy
garments' (Lv 16 s2 ); and Vergil (jEn. xii. 120)
speaks of Roman priests as ' Velati lino, et verbena
tempora vincti.' Linen at least the best kind of
it (/S&rcros, or 'fine linen') was too expensive for
ordinary wear. It was the clothing of kings and
their ministers (Gn 41 42 ), of women of quality (Pr
31 M ), of ideal Israel in her royal estate (Ezk 16 io - u ).

These facts explain the references to linen in
the imagery of the Revelation. (1) The seven
angelic messengers who come out of the heavenly
temple are ' arrayed in linen, pure and bright '
(15 6 ). In spite of good MS authority (AC) and
the dubious parallel in Ezk 28 13 , the reading
'arrayed with precious stones' (RV) \L6ov for
\ivov is extremely unlikely, and N has \lvovs. It is
true that \Lvov was commonly applied to the flax-
plant, but it was also used of linen cloth and
garments (II. ix. 661, JEsch. Supp. 121, 132). (2)
Fine linen was part of the merchandise of Imperial
Rome (Rev 18 12 ) ; the city was arrayed in it (v. 16 ),
the old republican simplicity having given place to
a wide-spread luxury. (3) It is befitting that the
bride of the Lamb arrays herself in tine linen,
bright and pure (19 8 ). The added words, ' for the
fine linen is the righteous acts (ducaiA/Mra) of the
saints ' is perhaps a gloss. It is a happy inspira-
tion that makes ' fine linen,' the clothing of priests
and princes, the uniform of the armies in heaven
that follow Him who is the Faithful and True (v. 14 ).


LINUS (Afros). This is a name which holds a
large place in the history of the early Church.
We first find mention of it in 2 Ti 4 21 , where St.
Paul, writing from his Roman prison, conveys to
his friend the greetings of Eubulus, Pudens, Linus,
and Claudia. Linus was thus a friend of Paul and
Timothy in the closing years of the Apostle's life.
In the Apostolic Constitutions (vii. 46) he is re-
garded as the son of Claudia of 2 Ti 4 21 (Afro? 6
KXauS/aj), which is perhaps doubtful (see art.
CLAUDIA). But the name Linus is found both
in Irenaeus (c. Hcer. ill. iii. 3) and in Eusebius
(HE III. ii., iv. 9, xiii.), where he is regarded as
the successor of St. Peter and the first bishop of
Rome after the Apostles, although Tertullian (de
Prcescr. 32) assigns this dignity to Clement. No
details of any kind are given regarding the episco-
pate of Linus, and the date of his tenure of office
is uncertain. Although Eusebius regards Clement
as the successor of Linus, and Tertullian reverses
the order, it is not improbable that both held office
at the same time and that the episcopal power as
wielded by them was of a very attenuated nature.
Perhaps both held their position during the lifetime
of St. Peter. According to Eusebius (HE III. xiii.)
the episcopate of Linus lasted for a period of twelve
years, but no dates can be fixed with any certainty.
Harnack gives as probable A.D. 64-76. Linus has
been regarded as the author of various works, but
there is no evidence in support of this view. He
is the reported author of (1) the Acts of St. Peter
and St. Paul ; (2) an account of St. Peter's contro-
versy with Simon Magus ; (3) certain decrees pro-
hibiting women from appearing in church with
uncovered heads. The Roman Breviary states
that he was a native of Voltena in Etruria, and
that he died as a martyr of the faith, being be-
headed by order of Saturninus, whose daughter he
had healed of demoniacal possession. His memory is
honoured by the Western Church on 23 September,
and the Greek Menaea regards him as one of the

LITERATURE. J. Pearson, de Serie et Successione primorum
Romce Episcoporum, London, 1688; A. Harnack, Die Chrono-
logic der altchristlichen Literatur, Leipzig, 1897 ; J. B.
Lightfoot, Apostolic Fathers, pt. i. 2 , 1890.


LION. With the possible exception of 1 P 5 s ,
the use of 'lion ' in the NT from 2 Tim. onwards is
dependent on the OT. An animal of great size and
strength, of noble bearing as well as of extreme
cruelty, he is a fitting symbol for moral and spirit-
ual reference.

1. In 1 P 5 8 , man's adversary, the devil, is repre-
sented as always roaming about in search of




prey, his very raging, which betrays his ravenous
hunger, striking terror into the hearts of all.

2. In He 11 s3 , the reference is to the actual wild
beast. Among the heroic deeds of the worthies of
the OT recounted by the author of the Epistle is
that they ' stopped the mouths of lions ' (cf . Samson,
Jg 14 5 - ; David, 1 S 17 34 ' 36 ; Benaiah, 2 S 23 20 ).
More remotely the story of Daniel suggests this
mighty achievement, yet here God and not Daniel
is said to have shut the lions' mouths (Dn B 22 ).

3. St. Paul declares that he had ' escaped the
mouth of the lion' (2 Ti 4 17 ; cf. Ps 22 21 , 1 Mac
2 60 ). The allusion of the Apostle is to the punish-
ment of being thrown to the lions. Some have
indeed permitted a literal interpretation of ' lion '
(A. Neander, History of the Planting and Training
of the Christian Church, Eng. tr., i. [1880] 345).
Since, however, he was a Roman citizen and could
claim the right of being beheaded (see BEAST),
the more probable explanation is that the reference
is not to an actual lion. Concerning this, various
conjectures have been advanced. ' Lion ' has been
interpreted as Nero (Chrysostom) ; calamity, which
would result from cowardice and humiliation (N. J.
D. White, in EGT, ' 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus,'
1910, p. 182 ; cf. Ps 21 22 - ^ [LXX]) ; ' the immediate
peril ' (Conybeare-Howson, The Life and Epistles
of St. Paul, new ed., 1877, ii. 593), although the
reference may be to St. Paul's having established
his right as a Roman citizen not to be exposed to
the wild beasts. If, however, the reference is to the
lion's mouth, then Satan may be intended as a de-
vouring adversary (cf. 1 P 5 8 , above), from which
St. Paul had escaped. The time, place, and oc-
casion of this reference have been variously con-
ceived, (a) 2 Ti 4 9 - u- 18 - M - a is a fragment, written
from Csesarea, inserted in .the Epistle, alluding to
his address before the Sanhedrin (cf. Ac 22 30 23 U ;
B. W. Bacon, The Story of St. Paul, 1905, p.
198 ff.). (b) Writing from Rome in his first im-
prisonment, he says that, although the result of
the preliminary hearing was a suspension of judg-
ment, yet he had expectation that ne would escape
a final condemnation, and that too in the imme-
diate future (A. C. McGiffert, A History of Chris-
tianity in the Apostolic Age, 1897, p. 421). Writing
from Rome in his second imprisonment, St. Paul
says that at the close of his first imprisonment his
pleading was so cogent and convincing that he was
set at liberty (Eusebius, HE ii. 22, 1 Clem. 5 ; cf.
T. Zahn, Introd. to the NT, Eng. tr., 1909, i. 441,
ii. 1 f). (c) After his arrival in Rome the second
time, the preliminary investigation had resulted
in his remand ; but the completion of the trial would
not eventuate so favourably (Conybeare-Howson,
op. cit. ch. xxvi. ; N. J. D. White, op. cit. 181 ff.).

4. In the Apocalypse (5 s ) the Exalted Christ is
presented under the guise of a lion, where the un-
doubted reference is to Gn 49 s . He, who had
overcome through death and the Resurrection,
who had thus opened a way to God's sovereignty
over men, and is therefore alone able to loose the
seals of the Divine judgment, i.e. to carry history
forward to its consummation, is symbolized by a
being of the highest prowess and strength. Yet
no sooner has this suggestion of overmastering
might become effective than it is withdrawn to
give place to another its exact opposite that of
a lamb as though slain, a symbol of sacrifice and
humiliation (see LAMB).

5. The same intimation of majesty and strength
occurs in Rev 4 7 , where the Seer is taken up into
heaven, and beholds the four and twenty elders
about the throne, with the four living creatures,
having the likeness respectively of a lion, a calf,
the face of a man, and a flying eagle (cf. Ezk I 5ff -
[esp. V.M] 10 14 ; also Is &*).

6. The remaining references in the Apocalypse

revert to the terrorizing aspect of this king of beasts
(9 8 [cf. Jl I 6 ] 9 17 10 3 [cf. Is S 29 ] 13* [cf. Dn 7 4ff -])-


LIVING. 1. Outside of the Gospels ' living ' does
not occur as a noun in the AV of the NT, but is
found three times in the RV, viz. in 1 P I 15 , 2 P
3 n , where it denotes the manner of life (AV ' con-
versation,' Gr. dvaerrpo^), and in Rev 18 17 , where
'gain their living (i.e. means of life) by sea 're-
presents the AV ' trade by sea,' the RVm ' work
the sea,' Gr. TTJV 66.\a.affav ^pydfovTai.

2. ' Living ' as a verb is found in both the AV
and the RV of Col 2 20 , 'living in the world,'
where the Gr. is fwrej; and Tit S 3 , 'living in
malice ' (Gr. didyovres).

3. The adj. ' living ' (Gr. ftav) occurs frequently
and is used with various shades of meaning. (1)
In the ordinary sense of being alive in contrast
with dead (Ro 12 1 14 9 , RV of Rev I 18 ). In Ac 10 42 ,
2 Ti 4 1 , 1 P 4 B both the AV and the RV translate
fwrres by 'quick.' In the 'living soul' of 1 Co
15 45 and Rev 16 s the word has the same meaning ;
in the latter passage, however, the literal render-
ing of the Gr. is 'soul of life' (RVm). (2) The
'living creatures' (RV ; AV 'beasts'; Gr. fyo,
being the LXX equivalent of n'vn in Ezk 1 s , etc. ) of
Rev 4 s - 8 , etc. , are so called as being not alive merely,
but instinct with life and activity (cf. Ezk I 14 ).
(3) With an intensified force the word is used of
God, who is called ' the living God ' (Ac 14 16 , Ro
9 20 , 2 Co 3 3 6 16 , 1 Th I 9 , 1 Ti 3 18 4 10 6 17 [AV], He
312 9 i4 10 si 1222, Rev 7 2 ) not only as being self-
existent, but as possessing the fullness of life in
absolute perfection. (4) Figuratively, the ex-
pression is applied to the oracles given by God to
Moses (Ac 7 38 , AV ' lively ') ; to the word of God
generally (He 4 12 , AV 'quick'); to the way into
the holy place which Jesus dedicated for us ( 10' M ) ;
to the hope unto which God has begotten us by
the Resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead (1
P 1 s , AV ' lively ') ; to the Stone rejected of men but
with God elect, precious (2*), and the stones built
up on that foundation into a spiritual house (v. B ,
AV ' lively ') ; to the fountains of waters to
which the Lamb shall lead His people (Rev 7 17 TR
and AV ; RV ' fountains of waters of life '). The
precise force of ' living ' in each of these cases is
determined by the word to which it is attached
and the context in which it is set. The word of
God is living because, being God's, it is instinct
with His own life; the way into the holy place
because it is real and efficacious, as contrasted
with the mere ceremony of entrance into the
earthly sanctuary; the Christian hope because it
is the result of a Divine begetting, and is therefore
lasting and certain of fruition as human hopes
are not ; the heavenly fountains because they are
ever ' springing up unto eternal life ' (cf. Jn 4*- 14 ).
The elect Stone and the stones built upon it are
living stones because the persons whom they
metaphorically represent are living persons the
One alive with the very life of God, the others
sharing in that life through their union with Him.


LOCUST (dKpis). Apart from Mt 3 4 , Mk I 6 , the
only references to the locust in the NT are con-
tained in the Apocalyptic Vision 'the Fifth
Trumpet or the First Woe' (Rev 9 s - 7 ) where a
swarm of locusts is represented as emerging out
of the smoke of the abyss. There is probably
here an allusion to the plague of locusts in Ex lO 4 *-
(cf. also Jl I 4 ), but both the power and the
mission of these locusts are not that of the locust
tribe. They have the power of ' scorpions,' the
deadliness of whose sting was proverbial (cf. 1 K
12 u. M> 2 Ch 10", Ezk &, Lk 10" 11"), while in




contradistinction to the usual habits and tastes o
locusts, they are commanded not to hurt ' tin
grass of the earth, neither any green thing, neithe:
any tree.' Apparently the work of judgment on
this part of creation had been sufficiently carriec
out by the hail which followed the First Trumpe
(Rev 8 7 ). It is interesting in this connexion both
to compare and to contrast the part played by
locusts in Exodus. There too they follow the
hail, but in Exodus (10 5 ) their mission is to ' eai
the residue of that which is escaped, which re
maineth unto you from the hail,' and to ' eai
every tree which groweth for you out of the field,
whereas here they have a more important voca-
tion they are sent forth as the messengers o:
God's wrath upon ' those men which have not the
seal of God on their foreheads' (Rev G 4 ), whom
they are to torment with ' the torment of a scor-
pion' for ' five months.'

The appearance of these particular locusts is as
unusual and unexpected as their mission (9 7 ' 10 ).
' The shapes of the locusts were like unto horses
prepared unto battle ' : this part of the description
would indeed be equally applicable to an ordinary
swarm of locusts ; it is borrowed from Jl 2*, and
is a metaphor ' chosen partly on account of their
speed and compact array, but chiefly on account
of a resemblance which has often been observed
between the head of a locust and the head of a
horse' (see Driver, ad loc.). The next two feat-
ures are peculiar to the locusts of the vision ; they
had ' crowns ' on their heads ' like unto gold,' and
' their faces were as men's faces.' The crowns are
indicative of their power and authority, while
their human faces testify to the wisdom and
capacity with which they were imbued. Further,
they had ' hair as the hair of women,' and it has
been supposed that we have here a reference to
the long antennae of locusts.

The locust belongs to the same genus as the
grass-hopper (Acrididce). There is a number of
different kinds, but the most destructive are the
(Edipoda migratoria and the Acridiumperegrinum,
of which the latter apparently predominate. The
history of their development is somewhat strange :
after emerging from the egg, which is laid in April
or May, they enter the larva state, during which
period they have no wings ; in the pupa state,
germinal wings enclosed in cases appear ; while
about a month later, they cast the pupa skin, and,
borne on their newly emancipated wings, they
soar into the air. Their hind- wings are generally
very bright-coloured, being yellow, green, blue,
scarlet, crimson, or brown, according to the species.
It is noteworthy that, unlike moths, they pass
through no chrysalis period. They only appear in
.swarms periodically, and when they do, they liter-
ally darken the sky (cf. Ex 10 13 ), while the rattle
of their wings is like a fall of rain (cf. Jl 2 5 ). In
the drier parts of the country they are at all times
abundant, and are a constant source of annoyance
to the husbandmen, whose crops they sometimes
entirely devour. The larvae are responsible for
most of the havoc wrought ; as they are unable
to fly, they hop over the land around which they
were hatched and destroy grass, plants, and shrubs
promiscuously. It is, on the other hand, easier to
drive off full-grown locusts that can fly, as they
are quickly frightened ; but at all stages of their
development they are extremely voracious.

They are used as an article of diet by the natives
to-day, just as they were in NT times, the legs
and wings being first removed, and the body stewed
with butter or oil. They are said to taste some-
what like shrimps.

LITERATUKB. H. B. Tristram, The Natural History of the
Bible**, i9ii, pp. 306 ff., 813; H. B. Swete, The Apocalypse of
St. John, 1907, p. 116 ff., The Gospel according to St. Mark*,

1902, p. 5f. ; SDB 549; HDB iii. 130 f. ; EBi iii. 2807 ff. ;
and especially Driver's ' Excursus on Locusts ' in his Joe I and
Amos, 1897, pp. S'J-91, cf. also pp. 37-39, 48-63; W. M.
Thomson, The Land and the Book, 1910 ed., p. 407 f. ; J. C.
Geikie, The Holy Land and the Bible, 1887, L 79, 80, 142,

391-5, 402. p. s. P. HANDCOCK.

LOIS (Gr. Awfj). The word Lois is of Greek
origin, related to \^(av and X^o-roj, 'pleasant,'

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