James Hastings.

Dictionary of the apostolic church (Volume 1) online

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w.16-17 The building is God's Temple. To destroy it is

to cause one's own destruction.

yv.18-23 Folly of subjection to human teachers. All be-
long to Christ.
41-8 Human teachers are responsible to Christ, and to

Him only.
TV. 6 -' This rebuke is really only applicable to the

followers, not to the teachers.

TV.8-18 For the teachers are forced by their sufferings to
realize their limitations. Only the followers
are proud.

w. 14-17 Appeal to them to follow St. Paul's example.
w.18-21 He hopes to come himself, and test the truth of

their claims.

(6) Want of discipline in dealing with ease of incest (ch. 5).
6i-8 The case of incest. Necessity of excommunicat-
ing offender.

w.9-18 Explanation of instructions given in former
letter about Christians' attitude to unmoral
(c) Litigiousness (6 1 - 11 ).

61-6 Lawsuits not to be taken before heathen tribunals.

Cf. G. G. Findlay, in Expositor, 6th ser. i. [1900] 401 ft.

ff7-ll Lawsuits altogether wrong 1 . Christians ought
rather to endure wrong ; but no Christian
ought to give occasion for a lawsuit.

(d) Fornicatum (612-20).

612-14 The law of liberty does not apply to impurity.

w.15-20 Relation between Christ and believer incompat-
ible with fornication.

(a) Marriage problems (ch. 7).

71-7 Celibacy is best, but marriage is sometimes ex-

w.8-9 Unmarried persons and widows should, if possible,
remain as they are.

w.10-11 Married couples should not separate. If they do,
the wife must not re-marry.

w.12-16 Mixed marriages are not real marriages in the
Christian sense, and therefore not indissoluble.

w.17-24 it is best for people, both in marriage questions
and in other matters,* to remain externally in
the condition in which they were when they be-
came Christians.

w. 25-35 Virgins may marry without sin, though they do
better to remain unmarried.

VY.36-38 Spiritual marriage is a good custom, t

w. 39-40 Second marriage allowed, but not recommended.

(6) The eating of things sacrificed to idols (S 1 -!!!).
8i- 3 One should be guided by the Law of Love.
w.*- u Christians know that idols are nothing.

yy.7-13 Yet to eat of a banquet hi an idol's temple may
offend the weaker brethren, and so is a sin
against the Law of Love.

91-* St. Paul claims spiritual liberty even more than
they can.

TV.*- 11 He has the same rights as the other apostles.

w.12-18 Yet he does not use the right to maintenance,
but surrenders it as a voluntary offering to

w.19-23 He has surrendered his liberty for the sake of his

vr.34-27 For the Christian life needs perpetual effort and


101-8 This is illustrated by the example of the Israelites,
most of whom perished in spite of their privi-

W.*- 11 Their history is an example to us, that we may
avoid their sins.

w.12-13 |f o temptation is too strong to be resisted.

VY.14-22 idolatry is a real danger. The Eucharist and
feasts upon things sacrificed to idols are incom-

YV.2S-24 in any case the Law of Love is supreme.

w.25-30 Christians may accept the invitations of non-
Christians, and so run the risk of eating things
offered to idols. But the Law of Love forbids
that this should be done knowingly.

10Sl_iil One must do all to God's glory, and avoid giving

(c) Women in the assemblies (112-16).

U.2-10 Women must have the head covered in the as-
semblies because they are inferior in spiritual
status to men.

w.n-12 Yet men and women are complementary.
w.13-15 Appeal to natural instinct,
v. '6 Appeal to Christian custom.

(d) Disorders at the Lord's Supper (111"-* 4 ).

1117-22 Prevalence of greed and drunkenness at the Lord's


w. 23-25 Account of institution,
w. 26-29 Responsibility of communicant.
w. so-32 physical evil and death caused by unworthy re-

yv.33-34 Command to avoid gluttony and self-assertion.
() Spiritual gifts (121-14*)).

121-3 The test of a Spirit is his attitude to Jesus.
w.4-11 The gifts of the Spirit are diverse, but all for use.
yv.12-13 Christ is One ; yet we in our variety are members

of His Body.

w.14-28 The members of the natural body are interdepend-
w.27-31 So is it with Christ's Body. Yet some gifts are

greater than others.

131-3 But all gifts are useless without love.
w. 4 " 7 Description of love.
yy.8-12 Temporary character of spiritual gifts contrasted

with permanence of love.
v. 18 Faith, hope, and love are permanent, and love is

the greatest.

141-5 Superiority of prophecy to tongues.
w.6-19 Unintelligibility of tongues.
w.20-22 The only use of tongues is as a miraculous sign

to unbelievers.
YV. 23-29 An outsider is impressed more by prophecy than

by tongues.

w. 26-33 Need of order in the assemblies.
Yv.34-36 Women forbidden to speak in the assemblies.

v. a may contain an exception in the case of slaves ; but the
Greek is ambiguous.

t The meaning of this passage is not quite certain, but cf. art.
' Agapetas ' in MRK.


1437-40 Final appeal for order and submission to St. Paul's

IV. TEE RESURRECTION. An answer to those who doubted

about the resurrection of Christians (ch. 15).
151-H Summary of St. Paul's Gospel, of which the re-
surrection is an essential part.

w.12-18 The resurrection of Christians depends on the
fact of Christ's Resurrection.

w. 20-22 Parallel between Christ and Adam.

w.23-28 The final consummation, the reign of the Father,
when Christ, having subdued all His enemies,
delivers up to Him the Kingdom.

w. 29-32 Christian practices, Christian endurance and self-
denial unintelligible without the Resurrection.

vv.33-34 Knowledge of Resurrection should be an incent-
ive to energy in Christian life.

w. 35-38 Nature of resurrection body. Analogy of seed.

w. 39-41 Variety of natural kinds.

w. 42-46 The natural body is the suitable framework of
man's present self ; his future body will be the
suitable framework for him when he has become

TV. 47-49 go man must be changed from the likeness of the
First to that of the Second Adam.

w. 80-53 At the Last Trump, the dead shall arise incor-
ruptible, and those who are still on earth will
be suddenly changed and glorified.

w. 8 *- 8 ? This is the conquest of death.

v. 68 This gospel of the Resurrection gives value to all
moral effort.


lgl-4 Arrangements about collection.

St. Paul's intention to come and make some stay

at Corinth.

Commendation of Timothy.
v.12 Apollos' unwillingness to come,
w. 13-14 Final exhortation.

w.15-16 Commendation of the household of Stephanas.
vv.17-18 Thankfulness for the coming of Stephanas and

w. 19-24 Salutations and benediction.

i. St. Paul's relations with Corinth between 1
and 2 Corinthians. It is necessary to go into some
detail with regard to the relations between St.
Paul and Corinth after the dispatch of 1 Cor., as
many questions connected with 2 Cor. depend upon
the view taken of the external history.

(a) Visitof Timothy. In 1 Co 4" St. Paul speaks
of sending Timothy to Corinth, apparently with a
mission to deal with the party-spirit that was pre-
valent there. But in 16* he speaks as thougn it
were uncertain whether Timothy would arrive.
In Ac 19 22 we read that Timothy went into Mace-
donia. If that refers, as is probable, to the same
journey, Timothy must have had a mission to dis-
charge in Macedonia as well as in Corinth. We
hear nothing of his arrival at Corinth. But it is
quite certain that St. Paul did receive from some
source very bad news from Corinth. It is on the
whole probable that Timothy went to Corinth, and
found the situation there very bad, that he made
no impression, and that he returned with alarming
news to St. Paul at Ephesus.

(b) St. Paul's second visit tv \6-n~ij. On the receipt
of bad news from Corinth, whether from Timothy
or from some other source, St. Paul sailed thither
in person, but his visit was unsuccessful, and he
soon went back again to Asia Minor. The evidence
for this visit is to be found in three passages of
2 Cor., viz. IS 1 ' 8 12 14 2 1 . The most natural exegesis
of 13 1 ' 2 and 12 14 implies that he had been to Corinth
twice already, though it is just possible to avoid
this conclusion. ^Vhen these two passages are
combined with 2 1 , the case for a second visit to
Corinth becomes overwhelming, for in 2 1 it is im-
plied that St. Paul had paid a visit to Corinth ev
Xforr;. Now such a description would not apply to
his first visit, which was a distinct success, in spite
of certain disappointments and sorrows. The fact
that this visit is not mentioned in Acts is unim-
portant. It was very brief, and in the main un-
successful. The difficulties which occasioned it
were afterwards settled, and it would not naturally
enter into the plan followed by the author of Acts.

This visit must have been paid after 1 Cor. had
been written, for in that Epistle St. Paul speaks

throughout as though there had been only one
visit. His knowledge of the state of affairs at
Corinth is derived from information received, not
from personal observation (cf. I 11 5 1 II 18 ), and in
4 21 he shows that he realized the possibility that
he might have to pay a second visit, though he
was not sure about it.

(c) The severe letter. On his return to Ephesus,
St. Paul wrote a severe letter ' out of much afflic-
tion and anguish of heart.' The letter so referred
to in 2 Co 2 4 must have been written at this time,
though efforts have been made to identify it either
with 1 Cor. or with the ' previous letter ' alluded
to in that Epistle (1 Co 5 9 ; see above, 2). 1 Cor.
was certainly not written ' out of much affliction
and anguish of heart, with many tears. ' It is calm
and in the main unemotional. Moreover, the
references to the ' severe letter 'in 2 Col 8 - 9 3 1 I 23
2 1 do not suit 1 Cor. particularly well. There is
not a word in 1 Cor. to suggest that he was shrink-
ing from a visit for fear of its being unpleasant.
The ' previous letter ' is also impossible. For St.
Paul only heard that his 'severe letter' had
brought the Corinthians to repentance when Titus
returned and met him in Macedonia (see below).
But, when writing 1 Cor., St. Paul had already had
an answer to the 'previous letter' (1 Co 5 9 " 11 ).

The theory has been put forward that part of
the 'severe letter' is to be found in 2 Co 10-13.
If this theory is correct, we should expect to find

(1) a great difference in tone and spirit between
the two parts of the Epistle, together with a sudden
break of the sense at the end of ch. 9 : the last four
chapters should be severe and threatening, the first
nine should be encouraging, cheerful, and forgiving ;

(2) a certain number of cross-references, passages
in the first nine chapters which seem to look back
to the last four ; (3) a solution of the rather in-
tricate question of the relations of Titus with

(1) The first nine chapters are clearly written at
a time when St. Paul has suddenly been relieved
from very great anxiety by the arrival of Titus
and the good news which he has brought from
Corinth (7 4 ' 7 2 12 - 18 ). The whole tone of these
chapters is one of great relief, apparently caused
by the impression produced by his 'severe letter.'
But in chs. 10-13 we find great anxiety and great
passion. The change cannot fail to be noticed by
any reader of the Epistle. And there is a marked
break in the sense at the end of ch. 9. After speak-
ing of the collection, and ending with an ascription
of praise to God, suddenly, without even an dXXd,
he oegins to threaten his readers. This has been
accounted for by those who believe in the integrity
of the Epistle in two ways (i. } That the first nine
chapters were addressed to the repentant majority,
the last four to the rebellious minority. But there
is no hint of this. Ch. 10 is apparently addressed
to the Church as a whole. There seems no room
for a repentant majority. And chs. 1-9 give no
hint of a rebellious minority (cf. 7 13 " 15 ). (ii.) That
St. Paul received later news from Corinth while
writing the Epistle, and wrote the last four
chapters in the light of this later news. But surely
there would have been some indication of this. He
could hardly have allowed the earlier part to stand
without alteration.

(2) We find certain apparent cross-references
between the two parts of the Epistle, pointed out
by Kennedy in his Second and Third Epistles to
the Corinthians (pp. 79-94), and by Lake in The
Earlier Epistles of St. Paul (pp. 157-162). Of
these the most striking is the parallel between 2 s
and 13'. In 2 s the Apostle states that he wrote a
severe letter in order that when he came he might
not have to be so severe. In 13 10 he says that he
is at that moment writing a severe letter, that he


may not have to be severe when he comes. Again
in I 23 we have a parallel with 13 2 .

(3) The visit of Titus to Corinth mentioned in 7 8
was with, or at the same time as, the ' severe letter.'
gi7-is shows that St. Paul was sending Titus again
to make arrangements for the collection. This
surely he would not have ventured to do if he were
under the necessity of writing in the tone of chs.
10-13. No man would send a letter full of rebuke,
and of self-justification in the face of what seem
to have been charges of dishonesty, and in the
same letter ask his readers to subscribe money.
In 12 14 he alludes to his custom of taking no money
from them for himself personally. He assumes
(v. 16 ) that they admit this, but then he says that
they may accuse him of winning their confidence
with a view to future efforts to get something out
of them. How ? he asks. Not by his representa-
tives ; e.g. Titus never ' made gain out of them.'
Clearly he alludes to some early work of Titus at
Corinth. Titus they know and trust. So he is a
suitable person to send at this critical moment to
Corinth. In ch. 7 we hear of the success of his
mission. The fact that he was a persona grata at
first and has recently been successful there makes
him a very suitable person to send again (ch. 8) to
arrange about the collection.

Finally, the last four chapters of 2 Cor. answer
admirably to the descriptions we have of the
' severe letter.' They might well have been written
' out of much affliction and anguish of heart, with
many tears ' (2 4 ). It is quite conceivable that after
writing them St. Paul might have regretted send-
ing them and wondered whether they were not too
severe (7 s " 9 ). Self-commendation is a very pro-
minent feature in them (3 l ). They show that the
Apostle was contemplating, but shrinking from, a
visit which he might have to pay (12 20 - 21 13 1 ). This
corresponds to 1 and 2 1 . Thus the internal evi-
dence for the theory is very strong. No single
point is in itself conclusive; but the conjunction
of different lines of evidence, and the fact that the
theory straightens out a tangled web and solves
many problems, is very significant.

The theory is made easier of acceptance by the
fact that 2 Cor. appears not to have been published
at an early date (see above, 1). The Corinthian
Church would hardly have wanted to publish the
'severe letter,' and the later letter is in the main
personal, and does not contain much instruction.
It is quite possible that the MSS were not carefully
preserved, and the two letters may have been

(d) Visit of Titus. The 'severe letter' and the
mission of Titus already alluded to were apparently
successful, and Titus met St. Paul in Macedonia,
bringing him reassuring news (2 Co 7 & 7 ), after
which St. Paul wrote, according to the theory we
have adopted, 2 Co 1-9, probably sending Titus
with it, and instructing him to make arrangements
for the collection.

5. Analysis of 2 Co 10-13.


1Q1-2 Appeal, and threat of strong action against bis


w.s-6 Claim to possession of spiritual power, and de-
scription of that power.

v.' The Christ-party's exclusive claim unjustified.
w.8-11 Threat of exertion of spiritual power on arrival

at Corinth.
w. 12-16 st. Paul's boasting, unlike that of his opponents,

shall be confined to his own sphere of work,
vv. 17-18 But all self-commendation is to be deprecated.


(a) The reasons (Ill-is).
111-3 His fears for them.

v.* Their tolerance of new preachers.
w.s-6 Comparison of himself with these preachers.
vv.7-11 His refusal of maintenance,
w.u-is its reason avoidance of unfavourable comparison
with them.

(6) The. self-commendation (1116-1218).
1118-20 Apology for boasting.
yv.21-22 Comparison of himself with his rivals in respect

of religious prerogatives.
TV. 23-33 in respect of sufferings on behalf of the gospel.

121- 8 In respect of visions and revelations.
w. 6 - 10 The thorn in the flesh and its significance.
Tv.ii-13 Comparison resumed in respect of work done at


w.14-18 Justification of his refusal of maintenance.
1219-21 His fears about what he may find at Corinth.
131-2 Threat of severe action.
VT>5 This is likely to be made necessary by their

accusation of weakness. Discussion of this.
w.8-10 His hope that after all it may not be necessary.

It is impossible to feel any certainty about the place of 13U - H.
Some think that it is really the conclusion of chs. 1 to 9.
But there seems no good reason to think that it is in its wrong
place. St. Paul might quite well have concluded the 'severe
letter' with ordinary exhortations and salutations. The
decision is made difficult by the fact that in any case chs.
10-13 can be no more than a fragment of the ' severe letter,'
and we have no means of judging what proportion of that
letter has been lost.

6. Analysis of 2 Co 1-9.


11-2 Salutation.

rv-3-s Thanksgiving for consolation.
vv.6-7 Parallelism of their experiences with hta.
vv.8-11 His sufferings and deliverance in Asia,
w. 12-14 His clear conscience.
w.15-22 His failure to carry ont his previous intention of

visiting them was not due to fickleness.
123_22 it was due to his desire to spare them.
2 3 " 1 Reason for writing the ' severe letter."
w.5-11 Exhortation to forgive the offender.
w.12-13 His anxiety previous to his meeting with Titos,
vv. 14-17 His thankfulness to God for His use of him.

APOSTLE (3-7).
8 1 - 8 His ' letter of commendation ' is nothing but bis

relations with them.
TV.** His confidence, based on this, as a minister of

the New Covenant.
vr.7-9 The old and the new dispensations compared in

respect of content, In respect of permanence,
w. 12-ia in respect of clearness and openness.
yv.17-18 The new dispensation brings liberty and trans-
formation into Christ's likeness.
41-2 Consequent openness of Christian preacher.
W.3-* Any obscurity is due to the blindness of the

TV.*-* For the content of the preaching is Christ, the

v.7 Weakness of human preacher makes manifest

God's power.

vv.8-11 His continual difficulties, which are not, however,
insuperable, show that the life manifest in his
converts comes from Christ.
w.iS-15 All his efforts are based on faith, and directed

to their conversion to the end of God's glory.
w.18-18 So he works on, while the body grows weaker,

but the spirit stronger.

61-5 Gradual dissolution of weak earthly bodies suc-
ceeded by bestowal of new spiritual bodies.
w.6-8 So death shall mean presence with Christ.
w.9-10 Therefore, in view of the Judgment, he strives

to do His will.
w.U-13 This must be his defence against charges alike of

fanaticism and of excessive self-restraint.
yv.14-15 The constraining motive in everything is Christ's


This transforms everything, so that he has a new
and spiritual knowledge of Christ and Chris-

As Christ's ambassador he preaches reconcilia-
tion to God, made possible through Christ's

6 1 - 8 His instant appeal to them.
rv.3-5 AS a Christian minister he endures hardships.
W. 6 " 7 He displays supernatural virtues.
w.8-10 His life is one of continual contrasts,
vv.ii-is He exhorts them to respond to his affection.
614-71 Impossibility of Christians associating with im-
moral persons.
92-4 His affectionate and honourable relations with


TV. s-7 The relief brought to him by the coming of Titus.
w.8-12 Satisfactory result of the ' severe letter.'
w.13-16 The joy of Titus.

SALEM (8. 9).

gi-5 The generosity of the churches of Macedonia.
w>7 His injunctions to Titus to stir up the Corinth-
ians in like manner.
vv.8-9 The example of Christ, Appeal to them to carry out their good resolutions.


Need of reciprocity among churches.
w.16-24 Commendation of the deputation which he sends.
Qi-s Necessity of immediate action if his boasting is

not to be falsified.
vv.*-7 Cheerful giving.
w.8-11 Generosity brings a blessing.
YV.12-W- It also redounds to the glory and praise of God.

7. Integrity of 2 Co 1-9. Attempts have been
made to divide our 2 Cor. still further, or to ascribe
portions of it to a later editor or editors. Drastic
reconstructions have been proposed, e.g., by A.
Halmel,* D. Volter.t and H. Lisco.J But such
elaborations have but little to recommend them.
There are, however, reasons for thinking that 2
Co 6 14 -? 1 is a passage which has got misplaced. It
occurs in the middle of an affectionate appeal made
by St. Paul to the Corinthians, and appears to
have no connexion with what precedes and what
follows it. The supposed connexion is that St.
Paul urges them to show their affection for him
by ceasing from their immorality. But a closer
examination of the passage shows that the point is
not that they should cease to be immoral, but that
they should abstain from intercourse with un-
believers. Now we know from 1 Co 5 9 ' 18 that in a
letter written previously to the Corinthians he had
spoken on this subject, and that they had asked
for an explanation of his exact meaning, and in
the passage referred to he explains that he did not
mean, as they supposed, that they were not to
have anything to do with non-Christians, but only
that immoral Christians were to be avoided. In
the absence of definite evidence it is impossible to
be certain, but it is clear that 2 Co 6 1 *-? 1 would
naturally be interpreted to mean what the Corin-
thians did as a matter of fact suppose St. Paul to
mean. And for this reason, taken together with
its irrelevance in its present position, it seems
extremely likely that it is an extract from the
' previous letter,' which has by some means been
misplaced. If it is omitted here, the sense runs
on admirably from 2 Co 6 13 to? 2 ; and we avoid the
necessity of having to suppose an extremely un-
natural digression on the part of St. Paul.

Another view which seems to deserve special
consideration is that which finds the situation
implied in ch. 8 inconsistent with that in ch. 9.
After the earnest exhortation to liberality con-
tained in ch. 8, we hardly expect to find in 9 the
words : ' About the ministration to the saints it is
superfluous for me to write to you.' Moreover,
these last words would certainly suggest that the
'ministration to the saints' was a new subject,
with which he had not so far dealt. J. S. Semler,
therefore, propounded the hypothesis that ch. 9
was a separate letter, addressed to the Christians
of Achaia. Others have supposed that it is ch. 8
that ought to be separated from the rest of the
Epistle (e.g. Hagge, Michelson). It is no doubt
true that, as the chapters stand, there is a certain
amount of repetition, and, as has been noticed
above, the beginning of ch. 9 would be more
natural if ch. 8 did not precede it. Moreover, the
subject of the ' collection ' seems to be treated at
disproportionate length. Yet these considerations
are not really conclusive. There is no question
that St. Paul attached very great importance to
the ' collection ' alike for religious and political
reasons ; and when he feels strongly about a sub-
ject he often deals with it in an emotional and
rather disconnected manner. This would account
also for the disproportionate length of his references
to it. And the situation implied in ch. 9, taken as

Online LibraryJames HastingsDictionary of the apostolic church (Volume 1) → online text (page 82 of 234)