James Hastings.

Dictionary of the apostolic church (Volume 1) online

. (page 57 of 234)
Online LibraryJames HastingsDictionary of the apostolic church (Volume 1) → online text (page 57 of 234)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

found in He 12 9 , where the fathers are described
as iraiScvral (cf. Plato, Dialogues, tr. Jowett, 1892,
index, s.v. ' education '). In this fatherly fashion
God Himself chastens His children for their ulti-
mate good (He 12 4 -" ; cf. Pr 3 1 "-, Rev 3 19 ). The
evils with which God visits men are rods of chas-
tisement (1 Co .IP 2 , 2 Co 6 9 ; cf. Pr 19 18 29 17 , Wis
3 4fl. jjioff^ 2 Mac 6 16 10 4 ). Such treatment is not a
sign of antipathy or rejection, but an evidence of
true love. God does not leave His wayward
children to their fate, but strives to bring them to
becoming reverence and reformation. Sometimes
the chastisement is of such a terrible character
that the one who suffers is said to be 'delivered
unto Satan' (1 Co 5 8 , 1 Ti F ; cf. Job 2 6 , Ps 109 6m ,
Ac 26 18 ). But even in these cases the ultimate
object is the recovery of the sinner, 'that the
spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus '
and ' that they might be taught not to blaspheme.'
The 'thorn in the flesh' afflicted St. Paul so
grievously that he called it 'a messenger of Satan*
(2 Co 12 7ff - ; cf. Lk 13 16 , Jub. x. 2), but it saved him
from being ' exalted overmuch ' and became a
means of such abundant grace that he was led
positively to glory in his weakness. This same
grace of God, which brings salvation to all who
receive it, does not always appear in gentle in-
struction, but sometimes takes the form of stern
chastisement ; in a word, whatever means is neces-
sary for the perfect redemption of the soul, that




means will grace employ (see Tit 2 llff> ). To those
who submit to this process of chastening, the re-
wards are immense and enduring. Compared with
them the ' affliction ' is ' light,' and the pain of the
present moment is transformed into ' an eternal
weight of glory' (2 Co 4 16 ' 18 ).

As to the relation between iraiSela and vovOeo-ta,
'chastening and admonition' of Eph 6 4 , T. K.
Abbott (Eph. and Col. [ICC, 1897] 178) maintains
that iraidela is, as in classical writers, the more
general, vovQevia, the more specific term, for instruc-
tion and admonition. On the other hand, Grotius,
followed by Ellicott, Alford, and many others,
declares : ' iraideia hie significare videtur institu-
tionem per poenas ; vovdea-ia autem est ea institutio
quae fit verbis.' The Vulg. translates ' in disciplina
et correptione.' The probability is that the former
word refers to training by ' act and discipline,' the
latter to training by ' word.' See also ADMONITION

LITERATURE. H. A. A. Kennedy, Sources of NT Greek, 1895,
p. 101 ; R. C. Trench, NT Synonym^, 1876, p. 107 f. ; H. B.
Swete, The Apocalypse of St. John\ 1907, p. 63 ; the Com-
mentaries on Ephesians, esp. J. Armitage Robinson, 1903 ;
ExpT xiv. [1902-03] 272; see also artt. 'Chastening' and
'Nurture 'in H DB. H. CARISS J. SlDNELL.

CHEERFULNESS (O.E. chere, 'face,' 'look';
L. Lat. caret, 'the face'). The abundance of ex-
pressions of buoyant gladness in a weak and perse-
cuted community, as was the Christian Church of
the first century, is striking. Whereas we might
expect depression and sighing, we find everywhere
singing at midnight in the prison houses (Ac 5 41
16 25 , Ro S 35 ' 37 , 1 P I 8 - 8 , etc.). Although St. Paul
is described as once saying that his service has
been with tears (Ac 20' 9 - 81 ), and in his letter to
Corinth confesses that he writes with many tears
and with deep suffering and depression of spirit
(2 Co 2*), such utterances stand isolated among a
multitude of phrases suggestive of rejoicing and
exultation. The Apostle's references to depressing
circumstances of life are usually to indicate his
triumph over them (Ph 3 7 - 8 , 2 Co 4 7f - 6 4 II 30 12).
Is there affliction ? That may be joyfully regarded
as filling up what was lacking in the sufferings of
Christ (Col I 24 ), as building up character (Ro 5 s ;
cf. He 12 11 , Ja I 2 ), as winning an eternal weight of
glory (2 Co 4 17 ). Even martyrdom for faith is a
thought inspiring joyfulness (Ph 2 17 ' 18 ). Are there
those who preach Christ out of envy and con-
tentiousness ? No matter, Christ is being preached
(Ph I 15 ' 18 ). St. Paul's very imprisonment is having
happy results the Imperial guards have thereby
heard of Christ, and other brethren have been in-
spired by St. Paul's sacrifice to bolder service
(Ph I 12 ' 14 ). There is much in human life to give
gladness meetings with friends (Ph 2 128 - , 2 Ti I 4 ,
2 Jn 12 ), even the very remembrance of them (Ph I 4 ),
the sharing of the joys of others (Ro 12 16 , 1 Co 12 26 ),
the success of one's work (Ph 2 16 ), the faithfulness
of converts (1 Th 2 19 - 20 ), their repentance after
error (2 Co 7 9 ), their thoughtful liberality (Ph 4 10 ).
One may rejoice in a good conscience (2 Co I 12 ), in
the joy set before those running the good race
(He 12 2 ), in the inspirations and consolations of
Christian faith (Ro 5*- u 15 1S , 2 Co I 24 5 6 '-, Ph I 28 ,
1 P I 8 ). Not only is there cause for joy in the
argued inferences from Christian beliefs in the
direct experience of the Holy Spirit there is joy
and peace which the world cannot give (Ro 14 17 ,
Gal 5 W , 1 Th I 6 ; cf. the characteristic features of
mysticism in W. James, The Varieties of Religious
Experience, London, 1902, lects. 16 and 17).
Christian cheerfulness is not based on a denial of
the reality of the dark things of life, but on the
proportioning of them by the larger elements of
joyful Christian faith and experience. A shallow,
worldly cheerfulness must not be confused with

the joy of the Christian in God. Human good
cheer is only for a season (1 Co 7 30 ) ; there is a
laughter which should be turned to grief, and
gladness to shame (Ja 4 9 ). Exhortations to re-
joice are found in 1 Th 5 16 , Ro 5 s (cf. Col 1") 12 12 ,
Ph 3 1 4 4 ('xafpere expresses the predominant mood
of the Epistle, a mood wonderfully characteristic
of Paul's closing years ' [H. A. A. Kennedy, EGT,
1 Philippians,' 1903, p. 466]). H. BULCOCK.

CHERUBIM (xepovfilfj.). Among the symbolic
ornaments of the Tabernacle the writer of Hebrews
mentions ' the cherubim of glory overshading the
mercy-seat ' (9 6 ). In Solomon's Temple there were
two colossal cherubim whose out-spread wings filled
the most holy place (1 K e 23 ' 28 ), but in the ideal
description of the Tabernacle two much smaller
figures are represented as standing on the ark of
the covenant itself (which was only about four
feet long), facing each other and overshadowing
the place of God s presence. The cherubim were
'das beliebteste Ornamentstuck der Hebraer' (Ben-
zinger, Heb. Arch., Freiburg, 1894, p. 268). It is
significant that while precise directions are given
regarding their material, position, and attitude,
nothing is said of their shape except that they
were winged. Their enigmatic form made them
fitting symbols of the mysterious nature of the
Godhead. Originally, no doubt, they were far
from being merely allegorical. They had lived
long in the popular imagination before they came
to be used as religious emblems. They were
mythical figures probably suggested by the phen-
omenon of the storm-cloud, in which God seemed
to descend from heaven to earth, the thunder
being the rushing of their wings and the light-
ning their flashing swords (cf. Ps IS 1 "- u ). While
Lenormant (Les Origines, 1880-84, i. 112f.) and
Friedrich Delitzsch ( Wo lag das Paradies ?, 1881, ; p.
150 f . ) connect them with the winged bulls which
guarded the entrance to Assyrian palaces, others
associate them with the Syrian griffins (probably
of Hittite origin) which were supposed to draw
the chariot of the sun-god (Cheyne, EBi i. 745).
Behind the cherubim of Ezekiel (10 lf< ) which are
the original of the ' living creatures ' of Rev 4 6 ' 8 ,
there may be the signs of the zodiac (Gunkel).

When the later Hebrews wished to represent
the presence of Jahweh among them in the Temple
at Jerusalem, they adopted the cherubim as the
awful symbols alike of His nearness and of His
unapproachableness. It is improbable that these
works of art had a purely human appearance.
Schultz (OTTheol., Eng. tr., 1892, ii. 236) inclines
to the view that they were 'composite figures,
with the feet of oxen, the wings of eagles, the
manes of lions, and the body and face of men.'
A. Jeremias (The OT in the Light oft/ie Anc. East,
1911, ii. 126), following Klostermann, thinks it pos-
sible that ' the conception is that of four cherubim
(two cherubim, each with a double face).' As the
symbols were blazoned on the doors, walls, and
curtains of the Temple, their general appearance
must originally have been quite well known, but
time once more threw a veil of mystery over them,
and Josephus declares that ' no one can tell or guesa
what the cherubim were like' (Ant. Vlll. iii. 3).

LITERATURE. I. Benzingrer, Heb. Arch.*, 1907, index, s.v.
' Kerube ' ; A. Furtwangler, in Roscher, Lex. i. 2, col. 1742 ff.
art. ' Gryps ' ; art. ' Cherub ' in EBi and ' Cherubim ' in HDB.




the many ways current in antiquity of expressing
the relationship existing between God and man




(Creator, King, Lord, Husband, Father), two were
derived from human relationships of the family life
God is the Husband or Bridegroom of His people,
or He is their Father. With the former we are not
now concerned. The latter plays a large part in
the teaching of the NT. It will be convenient to
examine this teaching under four heads : (1) the
doctrine of St. Paul, (2) that of the Johannine
writings, (3) that of 1 Peter, (4) that of the remain-
ing books.

1. St. Paul. It is natural that we should find in
this writer, who was the champion and protagonist
of the movement for the extension of Christianity
to the Gentiles, the most unrestricted expression in
the NT of the sonship of mankind as related to God.
In Ac 17 28 he bases an argument upon the phrase
of the poet Cleanthes 'for we are his offspring.'
If Eph 3 16 ' the Father from whom every family
in heaven and earth is named ' should more rightly
be translated ' of whom all fatherhood in heaven
and earth is named,' * we have here the thought
that Fatherhood is an element in the very being of
God, and that all other forms of paternity are
derived from Him. The words of Eph 4 6 ' one
God and Father of all' will then be naturally
interpreted of this universal Fatherhood of God.
It is, however, natural enough that in a Christian
writer this conception of the universal Fatherhood
of God should find little emphasis, and that it
should be of infrequent occurrence, for the concep-
tion of sonship was wanted to express a closer and
more vital relationship than that oetween God and
unredeemed humanity. St. Paul, therefore, gener-
ally uses it to denote the relationship between God
and the disciples of Christ, whether Jews or Gentiles.
Writing in the stress of the Jewish controversy, he
finds it necessary to vindicate the claims of the
Gentile Christians to the name ' children or sons
of God.' Gentile Christians are ' children of pro-
mise' (Gal 4 28 ). It is they who as 'children of
promise' are Abraham's seed (Ho 9 s ). And this
sonship had been foretold by Hosea (Ho Q 28 ). To
express the process by which the Christian be-
comes a son of God, St. Paul takes from current
Greek and Roman terminology the metaphor of
' adoption ' : t so in Ro 8 1B ' ye received the spirit of
adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father ' ; so again
in Gal 4 4 ' 6 ' God sent forth his Son . . . that we
might receive the adoption of sons . . . and be-
cause ye are srfns, God sent forth the Spirit of his
Son into our hearts, crying, Abba, Father.' The
metaphor occurs twice besides in connexion with
the genesis of the idea of adoption in the mind of
God, and with its complete realization in the
future. In Eph 1 B St. Paul speaks of God as
'having foreordained us unto adoption as sons
through Jesus Christ unto himself.' In Ro S 23 he
speaks of Christians who have the first-fruits of
the Spirit, who therefore have already received in
some measure the spirit of adoption, as 'wait-
ing for our adoption, to wit, the redemption of our
body.' He seems to mean that only at the resur-
rection, when the body rises incorruptible, will the
process of adoption be really completed, and made
manifest. Adoption to sonship, then, according
to St. Paul, presupposes the revelation of the Son
of God: 'God sent forth his Son that we might
receive the adoption of sons' (Gal 4 6 ). It was
effected by the imparting to the disciple of the
Spirit of the incarnate Son, or, in other words, of
the Spirit of God. ' God sent forth the Spirit of
his Son into our hearts' (v. 8 ) ; 'As many as are
led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God '
(Ro 8 14 ). This involves real likeness to the Son of
God : ' He foreordained them to be conformed to the

* See J. Annitage Robinsoiu Sphesians, 1903, p. 83 f-
t See W. M. Ramsay, Historical Commentary on the Galatiam,
p. 337 ft.

image of his Son, that he might be the first-born
amongst many brethren' (v. 28 ). Cf. such pass-
ages as 2 Co 3 18 'we all ... are being changed
into the same image.' At the unveiling or apoca-
lypse of Christ there will also be an unveiling, or
manifestation, of the sons of God (Ro 8 19 ), in which
in some sense the whole created universe will share
(v. 21 ). Lastly, adoption involves fellowship with
the Son of God (1 Co I 9 ) and joint participation
with Him in present suffering, and in future glory
(Ro8 16 '-).

2. Johannine writings. In this literature the
terms 'the Father,' 'the Son' are most character-
istically used to express the relationship between
God and the Word of God incarnate in Jesus
Christ. Whether God is spoken of as the Father
of all men is doubtful. The same question arises
here as in the Synoptic Gospels. There Christ
speaks repeatedly to His disciples of God as ' your
Father' : in Mt., commonly, e.g. 518- ; in Mk.,
twice, II 25 - 26 ; in Lk., thrice, 6 3 ' 6 12 30 - 8a . They are
to address Him in prayer as 'our Father* (Mt 6 9 )
or ' Father' (Lk II 2 ). They are so to imitate Him
that they may be His sons (Mt S 45 , Lk 6 s5 ). In the
Fourth Gospel we find for 'your Father' the
simple 'the Father.' Of course we may read
into these phrases the idea of the universal Father-
hood of God ; and the general tenour of Christ's
teaching, interpreted in the light of history, makes
it certain that He meant to imply this. But we
must remember that He was speaking to Jews,
who had long been accustomed to think of God's
Fatherhood as a term specially applicable to the
pious Jew, or to the Jewish nation. His hearers
would not, therefore, necessarily have read a
universalistic sense into His words, and He no-
where explicitly speaks of God as Father of all
men outside His own disciples (members of the
Jewish nation). The nearest approximation to
this would be His use of ' the Father ' in speaking
to the Samaritan woman (4 2U2S ). For the term
' Father ' as applied to God in the OT and in the
later Jewish pre-Christian literature, where it is

generally used to denote the relationship between
od and the individual pious Jew, see W. Bousset,
Rel. des Jud., Berlin, 1903, p. 355 ff. ; G. Dalman,
The Words of Jesus, Eng. tr., Edinburgh, 1902, p.
184 ff. The phrase, ' the children of God who were
scattered abroad' (Jn II 62 ), probably refers to the
members of the Gentile churches of the writer's
own period. These became ' children of God ' when
they became Christians. In connexion with son-
ship as used of the relation between God and the
disciple of Christ the most characteristic feature
of the Johannine writings is the use of the
metaphor of re-birth. In Jn I 12 '- it is said that
those who receive the incarnate Word, or who be-
lieve on His name, are given authority to become
children of God. (It is just possible that we have
here an allusion to the Pauline conception of son-
ship by adoption.) Then follows a description of
the process by which this position of ' children ' was
reached. They were begotten, not along the lines
of physical birth, but ' of God.' There is a very
interesting variant reading (Western) which makes
these words descriptive not of the spiritual birth
of the Christian disciple, but of the birth in a
supernatural manner ('not of a husband') of the
Word, who thus became flesh. And even if that
be not the original reading, it would seem that the
writer in choosing terms in which to describe the
spiritual birth of the disciple has selected terms
which presuppose acquaintance with the tradition
of the birth from a virgin. The disciple, like the
Lord Himself, was born, not by physical genera-
tion, nor of fleshly passion, nor at the impulse of a
human husband, but of God. In 3 s the necessity
of thus being born from above, or anew, is once




more emphasized. In 3 5 the birth is described as
a begetting of the Spirit which takes place at bap-
tism ('of water,' unless these words are an early
gloss). In the First Epistle the idea recurs. The
communication of the Divine life from God in
this spiritual birth is connected, as in St. Paul,
with 'faith.' ' Every one who believes that Jesus
is the Christ is begotten of God,' 1 Jn 5 1 (cf. Gal
S 26 ' sons through faith '). But ' love,' and ' doing
righteousness' are also the external signs of
spiritual birth (cf. 4 7 ' Every one that loveth is
born of God,' and 2 W ' Every one that doeth
righteousness is begotten of Him '). And just as
in St. Paul adoption to sonship involved an increas-
ing conformity to the likeness of the Son of God,
so in St. John the birth from God involves the
idea of freedom from sin. ' Every one that is
begotten of God does not commit sin ' (3 8 ; cf. 5 18 ).
It carries with it also the certainty of victory over
'the world.' 'Whatsoever is begotten of God
overcometh the world ' (5 4 ). Just as it is character-
istic of St. Paul, with his metaphor of adoption,
to speak of Christians as ' sons,' so it naturally
follows from St. John's preference for the idea of
re- birth to speak of them as ' children.' And lastly,
just as St. Paul seems to look forward to the resur-
rection as the moment when adoption to sonship
shall be consummated, so St. John looks forward
to the manifestation of Christ as the moment when
likeness to Him, which is involved in sonship,
will be perfected (cf. 1 Jn 3 2 ' Beloved, now are we
the children of God, and it is not yet made mani-
fest what we shall be. But we know that if he [or
it] shall be manifested we shall be like him, for we
shall see him as he is').

3. 1 Peter. Here, too, we find the conception
that Christians have passed through a process of
re-birth. The word used is not the simple 'to
beget,' as in Jn 3 3 - 5 , but a compound ' to beget
again,' which is found also in ' Western ' author-
ities of Jn 3 s . Thus when St. Peter speaks of
God who ' begat us again,' he describes the life of
Christians as a new life into which they had
entered, and at the same time emphasizes this life
as having originated by a Divine act of God. In
I 23 he speaks of Christians as ' being begotten
again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible,
through the word of God.' The seed here seems
to describe the Divine nature (cf. 1 Jn 3 8 ), and
the ' word ' apparently means the message of the
Gospel of the incarnate ' Word.' It is in harmony
with this conception of the re-birth of Christians
that St. Peter speaks of them as invoking ' a
Father '(I 17 ).

4. The idea of sonship finds little expression in
the remaining books of the NT. In He 12 5 - 7 - 8
affliction is regarded as a proof that God deals
with the sufferers as with sons. This is merely
metaphorical. More to our point is He 2 10J> ' It
became him, through whom are all things, and all
things through him, in bringing many sons to
glory, to make the leader of their salvation perfect
through sufferings. For he that sanctitieth and
they that are sanctified are all of one.' Some
would see in the ' sons ' a reference to the uni-
versal Fatherhood of God, but more probably it
is Christians who are meant, who have become
1 sons ' by uniting themselves with the one Son.
Consequently He and they are all sons of one
common Father. The use of ' sons ' is in this case
parallel to that of ' children ' in Jn 11 M . The con-
ception of sonship does not occur in James, 2 or 3
John, 2 Peter, or in Jude, for the phrase ' God
the Father ' in 2 P I 17 , 2 Jn 8 , and Jude 1 seems to
have reference rather to the relationship between
God and Christ than to that between God and
men. In the Apocalypse it occurs only in 21 7 ,
where it is to be the privilege of those who in-

herit the new Jerusalem that they will be sons of

If we now try to summarize the teaching of the
Apostolic Age as expressed in the writings of the
NT on the conception of sonship of God, the follow-
ing appear to be the main lines of t h ought : (1)
There is a recognition of the universal Fatherhood
of God, to be seen in the teaching of Christ when
once it was detached from a literal Jewish inter-
pretation (cf. especially the Parable of the Prodigal
Son, and the use of the term ' the Father* in the
conversation with the woman of Samaria). It
appears, top, in St. Paul's words to the non-Chris-
tian Athenians. Whether the inference that God
is the Father of all men, from Eph 3 18 , is a neces-
sary one may be more doubtful. The correlative
to this thought of the Fatherhood of God should
logically be that of the universal sonship of men.
But this receives very scanty expression in the NT
(cf. again the Parable of the Prodigal Son, Ac 17 28 ,
and perhaps He 2 10 ). (2) In a unique sense Jesus
Christ is the Son of God. (3) The Christian disciple
by virtue of his union with Christ becomes a son,
or child, of God. In the language of St. Paul he
is adopted to be a son. In the language of St.
John and St. Peter he is born or begotten again.
The condition of such sonship is faith. It is char-
acterized by guidance by the Spirit, and it mani-
fests itself in love and in righteousness. Consist-
ing in the gift of new life from God (incorruptible
seed, or the Spirit), it implies growth, i.e. a pro-
gressive assimilation to Christ Himself. The con-
summation of this process will be a final adoption
at the resurrection (St. Paul), or likeness to Christ
at His manifestation (St. John).

LITERATURE. For Sonship of God by new birth, In antiquity,
see A. Dieterich, JKine Mithrasliturgie, Leipzig, 1903, p. 157 ft. ;
for Adoption, see W. M. Ramsay, Hist. Com. on Galatians,
London, 1899, p. 337 ff . and art. ' Adoption ' in ERE. For Son-
ship of God in the NT, see the Theologies of the NT, e.g. G. B.
Stevens, Edinburgh, 1899, pp. 69 ft*., 691 f. For Sonship in St.
John, see B. F. Westcott, Epistles of St. John, London, 1883,
p. 120 f. ; O. Pfleiderer, Primitive Christianity, Eng. tr., L
[1906] 366 ft., iv. [1911] 227 ft. W. C. ALLEN.



CHIOS (^ X/os ; now ' Scio'). The name was
given to a beautiful island in the ^Egean Sea,
separated from the mainland of Asia Minor by a
picturesque channel, 6 miles wide, which is studded
with islets. Its capital was also called Chios. In
the 5th cent. B.c. its inhabitants were said to be
the wealthiest in Greece. It produced 'the best
of the Grecian wines ' (Strabo, XIV. i. 35). Under
the Roman Empire it was a free city of the
province of Asia, till the time of Vespasian, who
included it in the Insularum Provincia.

St. Paul passed Chios in his last recorded ./Egean
voyage (Ac 20 18 ). Sailing in the morning from
Mitylene in Lesbos, his ship, after a run of 50
miles, cast anchor at night near the Asian coast,
opposite Chios (drriKpvs Xioi;) and under the head-
land of Mimas. Next day she struck across the
open sea (vapfftdXofj^v) for Samoa. Chios was one
of the seven claimants to the honour of being
the birth-place of Homer, and its pretensions
received stronger support from tradition than
those of any of its rivals. 'The blind old bard
of Chios' rocky isle ' was familiar with the course
pursued by St. Paul, for he represents Nestor as
standing in his ship at the Lesbian Bay and

< If to the right to urge the pilot's toil . . .
Or the straight course to rocky Chios plough.
And anchor under Mimas' shaggy brow '

(Od. iii. 168-172).



Online LibraryJames HastingsDictionary of the apostolic church (Volume 1) → online text (page 57 of 234)