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rather in the production of forces and motives
which give to the principle a new concrete reality
in the life of men (cf. Mk 12 32 , Lk 10- 7 , 1 Jn 2 7 3 4 ).
Still, even as a subject of teaching, love occupies a
prominent place in the apostolic writings. It ap-
pears not merely as one important factor among
others in the Christian life, but as its chief and
most characteristic ingredient, greater even than
faith and hope (1 Co 13 13 ). The Pastoral Epistles
utter a warning against the absorption of the re-
ligious interest by the false gnosis and its asceti-
cism or impure love to the detriment of true Chris-
tian love ( 1 Ti 1 s 5 8 , 2 Ti 2 22 ' 2S 3 1 - 4 - 10 ). The primacy
of love also finds expression in such passages as
Ro 13 8 - 10 , Eph I 4 , Ja 2 5 , Rev 2 4 .

3. LoYe for God. The love thus made prominent
is, before all else, love towards God. Ritschl's view,
that the NT writers, especially St. Paul, conceive
of love towards God as something difficult of attain-
ment, and therefore hesitate to speak of it, except
in the quotation which underlies Ro S 28 , 1 Co 2 9 8 3 ,
Ja I 12 2 5 , is not borne out by the facts. Against it
speaks 2 Th 2 5 . Conceptions like ' living unto God '
(Ro 6 l - ", Gal 2 19 ), 'pleasing God' (Ro 8 8 , Gal I 10 ,
1 Th 4 1 ), 'offering sacrifice to God' (Ro 12' 15 18 , Ph
4 18 , He 13 15 , 1 P 2 5 ), ' serving God ' (Ro I 9 7 s 16 18 ,
1 Th I 9 , 2 Ti I 3 , He 9 14 ), all imply that the Chris-
tian's religious life is inspired by an affection
directly terminating upon God (cf. also 1 Co 14 2 ,
Rev 2 1Ut 13 ). It is unwarranted, where the concep-
tion of love occurs without further specification of
the object, to think exclusively of the fraternal
affection among Christians mutually. In many
cases the writers may have had in mind primarily
the love for God. The very fact that Christian
love must be exercised in imitation of Christ favours
this primary God-ward reference (Eph 5 2 ). Nor is
it correct to say that the only mode of expressing
love to God lies in the service of men. 1 Jn 4 12 is
often quoted in proof of this, but the passage in
the context means no more than that the invisibility
of God exposes man in his feeling of love for Him to
the danger of self-deception, which can be guarded
against by testing oneself in regard to the actual
experience of love for the brethren. Hence in 5 2
the opposite principle is also affirmed, viz. that the
assurance of the genuineness of one's love for the
brethren is obtainable from the exercise of love
and obedience towards God. Only in so far as the
love of God assumes the form of concrete deeds
of helpfulness, it cannot serve God except in the

4. Interdependence of the love for God and love
for the brethren. The love for God and the love
for the brethren are not, according to the apostolic
teaching, two independent facts. In examining
their relation, it should be remembered that the
love for God and the love for Christ are to the NT
practically interchangeable conceptions, Christ no
less than God being the source and recipient of
religious devotion (Eph 3 19 ). This may be most

VOL. i. ii

strikingly illustrated by a comparison of the Gospel
and the First Epistle of John : in the latter, love is
derived from and attached to God precisely after
the same manner as in the Gospel it is derived from
and attached to Christ. The close union of love
for God (and Christ) and love for the brethren can
be traced both objectively and subjectively. Ob-
jectively it may be followed along these lines : the
Divine purpose and the redemptive process do not
contemplate the production of love for God in iso-
lated individuals, but in the Church as the organic
community of believers. It is through the conjoined
love for God and the brethren that the Church is
and works as an organism (1 Co 12, Eph 3 17 ),
' rooted and grounded in love' (Eph 3 17 , cf. Col 3 14
'the bond of perfectness ') ; hence the same term,
Koivuvia, 'communion,' is used for the fellowship with
God and Christ and the fellowship with the breth-
ren (1 Co I 9 , 2 Co 6 14 8 4 , Ph 1 s 3 10 , 1 Jn I 3 - 7 ) ; the
act which produces love for God simultaneously
produces love for the brethren, and the same Spirit
which underlies and inspires the former likewise
underlies and inspires the latter (Ro 15 3U , 2 Co 6 6 ,
Gal 5, Eph I 4 G 23 , Col I 8 , 1 Th 3 12 4 9 , 1 Jn 3 14 ) ; the
inseparableness of the two also finds expression in
the figure of the family or household of God (Gal 6 10 ,
Eph 2 ltt , 1 Jn I 7 2 9 5 1 [where, however, ' him that is
begotten ' may refer to Christ and not to the fellow-
believer]). Subjectively the interdependence of love
for God and love for the brethren presents itself as
follows : through the recognition of the inclusive-
ness of the love of God the experience of the same
acts as a motive-power for the Christian to include
those whom God loves in his own love likewise;
the Christian also recognizes that he is not merely
the object of the Divine love, but also the instru-
ment of its manifestation to others ; he serves man
in the service of God (Ro 6 13 , 1 Co 7=", 2 Co 8 6 , 1'h
2 17 , 2 Ti 4 6 ) ; the love of God and Christ shown him
becomes to the believer an example of love to the
brethren (Ro 14 15 , 1 Co 8 n , 2 Co 8* 9 , Eph 4 32 5 2 , Ph
2 4ff< , 1 Jn 4 11 ) ; the idea of a close union between
the two also underlies the formula ' faith energiz-
ing through love ' (Gal 5 6 ). Here faith as the right
attitude towards God as Redeemer begets love for
Him, which in turn becomes the active principle of
service to others (cf. v. 13 ). Because the love for
others is thus founded on, and regulated by, the
love for God, it not only does not require but for-
bids fellowship with such as are in open opposition
to God and Christ (1 Jn 2 15 5 16 , 2 Jn io , Rev 2 2 - 6 ).

5. The origin of brotherly love. Religious love
in general is a supernatural product. It originates
not spontaneously from a sinful soil, but in response
to the sovereign love of God, and that under the
influence of the Spirit (Ro 5 5 - 8 S 28 , 1 Co 8 s [where
'is known of him ' = ' has become the object of his
love'], Gal 4 9 [where 'to be known by God' has
the same pregnant sense], 1 Jn 4 10 - 19 ). Love for
the brethren specifically is also a product of re-
generation (1 P I 22 - 23 ; cf. I 2 - 8 ). Especially in St.
Paul, the origin of brotherly love is connected with
the supernatural experience of dying with Christ,
in which the sinful love of self is destroyed, and
love for God, Christ, and the brethren produced in
its place (Ro 6 loff - 7 4 8 1 ' 4 , 2 Co 5 14 ' 16 , Gal 2 19 - 20 ).
Accordingly, love for the brethren appears among
other virtues and graces as a fruit of the Spirit, a
charisma (Ro 15 30 , 1 Co 13, Gal 5 22 6 8 ' 10 ). Although
this is not explicitly stated in Acts, there is no
doubt that St. Luke (if not the early disciples
themselves) derived the manifestation of love in
the Mother-church from the influence of the Spirit.

6. The essence of brotherly loYe. A psycho-
logical definition of brotherly love is nowhere given
in the apostolic writings, but certain notes and
characteristics are prominently brought out.

These are : (1) On the positive side. (a) Personal




attachment and devotion. The formulae for this
are 'to give oneself," 'to owe oneself,' 'to seek the
person ' (2 Co 8 5 12 14 , Philem la ). There is among
the brethren an inner harmony of willing (Ac 4 32 ).
As such an inward thing true love goes beyond all
concrete acts of helpfulness : it means more even
than feeding the poor or giving one's body to be
burnt (1 Co IS 3 ) ; it involves an absolute identifica-
tion in life-experience, which goes to the extent of
bearing the burden of sorrow for the sins and
the weaknesses of others (Ro 15 1 , 1 Co 2 5 , 2 Co 7 3 ,
Gal 6'-). (b) An energetic assertion of the will to
love. Love does not consist in mere sentiment ; it
is subject to the imperative of duty. St. Paul
speaks of it as a matter of pursuit and zealous
endeavour (1 Co 14 1 ) ; it involves strenuous labour
(1 Th I 3 [where ' the labour of love' is not the
labour performed by love, but the labour involved
in loving]). Hence also its voluntaririess is emphas-
ized (2 Co 9 7 ), and the continuance of its obligation
insisted upon (Ro 13 8 ). (c) Concrete helpfulness to
others. The NT throughout preaches the necessity
for love to issue into practical furtherance of the
interests of others. This is emphatically true even
of St. Paul, notwithstanding his insistence on faith
as the sole ground of salvation. The Apostle,
because governed by the principle of the glory of
God as subserved by the love of God, requires the
work as essential to the completeness of love.
' Good works ' is a standing formula in the Pastoral
Epistles (1 Ti 2 10 5 10 - ^G 18 , 2 Ti 2 21 3", Tit I 10 2 7 - 14
3 1 - 8 ) ; but it also appears in Ac 9 36 , Ro 13 s 14 6 , 1 Co
6 20 10 31 , 2 Co 9 8 , Eph 2 10 , Col I 10 , He 10 24 , 1 P 2 12 ,
R ev 2 2 - 19. 23. x 32. s. is 14 is 2 12 22 12 . Hence the
reference to the ' members ' as organs of the service
of God (Ro 6 13 12 1 ). The test of love lies in its
helpfulness (Ro 14, 1 Co 8). Love 'edifies,' i.e.
builds up, the fellow-Christian (1 Co 8 1 ). It contri-
butes, however, not exclusively, nor even primarily,
to the material or intellectual, but to the spiritual
benefit of others (1 Co 8 1 ). The NT avoids the
errors both of the Jewish and of the Hellenic prac-
tice of ethics. In Judaism the external acts had
become too much detached from the personal spirit
of devotion. In Hellenism the interest was too
much turned inward and absorbed by a self-centred
cultivation of virtue as such. Because all conduct
is thus determined by the supreme principle of love
as helpfulness, all casuistry is excluded and ethical
problems are all reduced to the one question : what
will benefit my brother ? This absence of all casu-
istic treatment of ethical questions is characteristic
of St. James as well as of St. Paul.

(2) On the negative side. The negation of self.
Love for the brethren originates only through the
death of the sinful love of self. Those who die this
death no longer live to themselves (2 Co 5 18 , Gal 2 19
6 14 , Ph 2 4 - 21 ) ; love is the opposite of all self-pleas-
ing and self-seeking (Ro 15 lff -, 2 Co 2 4 - 7 , Gal l',
1 Th 2 s , Eph 6 6 , Ph I 16ff -, Col 3 22 ). It excludes
every selfish cult of individuality (Ro 12 17 14 18 15 2 ),
all vain-glorying and excessive self-consciousness
(Ro S 27 12 3 , 1 Co I 29 3 21 4 7 , Ph 2 s , 1 Th 26), all envious
comparison of self with others (Ro 12 3 , Gal 4 17 ), all
personal anger or resentment (2 Co 2 5 12 20 , Gal 5'-,
Eph 4 26 - 81 6 4 , Ph I 17 , Col 3 8 , 1 Ti 2 8 ) ; it is not,
however, inconsistent with wrath for the sake of
Christ and God (2 Co 2 7 , Gal I 8 , 1 Th 4 14 ' 16 , Rev 2 2 -
. 19 6 io. is 14 io) > with a strong sense of the indepen-
dence of men in the service of God (1 Co 9 1 - 19 , Gal 2 6
5 1 ), with the right to glory in the distinction which
God's grace has conferred (1 Co I 31 4 4 2 Co I 14 7 14
10 7 ll 10 ^ 9 , Gal6 14 , Ph2 16 ).

7. Forms of manifestation of brotherly love.
As such the following are conspicuously mentioned.
(1) The external expression of the inward unity of
love in the form of common meals, the dydirai (Ac
2 42 , 1 Co II 17 - 34 , 2 P 2 13 , Jude 12 ). (2) The Km vuria

of benevolence through the altruistic use, of private
means (Ac 4 3 -, Ro 12 20 15 26 , 2 Co 8^ 5 9 13 12 U - J5 , Gal
2 10 6 10 , He 6 10 13 16 ). This Koivuvia was not, however,
in the early Church a ' community of goods ' in the
modern sense (cf. Ac 4 s4 - ^ with 5 4 ). In the case of
enemies, benevolence becomes the only form in which
love can express itself (Ro 12 20 , Gal 6 10 ). (3) The
missionary extension of the blessings of salvation to
others. The duty of missions is distinctly put on
the basis of love. Primarily this means love for
God and Christ (Ro P, 1 Co 9 17 , 2 Co 4 13 5-) ; but
secondarily it signifies also love towards men (Ro I 4 ;
cf. 13 8 and Eph 5^, 1 Jn l lff -). It is characteristic
of apostolic missions that they are not related to
the individual but to the organism of the Church,
and conceived not as an unconscious influence, nor
as a secret propaganda (like the Jewish mission),
but as an open proclamation and a deliberate
pursuit. In the last analysis this is due to the
consciousness that the Church as an organism is
the instrument through which God and Christ
bring their love to bear upon the world.

LITERATURE. A. Harnack, The Mission and Expansion of
Chrixtianity in the Firnt Three Centuries, Eng. tr.-, 1908, i.
147-198 ; W. Lutgert, Die Liebe im A'euen Testament, Leipzig,
1905; E. Sartorius, The Doctrine of Dirine Lone, Eng. tr.,
1884 ; B. Wilberforce, Sanctiji cation by the Truth, 1906,


BUFFET. The word 'buffet' is used in AV as
the translation of /co\a</ufw (lit. ' to give one blows
with the fists, or slaps on the ear'), which means
' to treat with violence and contempt.' The verb
is found only in the NT and later ecclesiastical
writers, and is probably colloquial. In the ex-
hortation to slaves in 1 P 2 20 it is used to describe
the rough usage to which such persons were sub-
jected by heathen masters as a punishment for
their offences. The fact that it is so used, is prob-
ably the reason why it is preferred to other terms
of similar import in 1 Co 4 11 ('we are buffeted'),
Avhere it is vividly descriptive of the ill usage
which St. Paul constantly experienced in pursuit
of his apostolic mission, especially when contrasted
with the happier fortune of his Corinthian converts
( ' ye reigned as kings '). 1 Co 9 27 RV gives ' buffet '
as the rendering also of inrwTridfw (from vir6 and
&\f/, ' to hit under the eye,' and then ' to beat black
and blue'), a word admirably fitted to express the
hardships and sufferings endured by St. Paul in
the course of his ministry, and patiently sub-
mitted to as a salutary means of spiritual disci-
pline. The fact that the Apostle speaks of him-
self as the agent in producing the discipline ('I
buffet my body') need not be taken as evidence
that ascetic practices, or bodily mortifications, are
intended. He regarded his body as an antagonist
to be subdued by the willing acceptance of adverse
circumstances fitted to promote his personal sancti-
fication. VV. S. MONTGOMERY.

BUILDING. The usual NT word is
olKoS6fjLij<ris, a building in course of construction, as
distinguished from olKoS6/j.rj/j,a., a finished structure.

1. 1 Co 3 9 . 'Ye are God's husbandry (RVm
' tilled land '), God's building.' Without pressing
the change of metaphor, it is, however, to be noted,
as indicating the intensity of the Apostle's thought,
how his mind grasps first one method of increase
and then another. The Kingdom grows like the
organic development in the vegetable world, where
outside substances are incorporated and assimilated
into the organism itself. Or it grows as a build-
ing from the foundation ; stone is laid upon stone,
according to a preconceived plan, till the whole
is complete. Under his metaphor St. Paul de-
scribes the Church as God's, and the leaders of the
Church as His instruments ('the saints buildup
the fabric '). In this light the factions of Corinth




are manifested. They have not grasped the
Divine idea of the Church, and therefore they
are rebuked : ' I could not speak unto you as unto
spiritual but as unto carnal' (3 1 ). With a tender
smile of blame he calls them ' babes in Christ,'
who have not grown into the height and freedom
of their calling as God's fellow-workers (vwepyol).
Kindled with his metaphor, the Apostle rises to
the thought of the gradual upbuilding of the
Church (by transformation and accretion) through
the ages, by many builders, and with varied
material, but all on the once-laid foundation, to
the glory not of the builders, but of the hand that
guided and the heart that planned (cf . Longfellow's
poem The Builders, and O. W. Holmes, The Living
Temple and The Chambered Nautilus).

2. 2 Co 5 1 . ' We know . . . we have a building
(olKodofify) from God, a house not made with hands,
eternal, in the heavens.' The punctuation in AV
is wrong, and the sense of RV would be more ex-
plicit if it read ' We have in the heavens a build-
ing from God, an house not made with hands,
eternal ' (so Alford, de Wette, Meyer, and most
Moderns). The house to which St. Paul looks
forward is not heaven itself, though it is in the
heavens, and comes from God as His gift. The
Apostle is here moving among the conceptions of
what he calls 'the spiritual body' (1 Co 15 42 " 45 ),
adumbrating in his paradox thoughts which are
really unspeakable. Cf. also Ph 3 a ' the body of
our humiliation . . . the body of his glory.'

3. Eph 2 a . 'Each several building (iraffa. olKoSo/j.-^)
fitly framed together, groweth into a holy temple*
(RVm 'sanctuary'). AV has 'all the building,'
and the difference ought to be carefully noted in
point both of grammar and of thought. The
weight of the best MSS favours the omission of
the article, and Meyer translates accordingly
' every building.' Moule (Ephesians [in Cambridge
Bible for Schools, 1886]) and Ellicott (Com. in loc.)
contend that the article is implicit; the latter
calls its omission ' a grammatical laxity,' and the
former is of opinion that the law of the article is
in some respects less precise in the NT than in the
classics. This does not appear to be made out,
and it is safer to abide by the established usage
than to allow an ad sensum interpretation (which
really assumes the point in dispute). Westcott
(Ephesians, 1906) prefers to abide by the classical
use (cf. ExpT xviii. [1906-07] 2 for a note on the
similar expression in Eph 3 1B ). iras without the
article = ' a various whole,' and this is the Apostle's
thought. ' The image is that of an extensive pile
of buildings, such as the ancient temples commonly
were, in process of construction at different points
over a wide area' (Findlay, Ephesians [Expositor's
Bible, 1892], 146). Uniformity is not necessary
to unity. The true catholicity is found in Jesus
Christ Himself, the chief corner-stone, and not in
external uniformity. The reading adopted in RV
may be claimed as an incidental testimony to the
early date of the Epistle. In point of fact, in the
2nd cent, the desire for formal unity would have
rendered impossible the text ' each several build-
ing.' 'The Church swallowed up the churches'
(Findlay). But here in the Apostolic Age, with
the variety of circumstance, attainment, and social
aspect in the churches, the essential idea of nnity
is nevertheless preserved, for ' each several build-
ing' is destined to be 'fitly framed together.'
Each serves to make np the ideal temple of God,
which is being built for ever. Each is a true part
of that mystical body of Christ, the habitation of
God through the Spirit.

4. He 9 11 . 'But Christ being come an high
priest of good things to come, by a greater and
more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands,
that is to say, not of this building ' ( AV) ; better

RV ' but Christ having come a high priest of the
good things that are come (RVm), through the
greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made
with hands, that is to say, not of this creation (oi5
Tafrnqs rrjs Kriffews).' The tabernacle is immaterial
and spiritual as contrasted with the heaven and
the earth. F. Field (Notes on the Translation of
the NT [ = Otium Norvicense, iii.], Cambridge, 1899,
p. 142 ; || Farrar, Hebrews [in Cambridge Bible for
Schools, 1883], p. 139 f.) would translate 'not of
ordinary construction.' ' Human skill had nothing
to do with its structure, for man's work finds its
expression in the visible order of earth, to which
this does not belong' (Westcott, Hebrews, 1889,
p. 258). For the different meanings assigned to
'tabernacle' and their bearing on the true
humanity of our Lord, see TABERNACLE.

5. Rev 21 18 . 'The building (^W/MJO-IJ) of the
wall thereof was jasper.' The word is passive and
denotes the structure, what was built in. Cf. ' I
will make thy battlements jasper ' (Is 54 12 [LXX]).
Some clear stone is intended, and not our modern
jasper, which is generally red or brown.


BUSINESS. The word occurs in the AV in
Ac & (x/>efa), Ro 12 11 (<nrovft}, ' diligence,' RV) 16 8
(irpay/M, ' matter,' RV), and 1 Th 4 11 (T& fSta). The
last named passage, ' Study to be quiet, and to do
your own business,' implies that every Christian is
expected to have an occupation. Christianity in-
troduced a new ideal in this respect. Greek ethics
regarded only certain occupations as being fit for
those leading the highest life, and from these com-
mercial activity was excluded (Plat. Hep. 495 C).
Jewish teaching improved on this by requiring
that every boy should learn a trade (Scnurer, HJP
II. i. 318). But even under this rule some trades
were condemned, e.g. those of tanner, butcher,
miner, goldsmith, and even the physician's calling
(F. Delitzsch, Jewish Artisan Life in the Time of
Christ, 1902, p. 56). Fishermen, on the other
hand, were esteemed as being generally pious an
interesting fact in the light of our Lord's choice of
some of them to be His apostles. The notion
that some trades were necessarily degraded was
abolished by Christianity, and St. Peter did not
hesitate to lodge in the house of a tanner (Ac 9 4S ).

In the conduct of their business Christians are
required to set an example to the world. They
are to be honest (1 Th 4 12 ), to owe np man anything
(Ro 13 8 ), to avoid covetousness which leads to dis-
honesty (He 13 s ), and to refuse to go into partner-
ship with extortioners ( 1 Co 5 U ). Business disputes
between Christians are not to be carried before
heathen tribunals (1 Co e 5 " 8 ). The actual giving
np of rights may sometimes be demanded by faith-
fulness to the gospel. It is evident that, at any
rate in Corinth, converts found it difficult at first
in ordinary business dealings to rise to the new
standard. Somewhat later arose another danger,
which is still familiar, that men should use religion
in order to improve their business prospects (1 Ti
6 8 ). This inevitably led to a low commercial
morality, such as that to which Hernias confesses
(Hand. iii.). Even as a Christian he had been for
some years accustomed to regard lying in business
transactions as quite permissible.

While the first Christians looked upon all honest
occupations as honourable, they refused to see any-
thing sacred in the vested interests of trades
which only exist by wronging others. At Philippi
St. Paul put an end to the exploitation of the girl
with second sight (Ac 16 18ff< ), and at Ephesus showed
no tenderness for the profits of idolatrous silver-
smiths (19 24 ' a7 ). It is evident that persecution was
often instigated by pagans whose business had
been thus affected by the new faith. St. Paul
experienced this in the two instances mentioned,



and Pliny's letter to Trajan testifies that there
was much feeling against Christians amongst those
who sold fodder for the victims used in heathen

LITERATURE. Besides Commentaries on the texts mentioned,
Bee E. von Dobschiitz, Christian Life in the Primitive Church,
Eng. tr., London and N.Y., 1904, passim; W. M. Ramsay,
The Church in the Roman Empire, London, 1893, p. 199 f.


the name ' Caesar," which has had such a wonder-
ful history, culminating in the German Kaiser and.
the Russian Tsar, was simply a cognomen (or sur-
name), indicating one branch of the gens lulia, one
of the old patrician families of Rome, which was
said to have been descended from ./Eneas of Troy
and Venus, through their son lulus (Ascanius).
The earliest known member of the family is Sex.
lulius Caesar, praetor in 208 B.C. ; the greatest is
of course C. lulius Caesar, the dictator (lived from
about 100 to 44 B.C.). The name was kept by all
the early Emperors except Vitellius (and even he
used it sometimes), in spite of the fact that after
Nero no Emperor had a drop of Caesarian blood in
his veins. The complete official names of the
Emperors who reigned during the hundred years
following the birth of Christ are Imperator Caesar
Augustus (see AUGUSTUS), Tiberius Caesar Augus-
tus (see TIBERIUS), Gaius Caesar Germanicus

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