James Hastings.

Dictionary of the apostolic church (Volume 1) online

. (page 72 of 234)
Online LibraryJames HastingsDictionary of the apostolic church (Volume 1) → online text (page 72 of 234)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

been taken from the lost pseudepigraphic book of
Eldad and Medad, which was certainly known to
the primitive Roman Church (see Hermas, Vis. ii. 3).
Whatever the source may have been, it is the only
book quoted by Clement which is outside the Canon
of the Greek Bible.

Fourthly, the Epistle of Clement contains his-
torical allusions which are of great interest. Not
only does it provide contemporary evidence for the
persecutions of Nero and Domitian, both of which
occurred during the writer's lifetime, but it also
adds fresh detail to our knowledge of the life-story
of St. Paul. For the statement that the Apostle
' taught righteousness to the whole world ' and
4 reached the furthest bounds of the west ' (tirl rb
rtp/u.0. rfjs Sinews 4\0i!>i>, v. 7), occurring in an Epistle
written from Rome, seems most naturally to mean
that before his death St. Paul fulfilled his intention,
expressed in Ro 15 24 , of making a missionary
journey to Spain. An allusion is made to the
same journey by an anonymous writer two genera-
tions later (Muratorian Fragm. ap. Westcott, Hist,
of NT Canon 5 , 1881, p. 521 tf.).

Finally, the long prayer with which the Epistle
concludes (lix.-lxiv.) is full of interest to the litur-
giologist. Lightfoot has pointed out the strong
Jewish colouring which it has in common with the
rest of the Epistle, and especially its marked
affinity with the 'eighteen benedictions' of the
synagogue service (Clem. Rom. vol. i. p. 393 ff.).
Furthermore, as the same writer observes, ' it is
impossible not to be struck with the resemblances
in this passage to portions of the earliest known
liturgies. Not only is there a general coincidence
in the objects of the several petitions, but it has
also individual phrases, and in one instance [lix. 4]
a whole cluster of petitions, in common with one
or other of these ' (op. cit. p. 384 f.). Yet it would
be straining the evidence too far to conclude that
Clement is quoting an actual form of prayer already
in use in the Roman Church. The utmost that
can be said is that the passage in question is ' an
excellent example of the style of solemn prayer in
which the ecclesiastical leaders of that time were
accustomed to express themselves at meetings for
worship ' (Duchesne, Christian Worship. Eng. tr.
from 3rd Fr. ed., 1903, p. 50).

6. MSS and versions. Two early Greek MSS and
three ancient versions of the Epistle are known.

(1) MSS. (a) Cod. A. The oldest Greek MS
which contains the Epistle is the famous 5th cent,
uncial, generally known as Codex Alexandrinus.
Cod. A originally included the whole of the Old
and New Testaments. The Epistle of Clement
stands at the end of the NT, immediately after
the close of the Apocalypse and before the spurious
'Second Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians.'
One whole leaf of Clement's Epistle is missing
(i.e. from Ivii. 7 to the end of Ixiii.), and the
edges of the remaining leaves are considerably
mutilated. Many editions of the Epistles of
Clement based on the text of Cod. A have
appeared since the ' editio princeps ' of Patrick
Young, published in 1633. It is still the chief
authority for the text.

(b) Cod. C. The second Greek MS,which,amongst
other patristic writings, contains the Epistles of
Clement, was made known to the world in 1875,
when Bryennios, then Metropolitan of Serrae,
published the first complete text of 1 and 2 Clement.
This MS, which bears the date A.D. 1056, was found
at Constantinople, in the library of the Patriarch
of Jerusalem. Its chief value is that it enables us
to fill in the gaps in Cod. A, but on the whole its
text is distinctly inferior to that of the earlier MS.

(2)Versions. (a)Syriac. Almost simultaneously
with the discovery of Bryennios, the first ancient
version of Clement's Epistle came to light. A
MS of the Harklean (Syriac) Version of the NT,
then acquired by Cambridge University, was found
to include Clement's Epistles, placed after the
Catholic and before the Pauline Epistles. The
date of the MS is A.D. 1170. As an authority for
the text of Clement it is superior to Cod. C, but
inferior to Cod. A. An edition of this Syriac text
of 1 and 2 Clem, was published in 1899.

(b) Latin. Much more remarkable, in view of
the lack of any real acquaintance with Clement's
Epistle on the part of the early Latin Church, was
the discovery by G. Morin in 1894 of an ancient
Latin version. The MS which contains it was
written in the llth cent., but the available evidence
clearly shows that the translation is at least as old
as the 4th cent., and perhaps as old as the 2nd.
The Greek text which it represents is independent
of that of all the other authorities, and probably
ranks second only to that of Cod. A. The Latin
text was published by Morin in 1894. (For an
estimate of its value see R. Knopf, TU xx. 1
[1901] ; also CQR xxxix. [1894] 190-195, and JThSt
ii. [1900] 154).

(c) Coptic. More recently still a Coptic version
of Clement has been discovered in a papyrus book
ascribed to the end of the 4th century. The text
was published by Carl Schmidt in 1908 (TU xxxii.
1). The most interesting feature of this version is
its omission of the name of Clement from the title,
which runs ' Epistle of the Romans to the Cor-
inthians.' Owing to the loss of five leaves from
the middle of the book, the text is defective from
xxxiv. 6 to xlii. 2. The underlying Greek text,
though good, is inferior to that of Cod. A or of
the Latin version (C. H. Turner, Studies in Early
Church Hist. p. 257).

LITERATURE. Editions of the Epistle of Clement : O. v. Geb-
hardt and A. Harnack (1875) ; F. X. Funk (1878-81) ; J. B.
Lightfoot (Apostol. Fathers, pt. L, 1890) ; R. Knopf (1901).
Artt. on Clement of Rome : ' Clemens Romanus,' by G. Salmon,
in DCS i. [1877]; 'Clement i.,' by John Chapman, in OR
iv. [1908]; 'Clemens von Rom,' by G. Uhlhorn, in PRE* iv.
[1898] and 'Clement of Rome' in Schaff-Herzog, iii. [1909].
General works : A. Harnack, Geschichte der altchristl. Litt. i.
[1893], Chronologie, ii. [1891] ; C. H. Turner, Studies in Early
Church History, 1912 ; V. H. Stanton, The Gospels as Hi*,
torieal Documents, pt. i. [1903], Versions : Svriac, ed. Bensley
(1899) ; Latin, ed. Morin (1894) ; Coptic, ed. Schmidt (1908).





CLOKE * (0CUA6MJS, etc.). The most important
passage in which this word figures is 2 Ti 4 13 ,
where the cloke, left behind at Troas with Carpus,
is mentioned together with the books, especially
the parchments. This grouping has led to the
clpke being identified with a bag or case for books
(since the time of Chrysostom). In HDB it is
stated that the cloke ' may have been a light
mantle like a cashmere dust-cloak, in which the
books and parchments were wrapped.' In DCG it
is taken as ' a heavy woollen garment, generally
red or dark yellow in colour, worn as a protection
against cold and rain, at first especially by
travellers and by artisans and slaves. . . .' It
appears to have been of one piece, circular or ellip-
soid in shape, with a hole in the middle for the in-
sertion of the head, and with no sleeves. Accord-
ing to Sey Serfs Dictionary of Classical Antiquities,
s.v. 'Paenula,' it was buttoned or stitched up in
front, in the direction of its length a description
which would lead to some modification of the idea
of there being a simple opening for the head. An
interesting addition to the last-named account is
the mention of the cucullus or hood, to serve as a
head-covering. Most accounts agree in describing
it as a travelling-cloke, for rich and poor, and for
both sexes. It belongs to the category of vesti-
menta clausa. It was worn in Rome (see Suet.
Nero, 48), and was also in common use throughout
the East, being well known to Greeks, Jews, and
Syrians. The Jewish and Syriac forms of the
word have caused it to be confused with the
pallium (Ifidriov) or mantle.

The Latin pcenula ( = <j>atv6\i)s, <f>cvt>\ijs) is in-
teresting in view of the transposition of v and X, as
found in (f>ai\6vr)s, (peXdvys of the NT, which are said
to be erroneous forms. There seems to be great
diversity of opinion among lexicographers on the
point. For the relation of the cloke to the chasuble
and other matters connected with ecclesiastical vest-
ments, see DCG, s.v. 'Cloke.' In this connexion R.
Sinker, Essays and Studies, Cambridge, 1900, pp. 87-
97, and W. Lowrie, Christian Art and Archeology,
New York, 1901, p. 396 ff. , should also be consulted.

The phrase ' before winter' (2 Ti 4 21 ) is a for-
tuitous sequence, and is not to be brought into
relation to v. 18 . As to this and further specula-
tions regarding the history of St. Paul's cloke, see
F. W. Farrar, Life and Work of St. Paul, London,
1897, p. 682, where a noteworthy parallel is cited.
Cf. also A. Plummer, The Pastoral Epistles (Ex-
positor's Bible), 1888, p. 411 ff.

The word ' cloke ' appears in an extended mean-
ing : (1) 4v irpo<pda-ei Tr\ovel-las, ' a cloke of covetous-
ness' (1 Th 2 5 ) ; and (2) iriKd\v} T^S /ca/tfaj, 'a
cloke of wickedness (or malice)' (1 P 2 16 ). These
passages call for no remark.


CLOTHES, t Many words of general meaning
relating to clothing are used in the Acts, Epistles,
and especially in the Apocalypse. In a number
of instances these are metaphorical, particularly
in the case of verbs, e.g. 'putting on,' 'putting
off,' ' encircled,' etc. (2 Co 5 3 - 4 , Eph 4 M 6 11 , Col
39. iO)_ jhe clothing of the angels and visionary
figures is indeterminate, except as to aspect and
colour, e.g. white, shining, pure, purple, scarlet,
sprinkled (or dipped). Even with regard to luxury
in dress, kingly or otherwise, there is little or no
mention of particular garments (cf. Ac 12 21 , 1 Ti
2 9 , 1 P 3 3 ). In a passage quoted from the OT (He
l n - 12 ) another indefinite term (vepifidXaiov ; cf. 1
Co 1J 15 ) is employed. Little is said to indicate
the condition of poverty (except Ja 2 3 ) ; ' naked,'

* This spelling, instead of the modem 'cloak,' is retained by
the RV.

t This art. includes such terms as 'dress,' 'garment, 1 ' robe,'
' vesture ' (the last not in EV).

' nakedness,' occur mostly in connexion with per-
secutions, which were also marked by the wearing
of sheepskins and goatskins (He ll 3 ^) this, how-
ever, in pre-Christian times. The restricted
meaning of 'naked' is probably found in Ac 19 16
(cf. 7 s8 ). The minimum in respect of clothes is
hinted at in the a-Keird.a-fj.ara of 1 Ti 6 8 (where some
have found 'shelter ' implied as well), and enjoined
in the (iv) tcaraffroX^ KOffply of 1 Ti 2 9 , where a con-
trast is made between modest apparel and the
other extreme, which is also vividly pictured in
one of the parties entering the synagogue, and
having favour shown by the rulers (Ja 2 2 - 3 ). The
moth-eaten garments (5 2 ) of the rich also tell an
evident story.

1. Under-garments. The x tT ^ |r or under-gar-
ment, is expressly mentioned in few places. We
find that Dorcas made coats (xtr&vas) and gar-
ments (1/j.dria), the two chief categories of dress (Ac
9 s9 ). In Jude 23 the garment (XITWV) spotted by the
flesh may be understood literally, the XIT&V being
brought into immediate contact with the body.
But it would not warrant the conclusion that
there was no other under-garment known or worn
at this time. The XJTWI may also be inferred from
Ac 12 8 , where the girdle is evidently implied (see
GIRDLE). Sackcloth is mentioned only in the
imagery of Rev. (6 12 II 3 ). See COAT.

2. Outer covering (or coverings) ,lfj.dnov (Ifj-dria,
pi.), while no doubt generically employed, is also
the specific word for the outer garment, equivalent
to Heb. rfep and Latin pallium (see Mt 5 40 ,
'cloke'). OTO\?J, 'robe,' appears only in Rev.
(sing, and pi.), and the compound /caraerroX^ in 1
Ti 2 9 . iroS-/ipr) (accus. of 7ro5^/>7js), in Rev I 18 , a
garment reaching to the feet, appears to combine
the notions of dignity and priestly sanctity. The
outer garment (mostly in pi. ) figures in the Acts in
connexion with certain activities, viz. the stoning
of Stephen (7 68 ) ; preparation for going forth (12 8 ) ;
rending, as a token of grief (14 U ) ; rending, as an
act of violence (16 22 ) ; shaking out, to indicate
being done with (18 6 ) ; throwing off, as a sign of
rage (22 23 ). For outer coverings see further CLOKE,

3. Head-dress. No distinctive head-covering for
men is mentioned, but in view of the treatment of
the head by shearing and shaving some protec-
tion must have been worn (Ac 18 18 21 24 ), and may
be deduced from 1 Co II 4 . The difficult paragraph
(vv. 4 ' 16 ) need be regarded here only in so far as it
evidences a practice of veiling of women (not in-
deed of the face), indoors and out-of-doors, as a
sign of authority (RV), which authority is either
another's, and this is the usual interpretation, or
her own (see W. M. Ramsay, Luke the Physician,
London, 1908, p. 175). St. Paul makes use of the
face- veil (cf. Ex 34 33 ' 38 ) for spiritual purposes in 2
Co 3 12 ' ] *. The crown (artyavos), frequently men-
tioned in St. Paul's Epistles and in Rev. , is either
part of gala-attire (cr., Ac 14 13 ), or dis-
tinctive of saints and allegorical figures seen in
vision. Such word-pictures may, however, have
had a basis of fact in the fillets, chaplets, and
other head-gear of the Greeks and Romans. For
the influence of Asia Minor on the dress of Rev.
(e.g. 7 9ff- ) see A. Deissmann, Bibelstudien, Marburg,
1895, p. 285 ff. (Eng. tr., Bible Studies, Edinburgh,
1901, pp. 368-370).

4. Footwear. See art. SHOE, SANDAL.

5. Handkerchief, Apron. See separate articles
under these titles.

6. Articles of military wear are treated under

7. Clothes relating to marriage and burial.
Rev 21 2 contains the only mention of the ' bride
adorned,' and details are equally lacking as to
burial customs. Ac 5 6 , referring to Ananias (0W-




airrbv, ' they wrapped him round '), does nob
convey much.

8. Ornaments. The single reference to 'bag-
gage' (Ac 21 1S ) is significant of the absence of
superfluous articles of wear in the equipment of
St. Paul and his companions in travel. But many
of those who remained at home were not so in-
different to luxury. To the indications already
given may be added the mention of a mirror (1 Co
13 12 , 2 Co 3 18 , Ja I 28 ), in actual practice doubtless
as much for ornament as for use. Plaiting the
hair (1 Ti 2 9 , 1 P 3 s ) is open to censure, and
anointing likewise seems to have been carried to
excess in these times (ointment, Rev 18 1S ). The
Xpvffo5a.KTij\ios of Ja 2 2 paves the way for the wider
domain of female ornamentation, as given in the
gold, pearls, costly raiment of 1 Ti 2 9 , and the
jewels of gold and putting on of apparel of 1 P 3 3 .
This culminates in the royal apparel of Ac 12 21
(cf. Jos. Ant. xix. viii. 2), and the great pomp of
Agrippa and Bernice (Ac 25 a ). The city-life of
the age certainly afforded scope for the practice of
the luxurious and extravagant in dress, as can be
gathered from the indictment of Rev 18 (cf. 17 s * 4 ),
in which is to be found a storehouse of materials
falling under this head. The purple (cf. Ac 16 14 )
and scarlet, the fine linen and silk (or rather, mix-
ture containing silk), are the last word in luxury
of materials, and to them must be added em-
broidery (Rev 19 16 [?]) and inworking of gold and
silver, precious stones and pearls. The \lvov or
\l6ov of Rev 15 6 , and the fine linen, bright and
pure (19 8 ), white and pure (19 14 ), etc., have tran-
scendent value.

9. Washing of clothes. (ofa) fafawav (Rev 3 4 ),
ftrXwav (7 14 ; cf. 22 U ), iKefaavav (7 14 ), although used
allegorically, are indicative of processes connected
with the fulling and washing of clothes. The
kindred process of dyeing underlies the imagery
of 19 1S (if pepafj.fji.tvoi> be read). See also 'purple
and scarlet ' above, 8.

LITERATURE. Art. 'Dress 'in HDB (G. M. Mackie), SDB
(A. R. S. Kennedy), EBi (I. Abrahams and S. A. Cook),
DOG (E. W. G. Masterman); art 'Costume, \/.E(W. Nowack);
see further I. Benzing-er, Heb. Archdologie 2 , Tubingen, 1907,
pp. 73-87, and especially S. Krauss, Talmud, Arehaologie, vol.
i. [Leipzig, 1910] pp. 127-207 (preceded by a very important
list of dictionary articles and books); G. M. Mackie, Mble
Manners and Customs, 1898. \V. CEUICKSHANK.

CLOUD (t>f<f>t\ri,v(f>os). Ruskin says that we never
make the clouds a subject of thought, otherwise
we should witness ' scene after scene, picture after
picture, glory after glory ' (Frondes Agrestes, 1875,
p. 36 f.). The Apostolic Church was not blind to
the beauty of the 'brave, o'erhanging firmament,'
which was far from seeming to her a mere ' con-
gregation of vapours.' But in her the aesthetic
sense was subordinated to the religious. Her
thoughts were to a large extent shaped by those of
the great Hebrew writers, who conceived of God as
making the cloud His chariot (Ps 104 8 ), spreading
it for a covering (105 s9 19 1 ), descending in it (Ex 34 B ),
speaking out of it (Nu II 25 , Dt 5 22 ), leading His
people in it (Ex 13 21 , Ps 78 14 ). She brooded over
Daniel's vision of the Son of Man coming with the
clouds of heaven. She heard that when the three
disciples were on the Holy Mount a bright cloud
overshadowed them, that they feared as they
entered into the cloud, and that a voice spake out
of the cloud (Mt 17", Mk 9 7 , Lk 9 s4 - 88 ). Thus for
the early Church the cloud sometimes served a
higher purpose than that of watering the thirsty
earth it was regarded as the vesture of Deity, of
angels, or of saints.

1. When Christ had spoken His last words to
His disciples, ' he was taken up, and a cloud re-
ceived him out of their sight' (Ac I 9 ). His body
did not suddenly vanish, as in other post-Resurrec-

tion manifestations ; nor was His Ascension ac-
complished in a blaze of glory. He was in human
form when He parted from His Church and entered
within the veil. The Church still thinks of Him,
and prays to Him, as He was when the cloud en-
veloped Him.

2. St. Paul regards the cloud which indicated
God's presence among the Israelites as having a
sacramental virtue to them (1 Co 10 1 * 2 ). When
they were under it, and when they passed through
the sea, they were initiated into the service of
Moses, as the Christian is initiated by baptism
into the service of Christ. 'They were neither
wet with the cloud nor with the sea, much less
were they immersed in either . . . nor is the term
baptism found in the writings of Moses. But Paul
uses this term with great propriety, because (1) the
cloud and the sea are in their own nature water,
(2) the cloud and the sea took the fathers out of
sight and restored them again to view, as the water
does to those who are baptized. . . .The sacra-
ments of the OT were more than two, if we take
into account these extraordinary ones' (Bengel's
Gnomon, in loco).

3. At one time St. Paul expected that he and
other believers, still alive at the Parousia, would
be caught up in clouds to meet the Lord in the air
(1 Th 4 17 ). The absence of the art. indicates that
these are no common clouds, but ' eigne Vehikel '
(Schmiedel, Hand-Kom. in loc. ). Whether St. Paul
thinks of Christ descending to meet the saints on
their way to heaven, or simply of their ascending
to join Him in the air i.e. in heaven is not made
quite clear ; but probably the former idea is what
is meant. The essential fact is contained in the
words which follow : ' So shall we ever be with the
Lord.' At a later time St. Paul welcomed the
thought of joining Christ in another way ' janua
mortis, janua vitas' (1 Co 15 B1 , 2 Co 5\ Ph I 21 ' 23 ).

& In the Apocalypse a gigantic angel comes
down out of heaven, arrayed with a cloud (Rev 10 1 ).
Christ Himself comes with clouds (I 7 ), as in the
Danielic vision. He is enthroned upon a white
cloud (14 14 - 18 - 16 ).

In He 12 1 the innumerable witnesses for Christ
in past ages are compared to a cloud (vtyos) en-
circling believers who are now running their race.
The example (perhaps not without the superadded
thought of the real presence) of the multitude who
have finished the course and won the prize is an
inspiration to the present-day runner.

In Jude 12 hypocrites, uttering swelling words of
vanity, are likened to mists and clouds which
promise abundant showers for the thirsty earth
but never give them. JAMES STRAHAN.

CNIDUS (KviSos). Cnidus was a city of Caria,
at the S.W. angle of Asia Minor, between the
islands of Cos and Rhodes. It lay at the end of
a long peninsula Triopium which juts into the
JEgean Sea and forms the southern shore of the
Sinus Ceramicus. Strabo (XIV. ii. 15) accurately
describes it : ' Cnidus has two harbours, one of
which is a close harbour, fit for receiving triremes,
and a naval station for twenty ships. In front of the
city is an island, seven stadia in circuit ; it rises
high, in the form of a theatre, and is joined by a
mole to the mainland, making Cnidus in a manner
two cities, for a great part of the inhabitants live
on the island, which shelters both the harbours.'
In the lapse of time the mole has become a sandy
isthmus. The situation of the city in the highway
of the seas gave it much commercial importance.
It was a free city of the Roman Empire. Jews were
settled there in the Maccabsean period (1 Mac 15 23 ).

St. Paul's ship of Alexandria sailed from Myra
' slowly ' and ' with difficulty,' probably on account
of adverse winds rather than of calms, taking




'many days' to come ' over against Cnidus.' The
distance between the two ports was 130 miles,
which with a fair wind could have been run in one
day. After passing the point which divides the
southern from the western coast, the ship was in a
worse position than before, having no longer the
advantage of a weather shore, and being exposed
to the full force of the N.W. winds called Etesian
which prevail in the /Egean towards the end of
summer. Instead of taking a straight course to
the north of Crete the wind not permitting this
(fj.i) irpoffewvros i] TOV ai>4(j,ov) she had to run
under the lee of the island. Some interpret St.
Luke's words as meaning that the crew made a
vain attempt to reach Cnidus, ' the wind not
allowing ' them ; but there was apparently no
reason why they should not have entered the
southern harbour, which was well sheltered from
N.W. winds.

LITERATURE. C. T. Newton and R. P. Pullan, Hist, of Dis-
coveries at HaUcarnassus, Cnidus and Branchidce, 1863; T.
Lewin, St. Paul, 1875, ii. 190; Conybeare-Howson, St. Paul,
1856, ii. 390 ff. ; W. Smith, Diet, of Gr. and Rom. Geog. i.

[1856] 638ff. JAMES STRAHAN.

COALS (avOpaices, prumw). The coal of the Bible
is charcoal. The knowledge of the process of pre-
paring charcoal from timber dates from a remote
period. True coal is not found in Syria except in
one part of Lebanon, where it was mined for a
short time about 1834 (C. R. Conder, Tent Work
in Pal., London, 1878, ii. 326). Pieces of charcoal
in process of combustion were called ' coals of fire '
(&v6pa.Kesirvp6s=VK 'i?}3), and glowing coals heaped
upon the head became a figure for the burning
sense of shame which an enemy feels when he
receives a return of good for the evil he has
done (Ho 12 20 1| Pr 25 21 - ). Another view (held
by Chrysostom, Theodoret, Grotius, etc.), that the
' coals of fire ' are Divine j udgments which will
fall on the sinner's head if he hardens his heart
against persevering love, is impossible. Benevo-
lence tainted by such a thought is scarcely better
than malevolence. Jerome says rightly : ' " Car-
bones ignis congregabis super caput eius," non in
maledictum et condemnationem, ut plerique ex-
istimant, sed in correctionem et poenitudinem '
(contra Pelagianos, i. 30 ; cf. Meyer, Romans, ii.
[1874] 272). JAMES STRAHAN.

GOAT (XIT&V, Lat. tunica, both words probably
related to the Eastern njB3 ; Assyr.KitinnS, 'linen'),
or 'tunic' (Jn 19 23 RVm). The word was used to
designate the under-garment of all classes and both
sexes, over which the cloak (n^tfy, Ipdriov, pallium)
was worn. On entering the upper-room in Joppa
where the body of Dorcas lay, Peter was surrounded
by widows showing the x tT ^ va ^ Kal l^dna which her
hands had made (Ac 9 s9 ). Tunics naturally varied
in material and shape according to the position,
means, and taste of the wearer. Wool and flax
were the native products of Syria ; fine linen
(bi/ssus) was largely imported from Egypt ; the
silk of the East was unknown till the beginning of

Online LibraryJames HastingsDictionary of the apostolic church (Volume 1) → online text (page 72 of 234)