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left northern Lycaonia (somewhat curtailed) to
the Galatians, and eastern Lycaonia (also dimin-



726



LYCIA



LYDIA



ished) to Cappadocia, while he attached south-
western Lycaonia (considerably increased) to the
province of Cilicia. Mark Antony gave the last
part, including Iconium and Lystra, to Polemon
in 39 B.C., but transferred it in 36 to King
Amyntas of Pisidia, who at the same time became
king of all Galatia. Soon afterwards this brilliant
soldier the most interesting of Asiatic Gaels over-
threw Antipater of Derbe, with the result that the
whole of Lycaonia, except the so-called Eleventh
Strategia (which about this time was given to King^
Antiochus of Commagene, to be henceforth called
Lycaonia Antiochiana) was now included in the
Galatian realm. After the untimely death of
Amyntas in 25 B.C., his kingdom was converted
into the Roman province of Galatia. This ar-
rangement lasted for nearly a century, except that
Claudius apparently presented the S.E. corner of
Lycaonia, including the important city of Laranda,
to the king of Commagene.

When St. Paul brought Christianity to Lycaonia,
he confined his mission to that part of it which
was in the province of Galatia. On reaching the
frontier city of Derbe, he retraced his steps.
Laranda, in Antiochian Lycaonia, was beyond his
sphere. If the S. Galatian theory is to be ac-
cepted, he passed through Galatic Lycaonia four
times (Ac 14 6 - al 16 1 IS' 23 ) ; he addressed the mixed
population of its cities Lycaonians, Greeks, and
Jews as all alike ' Galatians ' ; and the Christians
of Lycaonian and Phrygian Galatia, not the in-
habitants of Galatia proper, are the ' foolish Gal-
atians ' (Gal 3 1 ) about whom he was so ' perplexed '
(Gal 4 20 ). But see GALATIANS.

Nothing remains of the Lycaonian language
except some place-names ; but the Christian in-
scriptions found in Lycaonia are very numerous,
and show how widely diffused the new religion
was in the 3rd cent, throughout this country
which was evangelized by St. Paul in the 1st.

LITERATURE. W. M. Ramsay, Hist, Geog. of Asia Minor,
1890, also Hist. Com. on Galatians, 1899 ; J. R. S. Sterrett,
Wolfe Expedition in Asia Minor, 1888 ; C. Wilson, in Murray's
Handbook to Asia Minor, 1895.

JAMES STRAHAN.

LYCIA (Avicia, Eth. AtfKtos). Lycia was a se-
cluded mountain-land in the S.W. of Asia Minor,
bounded on the W. by Caria, on the N. by Phrygia
and Pisidia, on the N.E. by Pamphilia, and on
the S. by the Lycian Sea. It was 'beyond the
Taurus ' (KTOS rov favpov). The ribs of that huge
backbone of the country extended from N. to S.
(in some places over 10,000 ft. in height), and be-
tween them were well-watered and fertile valleys,
the homes of a highly civilized race, who in their
love of peace and freedom resembled the Swiss.
They were not Greek by race, but they were early
hellenized. They had many overlords Persians,
Seleucids, Ptolemys, Romans but for the most
part their autonomy was undisturbed, and they
had one of the finest constitutions in ancient times.

As the Lycians were suspected of favouring the
Imperial party in the Civil Wars of Rome, Brutus
and Cassius almost annihilated the beautiful city
of Xanthus (43 B.C.), and the country never re-
covered its old prosperity. Pliny says that in his
time the cities of Lycia, formerly 70 in number,
had been reduced to 36 (HN v. 28). In A.D. 43
it was made a Roman province, and in A.D. 74
Vespasian formed the united province of Lycia-
Pamphylia. Lycia is named in 1 Mac 15^ as
one of the Free States to which the Romans sent
letters in favour of the Jewish settlers. Two of
its principal seaports Patara and Myra are
mentioned in Acts (21 1 27 5 ). But it appears to
have been one of the last parts of Asia Minor to
accept Christianity. Among the provinces ad-
dressed in 1 P I 1 as having been partiy evangel-



ized, neither Lycia nor Pamphylia both south of
the Taurus finds a place.

LITERATURE. C. Fellows, Discoveries in Lycia during 2nd
Excursion in Asia Minor, 1841 ; T. A. B. Spratt arid E.
Forbes, Travels in Lycia, Milyas, and the Cibyratis, 1847 ;
orf-Niemann, Aeiseninsudwestl. Kleinasien, i.: 'Reisen



Benndor. , .

in Lykien und Karien," 1884.



JAMES STRAHAN.



LYDDA (Ai555a, Heb. L6d, Ar. Ludd). Lydda
was a town about 10 miles S.E. of Joppa, on the
line where the Maritime Plain of Palestine merges
into the Shephelah or Lowlands of Judaea. Its
importance was largely due to its position at the
intersection of two highways of intercourse and
traffic the road from Joppa up to Jerusalem by
the Vale of Ajalon, and the caravan route from
Egypt to Syria and Babylon. Re-occupied by the
Jews after the Exile (Neh 11 s5 ), it was nevertheless
governed by the Samaritans till the time of Jona-
than Maccabzeus, when the Syrian king Demetrius
II. made it over to Judaea (1 Mac II 34 ). In the
time of Christ it was the capital of one of the
eleven toparchies ' of which the royal city of Jeru-
salem was the supreme' (Jos. BJ III. iii. 5).
During the civil strife of the Romans (c. 45 B.C.)
Cassius sold the inhabitants of Lydda into slavery
for refusing the sinews of war, but Antony gave
them back their liberty (Ant. XIV. xi. 2, xii. 2-5).
Lydda was visited by St. Peter, whose preaching,
aided by the miraculous healing of ./Eneas, is said,
'in a popular hyperbolical manner' (Meyer on
Ac Q 35 ), to have resulted in a general conversion of
the Jewish population to Jesus as the Messiah.
From this town the Apostle was called to Joppa
on behalf of Dorcas (9 36 ). In the Jewish Wars
Lydda was a centre of strong national feeling. It
was captured and burned by the Syrian governor,
Cestius Gallus, on his march to Jerusalem (A.D.
65), and it surrendered without a struggle to Ves-
pasian in 68 (BJ u. xix. 1, IV. viii. 1). After the
fall of the holy city it became one of the refuges
of Rabbinical learning. Later, it was known as
Diospolis, though its old name was never dis-
placed, and it became the seat of a bishop. At the
Council of Diospolis in A.D. 415 the heresiarch
Pelagius was tried, but managed to procure his ac-
quittal. By this time Lydda had begun to have a
wide fame as the reputed burial-place of a Christian
soldier named Georgios, who in Nicomedia had
torn down Diocletian's edict against Christianity
and welcomed martyrdom. His relics were taken
to Lydda, and round his name was gradually woven
a tissue of legend, in which the Greek myth of
Perseus and Andromeda (see JOPPA), the Moslem
idea of Elijah (or alternatively of Jesus) as the
destined destroyer of the Impostor (al-dajjal) or
Antichrist, and the old Hebrew story of the fall of
Dagon before the ark, were all inextricably inter-
twined, till Lydda became the shrine of St. George
the Slayer of the Dragon, whom the English
Crusaders made the patron-saint of their native
land.

Lydda is now 'a flourishing little town, em-
bosomed in noble orchards of olive, fig, pomegran-
ate, mulberry, sycamore, and other trees, and sur-
rounded every way by a very fertile neighbourhood.'
The ruins of the Crusaders' Church of St. George,
have ' a certain air of grandeur ' (W. M. Thomson,
The Land and the Book, 1910, p. 523). The town
has a station on the Jaffa- Jerusalem Railway.

LITERATURE. E. Robinson, Biblical Researches, 1841, iii. 49-
55 ; C. Clermont-Ganneau, Horus et Saint Georges, 1877 ; G. A.
Smith, HGHL, 1897, p. 160 f. JAMES STRAHAN.

LYDIA. The woman who bears this name in
Ac 16 14ff< is described as ' a seller of purple, of the
city of Thyatira, one who worshipped God.' The
implication is that Lydia was more or less closely



LYDIA



LYIXG



attached to the Jewish religion a 'proselyte of
the gate,' in later Rabbinic phraseology. We are
told that she was found by St. Paul on his visit to
Philippi at a small Jewish meeting for prayer held
at the river-side on the Sabbath day. On hearing
the message of the Apostle, she was converted and
baptized along with the members of her household,
and thereupon entreated the missionary to lodge
in her house during his stay in the town. As a
seller of purple garments among the most expen-
sive articles of ancient commerce Lydia was no
doubt a woman of considerable wealth. Probably
she was a widow carrying on the business of her
dead husband, and her position at the head of a
wealthy establishment shows the comparative free-
dom enjoyed by women both in Asia Minor and
in Macedonia. Her generous disposition, manifested
in her pressing offer of hospitality to the Apostle,
may perhaps be reflected in the frequency and
liberality with which the Philippian Church contri-
buted to the Apostle's wants ( Ph 4 18 - 16 ). She holds
the distinction of being the first convert to Chris-
tianity in Europe, and her household formed the
nucleus of the Church of Philippi, to which St. Paul
addressed the most affectionate and joyous of all
his Epistles.

The fact that the Apostle Paul does not
mention her by name in the Epistle has given rise
to two different suggestions. Some have thought
that shortly after her conversion Lydia may have
either died or returned to her home in Thyatira (as
Milligan in HDB, art. ' Lydia '). Others have put
forward the idea that Lydia was not the personal
name of the convert, but a description of her
nationality as a native of Thyatira in the province
of Lydia ' the Lydian ' ; and further, that the
Apostle may refer to her either as Euodia or
Syntache (Ph 4 2 ). Kenan takes this latter view of
the name, and suggests also that Lydia became the
wife of the Apostle and bore the expenses of his
trial in Philippi (St. Paul, p. 148). Ramsay (HDB,
art. ' Lydia ') regards the name as a familiar name
(nickname), used instead of the personal proper
name and meaning ' the Lydian ' (so Zahn, Introd.
to NT, Eng. tr., 1909, i. 533). Others, however,
point to the frequency with which the name is
found applied to women in Horace (Od. i. 8, iii. 9,
iv. 30), and regard it as a proper name.

LITERATURE. E. Renan, St. Paul, 1869, p. 148; HDB, art.
'Lydia'; R. J. Knowling, EOT, ' Acts,' 1900, p. 345 ; Com-
mentaries of Holtzmann and Zeller in loe.

W. F. BOYD.

LYDIA (AvSia). Lydia, the fairest and richest
country of western Asia Minor, was bounded by
Mysia in the N., Phrygia in the E., Caria in the
S., and the Mgean Sea in the W. Long mountain
chains, extending westward from the central
plateau, divided it into broad alluvial valleys.
The regions between the ranges of Messogis,
Tmolus, and Temnus, watered by the Cayster and
the Hermus, were among the most fertile in the
world. The trade and commerce of Lydia con-
tributed more to its immense wealth than the
mines of Tmolus or the golden sand of Pactolus.
In the time of Alyattes and Croesus, who reigned
in splendour at Sardis, the kingdom of Lydia em-
braced almost the whole of Asia Minor west of the
Halys, but Cyrus subdued it about 546 B.C., and a
succession of satraps did their best to crush the
spirit of the race. After the triumphal progress
of Alexander the Great, Lydia was held for a time
by Antigonus, and then by the Seleucids. After
Magnesia (190 B.C.) the Romans presented it to
their ally Eumenes, king of Pergarnos (1 Mac 8 8 ).
From 133 onwards it formed part of the Roman
province of Asia. Before the time of Strabo (XIII.
iv. 17) the Lydian language had been entirely dis-
placed by the Greek.



The religion of the Lydians the cult of Cybele
was a sensuous Nature-worship, perhaps origin-
ally Hittite ; their music ' soft Lydian airs ' was
voluptuous ; and the prostitution at their temples,
whereby their daughters obtained dowries (Herod.
i. 93), made 'Lydian' a term of contempt among
the Greeks. Many Jewish families were settled in
Lydia (Jos. Ant. XII. iii. 4), and it is probable
that in the great centres of population not a
few Gentiles turned to them in search of a higher
faith and a purer morality. Among these was the
purple-seller of Thyatira, who was St. Paul's first
convert in Europe (Ac 16 14 - 40 ). ' Lydia' was most
probably not her real name, but a familiar ethnic
appellation. She was 'the Lydian' to all her
Philippian friends (E. Renan, St. Paul, 1869, p.
146 ; T. Zahn, Introd. to the NT, Eng. tr., 1909, i.
523, 533). See preceding article.

In Ezk 30 5 the RV has changed Lydia into Lud,
and the country Lydia is never mentioned in the
NT. The Roman provincial system created a
nomenclature which most of the writers of the
Apostolic Age habitually employ. Like many
other geographical and ethnological names, Lydia
ceased to have any political significance. St. Paul,
the Roman citizen, uses the provincial name Asia,
and never Lydia. John writes to five Lydian
churches, along with one in Mysian Pergamos and
one in Phrygian Laodicea, but all the seven are
' churches which are in Asia ' (Rev I 4 - n ). It is
contended, indeed, by Zahn (op. cit. i. 187) that
the Grecian Luke, to whom the unofficial termin-
ology would come naturally, uses Asia in the popu-
lar non-Roman sense as synonymous with Lydia,
to which F. Blass (Acta Apo-ttolorum, 1895, p. 176)
would add Mysia and Caria. J. B. Lightfoot,
however, states good reasons for maintaining that
' Asia in the New Testament is always Proconsular
Asia' (GalatiansP, 1876, p. 19 n.), and W. M. Ramsay
strongly supports this view, refusing now to admit
an exception (as he formerly did [The Church in
the Roman Empire, 1893, p. 150]) even in the case
of Ac 2 9 . JAMES STRAHAK.



LYING (ifret$5e<r0at, ' to lie ' ; ^evSoj, ^evtr/ta, ' a lie ' ;
iJ/evSfy, 'false'; if/efonjs, 'a deceiver'). 1. It is the
glory of Christianity that this religion reveals ' the
God who cannot lie,' 6 fyevdr)* 6e6s (Tit I 2 ), qui non
mentitur Deus (Vulg.). He is true in both senses
of the word a\T)0iv6s and d\r)0-fis, verus and verax.
He cannot be false to His own nature, just as men,
made in His image, cannot lie without being un-
true to themselves. It is likewise impossible to
imagine His Revealer departing from the truth
in word or deed. While Hermes, the so-called
messenger of the gods, was often admired for his
dexterous lying, Christ is loved because He is the
Truth (Jn 14 6 ), the faithful and true Witness (Rev
3 14 ), through whom men are able, amid all
earthly changes and illusions, to lay hold on
eternal realities.

2. The detection and exposure of imposture was
an urgent duty of the early Church. The speedy
appearance of false teachers was one of the most
remarkable features of the Apostolic Age, and the
Church was enjoined not to believe eveiy spirit,
but to try the spirits (1 Jn 4 1 ). There were \f/fv5-
dSeX^ot (Gal 2 4 ), ^evSair6<rro\oi (2 Co II 13 ), fevSo-
irpoffrrai (Ac 13 6 , 2 P 2 1 , 1 Jn 4 1 , Rev 16 13 19 20 20 10 ),
if,{vdo\6yoi (1 Ti 4 2 ), f tvdo5iddff K a.\oi (2 P 2 1 ). These
deceivers were as the shadows which always ac-
company the light. To the apostolic founders of
Christianity the bare thought of being ever found
false witnesses of God (^euSofjAprvpet rov 0eov, 1 Co
15 15 ) was intolerable. St. Paul often protests, and
solemnly calls God to witness, that he does not lie
(Ro , 2 Co II 31 , Gal I 20 , 1 Ti 27). The Church of
Ephesus was praised because she had tried soi-



728



LYSIAS



LYSTEA



disant apostles and found them false (^en5y, Rev
2 s ). If there were false teachers, there were also
false disciples, who claimed the Christian name
without having Christ's spirit, and John had to
formulate some clear and simple tests by which
'the liar' (6 ^ewmjs) could be known (1 Jn 2*- **
4 20 ).

3. The same writer emphasizes the gravity of
certain moral and intellectual errors the denial of
personal sin (1 Jn I 10 ), the rejection of the historical
Christ (5 10 ). He brands them as blasphemous as-
sertions that God (whose Word calls all men sinners,
and whose Spirit inwardly witnesses to the truth
of the gospel) is a liar.

4. Christians must not lie one to another (Col 3 9 ).
In the pagan, e.g. the Cretan (Tit I 12 ), lying is bad ;
in the Jew (Rev 2 s ) it is worse ; in the Christian it
should be impossible. The Law was made for the
repression of liars (1 Ti I 10 ) ; the gospel gives every
believer the spirit of truth (1 Jn 4*). 'All liars,'
' every one that loveth and maketh a lie,' end the
black list of the condemned (Rev 21 8 22 16 ), who
shall not in any wise enter the City of God (21 27 ).

JAMES STRAHAN.

LTSIAS. Claudius Lysias was the chiliarch,
the tribune, in command of the Roman troops
stationed at the Tower of Antonia at the time
of St. Paul's last visit to Jerusalem. The conjec-
ture is probable that he was by birth a Greek, and
that he adopted the name Claudius when ' with a
great sum' he obtained the station of a Roman
citizen (Ac 22 28 ; seeR. J. Knowling, EGT, 'Acts,'
1900, p. 463 ; cf. Ac 21 s7 ). The Tower of Antonia
communicated by a stairway with the cloisters of
the Temple (see G. A. Smith, Jerusalem, 1898, ii.
495 f., and art. JERUSALEM for the position of the
tower), and care was taken to have soldiers there
in readiness for any emergency, especially at the
time of the Jewish festivals (Jos. BJ v. 5. 8), like
that of Pentecost, which St. Paul was attending.
News was quickly brought up to the Tower of
the riotous attack made upon the Apostle in the
Temple at the instigation of ' Jews from Asia '
(21"*). It was suggested to Lysias, or the idea
occurred spontaneously to him, that the object of
the fury of the mob might be a man whom he was
anxious to apprehend viz. the leader of a recent
seditious movement, who had managed to escape
when the procurator Felix fell upon him and the
crowd of his followers (Jos. Ant. xx. 8. 6, and BJ
ii. 13. 5). Hence the surprise with which the
chiliarch turns to St. Paul, so soon as he had been
snatched from his assailants, with the question :
' You are not, then, the Egyptian . . . ? ' (Ac 21 38 ).
After allowing St. Paul to address the people
from 'the stairs,' Lysias had him taken within
the Tower, and had given orders that he should be
examined by scourging, when he was made aware
that his prisoner was a Roman citizen, whom ' it
was illegal to subject to such treatment' (22 s8ft ).
Seeking to obtain the information he desired by
other means, Lysias convened a meeting of the
Jewish Council on the following day, ' and brought
St. Paul down and set him oefore them' (v. 80 ).
The tumult that arose on St. Paul's statement
that he was a Pharisee, and was called in question
' touching the hope and resurrection of the dead,'
was so great that he had to be rescued by the
soldiers, who took him again to the Tower. Then
followed the ' plot of certain of the Jews to kill
St. Paul,' if the chiliarch could be induced to
bring him again before the Council. News of
this was carried to Lysias by ' Paul's sister's son.'
Thereupon the resolution was taken to send the
Apostle for greater safety to Caesarea (23 18fir -).
With the escort, Lysias sent a letter to the Gover-
nor Felix (v. 24 *')- In writing, he forgot the mis-
conception about ' the Egyptian ' under which he



had first apprehended St. Paul. Uppermost in his
mind was the fact that he had been the means
of rescuing ' a Roman ' from the mad fury of the
Jews. Not unnaturally it is that fact he empha-
sized when writing to the Governor. No further
trace of Lysias is forthcoming. G. P. GOULD.

LYSTRA (A&rrpa, which is fern. sing, in Ac
14- 21 16 1 , and neut. pi. in Ac 14 8 16 2 , 2 Ti 3 11 ).
Lystra was a Roman garrison town of southern
Galatia, built on an isolated hill in a secluded
valley at the S. edge of the vast upland plain
of Lycaonia, about 18 miles S.S.W. of Iconium.
Itself 3,780 ft. above sea-level, it had behind it
the gigantic Taurus range, whose fastnesses were
the haunts of wild mountaineers living on plunder
and blackmail. It was the necessity of stamping
out this social pest that raised the obscure town
of Lystra into temporary importance. In 6 B.C.
Augustus made it an outpost of civilization, one
of ' a series of colonies of Roman veterans evidently
intended to acquire this district for peaceful settle-
ment* (T. Mommsen, The Provinces of the Roman
Empire, Eng. tr., 1909, L 337). The others were
Antioch, Parlais, Cremna, Comama, and Olbasa.
In all these cities the military coloni formed an
aristocracy among the incolce or native inhabitants.
Latin was the official language, and Greek that
of culture, but the Lystrans used among them-
selves 'the speech of Lycaonia' (Ac 14 11 ), of which
no trace is left, except that ' Lystra ' which the
Romans liked to write ' Lustra,' on account of
its resemblance to lustrum is, like ' Ilistra ' and
'Kilistra,' which are also found in the country,
doubtless a native place-name. The site and
colonial rank of Lystra were alike unknown till
1885, when J. R. S. Sterrett's discovery of a pedestal
in situ, with an inscription containing the words
Colonia lulia Felix Gemina Lustra, settled both
these points. Coins bearing the same legend have
since Been found.

Lying some distance westward from the great
trade-route which went through Derbe and Iconium,
Lystra can never have been an important seat of
commerce. Still it was prosperous enough to at-
tract some civilians as well as soldiers to its pleas-
ant valley. Its blending of Greek and Jewish
elements is strikingly illustrated by the mixed
parentage of Timothy, whom St. Paul circumcised
' because of the Jews that were in those parts '
(Ac 16 1 - 4 ). No mention, however, is made of a
synagogue in Lystra, and probably the Jewish
colony was small. Some measure of Greek culture
among the Lystran natives is prima facie suggested
by the existence of a temple of Zeus ' before the
city ' (irpb ri)s ir6\ewj, Ac 14 18 ) cf. S. Paolo fuori
le Mura at Rome as well as by the naive identifi-
cation of Barnabas and St. Paul with Zeus and
Hermes. But these facts prove nothing as to
the real character of the Lystran worship, for the
arbitrary bestowal of classical names upon Ana-
tolian gods an act of homage to the dominant civil-
ization had but little effect upon the deep-rooted
native religious feeling. The motive of the priest
who wished to sacrifice to the supposed celestial
visitants (v. 18 ) does not lie on the surface. That
he acted in good faith, being thrilled with awe be-
fore superhuman miracle- workers, is more probable
than that, knowing better, he cleverly used a wave
of religious excitement to serve his own base ends.
All the Lystrans were probably familiar with the
legend told by Ovid, Met. viii. 626 ff. that Zeus
and Hermes once visited Phrygia in the disguise
of mortals, and found no one willing to give them
hospitality, till they came to the hut of an aged
couple, Philemon and Baucis, whose kindness
Zeus rewarded by taking them to a place of
safety before all the neighbourhood was suddenly



LYSTKA



LYSTEA



flooded, and thereafter metamorphosing their
cottage into a magnificent temple, of which they
became the priests.

It is stated (Ac 14 l ) that, during St. Paul's
sojourn in Lystra, Jews came thither from Antioch
(130 miles) and Iconium (18 miles), but whether in
the ordinary course of trade, or on set purpose to
persecute trie Apostle, is not made quite clear.
The close connexion between Antioch and Lystra
is proved by a Greek inscription on the base of a
statue which Lystra presented in the 2nd cent. :
' The very brilliant sister Colonia of the Antioch-
ians is honoured by the very brilliant colony of
the Lystrans with the Statue of Concord ' ( J. R. S.
Sterrett, Wolfe Expedition in Asia Minor, 1888,
p. 352). Lystra was more closely associated with
its Phrygian neighbour Iconium than with the
more distant Derbe, though the latter was, like
itself, Lycaonian (Ac 16 Z ). At Lystra the apostles
had experience of the swift changes of the



native popular feeling, as well as of the malice of
their own race. First they were worshipped as
gods come down to bring healing and blessing ;
then St. Paul was stoned as a criminal not fit to
live (cf. 2 Co II 28 ). Timothy was an eye-witness
of the cruel assault of the rabble (2 Ti 3"). The
Apostle re-visited Lystra in the homeward part of
his first missionary tour (Ac 14 21 ) ; again in his
second journey (16 1 ); and, if the South-Galatian
theory is correct, once more during the third
journey (18 23 ). Little is known of the later secular
or sacred history of Lystra. The veterans whom
Augustus planted there 'notably restricted the
field of the free inhabitants of the mountains,
and general peace must at length have made its
triumphal entrance also here' (Mommsen, op. cit.)>
Having thus completed the work of a border fort-



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