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p. 164). Later on the same author seems to treat the ' appear-
ance ' also as a fictitious afterthought grafted on to a Christian
time-scheme of amazingly early development : ' Both the appear-
ances take place on Sunday (Jn 20). This is another indication
of the ecclesiastical and eucharistic atmosphere in which the
Resurrection stories grew up ' (p. 199 ; cf. A, Loisy, Autourd'un
petit livre, Paris, 1903, p. 242 f.).

The NT itself is not without evidence that this
institution began its growth in apostolic times.
The passages are few but familiar. In Ac 20 7 the
first day of the week is associated with a Christian
assembly for religious purposes (ffwiryidvuv TJ/MOV
K\dffat aprov). If a use of this kind had not already
begun, what propriety or moment would there be
in stating what day of the week it was? Again,
at an earlier point in St. Paul's career we find him
urging the Christians at Corinth to make weekly
contributions towards the fund for the relief of the
impoverished church at Jerusalem, and to do it on
the first day of the week (1 Co 16 2 ). It has been
pointed out, not unreasonably, that this contribu-
tion is not represented as an offering to be collected
at some meeting for worship (Deissmann, art.
' Lord's Day ' in EBi), that, rather, the expression
n-ap' tavr$ simply points to setting aside such a
gift at home, and so the passage yields no positive
evidence for the observance of the day as in later
times. When, however, it is suggested, as an
alternative explanation, that the first day of the
week is named because probably this or the day
before was the pay-day for working folk at Corinth,
we need some definite evidence for this which is
not forthcoming. And when, as Zahn observes
(op. cit. p. 177), we find that in the 2nd cent, there
was a wide-spread custom of laying charitable gifts
for the poor on the church dish in connexion with
public worship, it is difficult not to connect this
with St. Paul's words here. May not his action in
this particular instance, indeed, have directly led to
the institution of a collection for the poor on the
Lord's Day, and especially in association with
' the breaking of bread ' ? It may be added
that, as St. Paul urges this course so ' that no
collections be made when I come,' and as the whole
work is described in v. 1 as a ' collection' (\oyia), it
is most natural to infer that there was not only a
setting apart of gifts, but also a paying into a local
fund week by Aveek. This strengthens the view
that 1 Co 16 2 incidentally gives evidence of early
movements towards the setting up of the Lord s
Day as an institution, especially when taken along
with Ac 20 7 ; for when could the contributions of
the people be better collected in readiness for the
Apostle than at their meetings on the special day
of worship ?




It is fair also to suggest (with Hessey, Sunday, p. 43) that the
assembling' spoken of in He IQ 29 must have taken place at
stated times and that the time is most likely to have been the
first day of the week.

The mention of 17 Kvpiairi) rifitpa. in Rev I 10 calls
for special notice, as this is the only instance in
the NT of the use of the expression that subse-
quently became so established and familiar. But
does it bear in this place the same significance as
it came to possess and possesses still ? Some have
argued that what is meant is not ' the Lord's Day '
as we understand it, but ' the Day of the Lord ' in
the sense in which the OT prophets employ the
term, and as it figures in the eschatological out-
look of the NT (e.g. 1 Th 5 2 ). Hort (Apoc. of St.
John, I.-III., London, 1908, ad loc.) inclines to
this view, thinking it suits the context better, and
seeing no reason for mentioning the day on which
the seer had his vision. He suggests as a possible
rendering : ' I became in the Spirit and so in the
Day of the Lord.' It is not surprising that he
only ventures on this 'with some doubt.' Deiss-
mann (loc. cit.) also favours this view, identifying
' the Lord's Day ' here with ' the day of Jahweh,'
the day of judgment in the LXX 17 -fi^pa. rov
Kvpioo (as also in St. Paul and elsewhere). But
here we have an important point telling for the
ordinary view. Neither in the LXX nor in the
NT (nor in other early Christian writings) have we
any instance of 77 tcvpiaKT) fi/j.fpa (if not here) used as
= 'the Day of the Lord.' The term with this
meaning is 17 -fi/dpa (TOV) Kvplov. If the two expres-
sions were equivalent and interchangeable, how
strange that the latter should occur so regularly
and the former be found in but one solitary
instance !

On the other hand, we have an undisputed early
example of the use of rj KvpiaKTj rifdpa (in noteworthy
abbreviation) as = ' Sunday 'in Didache,xiv. 1 (Kara
Kvpia.Kr)i> $ Kvplov ffwaxO^res (cXdcrare &prov; cf. Ac 20 7 ).
The expression thus could not have been a new
term c. A.D. 100, since Kvpiaic/i alone is used as=
' Lord's Day,' and particularly in the striking
collocation KvpiaKT) wplov. The relevance of this is
unaffected even if Turner is right in regarding
the Didaihe as simply a rechauffe of a purely
Jewish manual, and the curious phrase ' the
Lord's day of the Lord ' as 'only the Christian
substitute for the Jewish " Sabbath of the Lord" '
(Studies in Early Church History, Oxford,
1912, p. 8). Cf. also Ignatius, ad Magn. ix. 1
'living in the observance of the Lord's Day ' (/card.
Kvpia.Ki]v TWITES). No difficulty in point of time
emerges concerning the use of 17 KvptaKr) ij^pa. in
Rev. , which is reasonably assigned to the reign of
Domitian. And it is not used here as a newly-
coined term. How much earlier than the time of
Domitian it came into use none can say.

It is true we find the simple early name ' first
day' or 'eighth day' continuing in use long after
f) KvpiaKij -rintpa. emerges. Note particularly 'the
eighth day, which is also the first,' used by Justin
Martyr (Dial, xli., Apol. i. 67) and still later
writers. But evidently there was in ' Lord's Day '
an inherent suitability and felicity which caused
it to outlive these primitive designations and be-
come the permanent and characteristic Christian
name of the day. It passed into Western use, not
only figuring as dies dominica in the liturgical
scheme of the week, but establishing itself in
ordinary modern nomenclature (e.g. in French
dimanche and Italian domenica).

2. The epithet icvpiaio] and its use. We can
hardly wonder that at one time Kvpia,K6s was re-
garded as a word 'coined by the apostles them-
selves' (Winer-Moulton, Grammar of NT Greek 9 ,
Edinburgh, 1882, p. 296). In Wilke-Grimm's
Claris Novi Testament?, Leipzig, 1888, it is

described as 'vox solum biblica et ecclesiastica,'
and in Grimm-Thayer 4 , Edinburgh, 1892, this is
reproduced, save that ' solum ' is passed over. How-
ever, the papyri and inscriptions discovered more
recently in Egypt and in Asia Minor abundantly
prove that the word was in current use in the
whole of the Greek-speaking world ; e.g. KOPMKOS
\6yos ( = Imperial treasury) occurs in a government
decree issued in A.D. 68, 6 isvpios being a designa-
tion of the Emperor (cf. similar use of Lat. domini-
cus). For other examples see Deissmann, Bible
Studies, Eng. tr., Edinburgh, 1901, p. 217 f.

But from the fact that early Christians did not
coin the term Kvpia.K6s, but found it ready to hand in
the vocabulary of the day, it does not necessarily
follow that they used it as the pagan world used it.
They set it in a new connexion. In their use of it
they gave it a specific and distinctive character.
Thus we find it used in specific association (which
became permanent) with the Supper (KvpiaKbv
Selicvov, 1 Co II 20 ), with the Day (as here), with the
Sayings of Jesus (\6yia KvpiaKa, Papias), with the
House, the domus ecclesice (rb Kvpia.K6v).

In this connexion the following note from OED, .. ' Church,'
may be of use : ' The parallelism of Gr. Kvptaxov, church,
xvpiaxri, Sunday (in llth cent, also 'church'), L. dmninicum,
church, dominica, dies dominica, Sunday, Irish domhnach,
" church " and " Sunday," is instructive.'

Deissmann (loc. cit.) dissents from the view ad-
vanced by Holtzmann and others that our par-
ticular term (17 Kvpia.KT}-r)p.tpa or 17 Kvpiax^) 'is formed
after the analogy of Seiwov KvpiaKdv.' He prefers
(though, indeed, with a certain amount of caution)
to regard this Christian mode of naming the first
day of the week as analogous to the custom of the
pagan world in Egypt and Asia Minor whereby
the first day of each month was called 2ej3ao-r^
( = Imperial). Thus the Christian weekly 'Lord's
Day' was the direct counterpart of a monthly
'Emperor's Day.' This, to say the least, is not
self-evident ; and Deissmann may well hesitate, as
he does, to maintain that the Christians thus con-
sciously copied the pagan use. We need not, in-
deed, argue a direct analogy to Kvpia-Kbv Seiirvov in par-
ticular. Perhaps we may more reasonably regard
both these expressions and others given above as
being independent but co-ordinate examples of
the application of the epithet icupia.K6s. There
could oe no question from the first as to the itvpios
it had reference to. Nor, again, need we suppose
that Christians, in thus speaking of Jesus, were
directly influenced by the use of 6 KI//HOS or 6 Kvpios
^fjiuv as designating a deity or an emperor in the
time of the Roman Empire. They had a sufficient
precedent for this in the Jewish use of ' A dundi for
God. At the same time the parallelism in such
use among Jews, Christians, and pagans is a
matter of some interest.

3. The relation of the Lord's Day to the Jewish
Sabbath. As shown by the few passages already
noticed, the first day of the week evidently began
from the earliest times to have a special value in
the eyes of Christians. But, whatever the signifi-
cance and use of that day, the day itself was not
confounded with the Jewish Sabbath. Nor is
there any sign that in apostolic times there was
any thought of superseding the latter by the Lord's

' L'idee de transporter au dimanche la solennit6 du sabbat,
avec toutes ses exigences, est une id6e etrangere au Christian-
isme primitif ' (Duchesne, Origines du culte chrMen*, p. 46).
Similarly Zahn (op. cit. p. 188 f.) points out that no one belong-
ing to the circle of Jewish Christians would think of relaxing
one of Moses' command inents ; and, even if already in apostolic
times Sunday came to be observed, none could think that the
Sabbath commandment would be fulfilled through a Sabbath-
like observance of another day instead of the observance of the
Sabbath itself.

For a considerable time the two existed side by




side. The Jewish Christian who met with his
fellow-Christians on the Lord's Day still observed
the Sabbath of his fathers. Nothing in the use of
the first day of the week as a day for Christian
reunions could have been intended as hostile to
the old Jewish institution. Clear evidence as to
the two-fold observance of both the days is furnished
by Ignatius (ad Magn. ix. [longer recension]),
who exhorts Christians to keep the Sabbath, ' but
no longer after the Jewish manner.' 'And after
the observance of the Sabbath, let every friend of
Christ keep the Lord's Day as a festival, the re-
surrection-day, the queen and chief of all the days.'
Similarly in the Apost. Const, ii. 59: 'Assemble
yourselves together every day, morning and
evening, singing psalms and praying in the Lord's
House (iv rots KvpiaKOK) . . . but principally on the
Sabbath day ; and on the day of our Lord's Resur-
rection, which is the Lore's Day, meet more
diligently,' etc. We have an interesting memorial
of this primitive double observance in the Lat. and
Gr. liturgical names for Sunday (dies dominica,
Kvpianij) and Saturday (sabbatum, ffaftfiarov), the
whole liturgical scheme of the week having come
down from early times when Christians discarded
the use of day-names associated with pagan

It is true that Justin Martyr in a well-known passage
(Apology, i. 67) uses the name ' Sunday' (rfj TOU 'HAi'ou \fyofi*vri
Tjfie'pa) ; but the expression ' the day called the day of the sun''
clearly indicates that whilst Christians might use the ordinary
name in intercourse with non-Christians they did not use it
among themselves. Similarly in the same chapter Justin uses
' day of Saturn ' (Saturday) instead of ' Sabbath.' Zahn (op. cit.
p. 357) marks this as the only instance he knows of in which
a Christian writer uses the term ' Sunday ' in pre-Constantine
times (see also ERE, art. 'Festivals and Fasts [Christian]').

As Duchesne (op. cit. p. 396) and others have pointed out, the
observance of Sunday is one of a number of elements which
Christianity had in common with the religion of Mithras. In
Mithraism this was directly connected with the worship of the
sun. It was inevitable that some should argue from this a
vital connexion between the two religions. This was the case
in primitive times. Tertullian (Apol. xvi.) vigorously repudiates
the charge that Christians worshipped the sun as their god.

In the course of time, the distinction between
church and synagogue growing wider, the Sabbath
inevitably became less and less important and
eventually fell into complete neglect among Chris-
tians, whilst the Lord's Day survived as their
special sacred day of the week. (No institution of
like kind was known in paganism.) It must be
remembered that St. Paul was opposed to the in-
troduction of OT festivals (including the Sabbath)
into the churches he founded among the Gentiles,
' declaring that by the adoption of them the
Gentile believer forfeited the benefits of the gospel,
since he chose to rest his salvation upon rites instead
of upon Christ (Col 2 16 ; cf. Gal4 lu , Ro 14 5 '-)' (G. P.
Fisher, Beginnings of Christianity, 1877, new ed.,
1886, p. 561 ; cf. Zahn, p. 189). We may reasonably
conclude, indeed, that St. Paul himself, being one
of the ' strong' (Ro 14 5f -), shared the view of those
who esteemed ' every day alike,' and that all days
were alike sacred in his eyes, whether Sabbaths,
Lord's Days, or others.

But the observance of the Lord's Day must have
been a very different thing from that of the Jewish
Sabbath. The commemoration of the Resurrection
of Christ alone would make a great difference.
Whether or not the apostles saw what the issue
would be when the first day of the week began to
be thus observed (in however simple a way), they
must have given the growing custom their approval
and welcomed the association of acts of joyful
worship and almsgiving with the day. St. Paul
could have been no exception in this respect ; but
apparently he did not foresee that the Christian
' first day ' might in time assume those very feat-
ures of the Jewish ' seventh day ' Sabbath which
made him deprecate the introduction of this ancient

institution among Gentile Christians (see also art.
4. Primitive modes of observing the Lord's Day.

The fact that for Cliristians the one raison d'etre
of the Lord's Day was the commemoration of the
Lord's Resurrection made it a weekly festival to
be kept with gladness.

Somewhat later on, it is true, other associations were claimed
for it as if to enhance the dignity of the day. E.g. a connexion
with the first day of Creation and ever, with the Ascension was
assumed ; though these were trifling compared with some
mediaeval developments. Between the llth and the 15th cen-
turies we meet with a wide-spre<td fiction of a ' Letter from
Heaven ' inculcating Sunday observance, wherein the largest
claims are made for the day : how that on it the angels were
created, the ark rested on Ararat, the Exodus took place, also
the Baptism of Jesus, His great miracles. His Ascension, and
the Charism of Pentecost (see An English Miscellany, in
honour of Dr. Furnivall, Oxford, 1S01).

(a) We are frequently reminded by early Chris-
tian writers that it was the primitive custom to
stand for prayer on that day instead of kneeling
as on other days. Tertullian, amongst others, V
dilates on this (de Orat. xxiii.). Canon 20 of the
Council of Nicoea plainly reflects a very old custom,
as it enjoins that ' seeing there are some who kneel
on Sunday and in the days of Pentecost . . . men
should offer their prayers to God standing.'

(b) Cessation from all work does not appear to
have been required in primitive times as an ele-
ment in the observance of the day. So long as
there were meetings for religious worship, Chris-
tians were not expected to cease from manual
labour. But so far as Jewish Christians were con-
cerned, if they observed Sabbath in such a way,
they would hardly be likely to observe the day
immediately following in the same way as well.
For the rest it may be questioned whether social
conditions made it practicable. We can hardly
argue back to 'apostolic times from customs obtain-
ing in society nominally Christian under nominally
Christian government. Old Roman laws in pre-
Christian times provided for the suspension of
business (particularly in the law courts) on all\
ferice or festivals, it was the Emperor Constan- A.
tine who at length ordered that the same rule
should apply to the Lord's Day, thus bestowing
honour on the day as a fixed weekly festival (see
Bingham, Antiquities of the Christian Church, \
bk. xx. ch. ii.). It is noticeable that in Ignatius
(ad Magn. ix. [see above]) Christians are exhorted
to keep Sabbath 'after a spiritual manner, re-
joicing in meditation oh the Law' ; and absten-
tion from work is expressly discountenanced, while
rest from labour is not demanded for the observance
of the Lord's Day. Later on the practice of using
Sunday as a day of rest from work came into
vogue ; and then it served as a sign distinguishing
Christian from Jew.

Considerable light on this point is incidentally gained from
the 29th Canon of the Council of Laodicea (4th cent.) light as
to what had long been the practice of Christians who clung to
Jewish antecedents, and as to the conditions then prevailing.
It reads : ' That Christians must not act as Jews by refraining
from work on the Sabbath, but must rather work on that day,
and, if they can, as Christians they must cease work on the
Lord's Day, so giving it the greater honour.'

(c) The assemblies connected with the Lord's
Day were two : the vigil in the night between
Saturday and Sunday, and the celebration of the.
Liturgy on Sunday morning. One reason for meet-
ing at such times was most probably the need for
precaution in times of persecution and difficulty.
An interesting account of Sunday worship of
Christians at Jerusalem in the 4th cent, is to be
found in a letter written by a Gallic lady who
went on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. The
document, written in the vulgar Latin, is given by
Duchesne in his Origines du culte chretien, App. 5.
No doubt the picture reflects in the main a usage
which had existed from much earlier times. A




crowd of people ('all who could possibly be there ')
gathers at the church doors ' before ' cock-crow '
when the doors ai'e lirst opened, then streams into
the church, which is lit up by a large number of
lamps (luminaria infinita). (Not that such zest in
church .attendance was universal in the early cen-
turies. T!n a Homily on the Lord's Day by Eusebius
of Alexandria [5th cent. ?] the slackness of people
in coming to church is humorously treated and re-
buked. ) The worship includes inter alia the recita-
tion of three psalms, responses, prayers, and the
reading of the gospel story of the Resurrection.
Justin Martyr's account of worship on the Lord's
Day is also well known (Apol. i. 65-67), while to
go still further back to the very fringe of the Apos-
tolic Age we have Pliny's famous letter to Trajan
wherein he describes Christians meeting early in
the morning to sing hymns to Christ and (v.l.
' as ') God, and joining in a sacramental act and a
common meal. This took place, he says, stato die,
and no doubt that fixed day was the first day of
the week.

(d) Very possibly the sacramental meal ('break-
ing of bread') was the earliest distinctive feature
in the Christian observance of the Lord's Day, the
other exercises of prayer, reading, etc., being
added later. ' To the sacramental meal of apos-
tolic times, understood as a foretaste and assurance
of the " Messianic banquet " in the coming Par-
ousia, there was soon prefixed a religious exercise
modelled perhaps on the common worship of the
Synagogue which implied just those preparatory
acts of penance, purification, and desirous stretch-
ing out towards the Infinite, which precede in the
experience of the growing soul the establishment
of communion with the Spiritual World ' (E.
Underbill, The Mystic Way, London, 1913, p. 335).

5. Modern names for Lord's Day. The varying
names by which the day has been known in later
times reflect the confusion M'hich has attended the
history of the Lord's Day as a Christian institution.

(a) To speak of the day as ' the Sabbath ' (even
the expression ' Christian Sabbath ' is only admis-
sible on the ground of analogy) is to use a modus
loquendi that primitive Christians could never have
used. Their distinction between Sabbath and
Lord's Day was as clear as between the first and
the seventh day. It arises from the mistaken
identification of the weekly festival of the Resurrec-
tion of Christ with the Sabbath of the Jews and
of the Fourth Commandment in the Decalogue.
The sanctions for the observance of the Lord's Day
were wrongly sought in OT prescriptions (see
Richard Baxter's treatise on ' The Divine appoint-
ment of the Lord's Day proved, etc.,' in Works, ed.
Orme, London, 1830, xiii. 363 ff.).

Less than ever is it of service now to appeal to
the Fourth Commandment as an authority in urg-
ing the due maintenance of the Lord's Day ; though,
indeed, the Mosaic institution has its full value as
a venerable exemplification of the naturally wise
provision for a weekly release from daily business
and toil. Christians must rely on other sanctions,
and chiefly the definite association of the day with
the Resurrection of our Lord, the true instinct by
which with great spontaneity the first little Chris-
tian communities set the day apart, the continuous
usage of the Church, the provision for the function
of worship. Others who may be uninfluenced by
specific religious considerations, and for whom the
very term ' Lord's Day ' may have no significance,
may yet very well recognize the value of the under-
lying natural principle of the ' day of rest.'

(b) Again, the persistence, or survival, of the pre-
Christian and pagan designation 'Sunday' is a
matter of interest, especially since, being tacitly
denuded of its ancientassoeiations withsun- worship,
it has come to be invested to the Christian mind

with all the meaning attached to ' Lord's Day,' and
used interchangeably with that name. We have
seen how careful primitive Christians were to dis-
tinguish between the pagan name and that which
they took for their own particular use. But the
old nomenclature held its ground in the civil calen-
dar notwithstanding the spread of Christianity.
When Constantino (A.D. 321) publicly honoured
the Lord's Day by enacting that it should be kept
as a day of rest, he spoke of it as dies venerabilis
solis. In the latter part of the 4th cent., in one of
the laws of Valentiman n., there occurs the phrase :
' On Sunday, which our forefathers usually and
rightly called the Lord's Day (Dominicum)' a
further evidence as to the triumph of the ancient
name. It is curious to see ' Lord's Day ' referred
to as an old name that had fallen into abeyance
(see Bingham, op. cit. XX. ii. 1).

An interesting subject of inquiry presents itself
in the fact that among the Teutonic nations of
Western Christendom this old pagan name, ' day
of the sun,' has established itself in the calendar,
whilst the modern Latin nations employ as the
universal name the early Christian term dies dom-
inica in various forms. (The futile attempt of the
Quakers to supersede both forms and revert to NT
simplicity by using the colourless expression ' first
day' is a matter of history.) In the light of this
divergence Zahn's plea for the day as alike valuable
for Christians and non-Christians has point only
when addressed to the Teutonic peoples. The
weekly festival, he urges, should be upheld as ' a
"Lord's Day" only, of course, for those who call
upon the risen Jesus as their Lord, but as a " Sun-
day" for all men, a day when God's sun shines

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