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supreme, therefore, He is no capricious tyrant. The
concept of laws of nature, of course, is unknown ;
but the world is none the less a world of order ;
when surprising events take place, they serve as
reminders or signs of His government or as means
for the working out of His providential purposes
(cf. Ac 12 7 - 10 - 22 '-). The existing world order, how-
ever, will not last for ever ; it will dissolve in a
catastrophe or series of catastrophes (cf. Ac 2 19t
quoting Jl 2 28 ' 82 ; also Jude, 2 P 2, and Rev. passim),
when the power that created will unmake to make

But throughout the OT writings is manifested
the feeling that some intermediary is needed in the
operations of God's government (cf. Jg 6 llff - 13 s [an
angel ; but note 6 14 ] and Ezk II 1 [the Spirit]). Later
Jewish thought went further and developed a de-
tailed angelology ; but the NT reproduces the
simpler thought 'of the OT (cf. Ac 27 s3 [an angel ;
so m 12 7 ] or 16 6 [the Holy Spirit]). And with
regard to the original act or acts of creation, the
simple ' And Jahweh formed ' or ' breathed ' of
Gn 2, and the even simpler ' And God said ' of Gn 1,
are extended even in the OT by the well-known
references to the brooding Spirit (Gn I 2 ; perhaps,
like the rest of the chapter, containing a purified
echo of pagan cosmologies) and to Wisdom (Pr 8 s0
etc.); a hint of a primal man as an assessor at
creation has been found by Ewald in Job 15 7 . On
such foundations as these, later Jewish thought
built its theology of the Memra or Divine Word,
and of the Logos as it appears in Alexandrian

In contrast, perhaps in opposition, to all this, the
apostolic writings prefer the language of continual
reference to God Himself. They are troubled by
no Jewish (or Gnostic) fears as to God's contact
with the world of matter (Ro I 20 4", He I 10 [quot-
ing Ps 102 - *- 27 ] 3 4 ). Note also He II 3 : ' the worlds
aluves have been framed by the word of God '
(cf. Ro II 36 , 1 Co 12 8 , Eph I 28 4). The practical de-
ductions from this view, that all things made by
God are good, and work together for good, are
found in Ro S 28 , 1 Ti 4 4 .

This insistence on God's sole activity makes the
more remarkable the relation of the Father to the
Sou in the work of creation a concept which, like
so many others, owes its most definite formulation to
St. Paul, but is represented in every other stratum
of apostolic teaching. Thus in 1 Co 8 8 we read :
' to us there is one God, the Father, of whom are
all things, and we unto him ; and one Lord Jesus
Christ, through (5m) whom are all things, and we
through him.' It is perhaps worth notice that this
great sentence occurs in the discussion of things
offered to idols, as if St. Paul expected the Cor-
inthians to recognize the truth as something quite
familiar (cf. Ro II 86 , where the expression is Ac, not
air6, 0eoO). In Col I 16 we read that all things have
been created in Christ and through Him and unto
Him (iv, Sid., els). In v." He is called the trpurAroKos
irdffris Krlffeus a term which recalls Rev 3 14 but goes
far beyond it ; with this should be compared the
novoyev^s of Jn I 14 ; see also Ro S 29 (els rb elvai airrbv
irpwbTOKov ev iro\\ots &Se\<f>ois), Eph I 4 , and 1 P I 20 .
The same thought appears in somewhat different
language in He I 21 - (the Son 'through [Std] whom
he made the worlds . . . upholding all things by
the word of his power'). In the locus classicus
of the Johannine writings (Jn I 3 ) the preposition
is still ' through ' (Sid). In these passages we have
what may be termed the distinctively Christian
contribution to the theistic doctrine of creation.
Instead of a word, or spirit, or angels, the great in-
strument of creation is a living Divine Person the
Son. And the difference is not simply what the
Christian might express by saying that the instru-
ment is not the word but the Word. The Son is

not merely the instrument, He is the end ; it afrrov,
and also els airrbv ; cf. Eph I 10 ' to sum up all things
in Christ' ; i.e. He is also the final cause, while at
the same time, from another aspect, with regard
to His manifestation (1 P I 20 quoted above), the final
cause of the appearance of Christ in the world is
to be found in the Church. Christ is also Lord of
the created world, in this present time (Eph I 22 ,
Col I 17 - 19 ) ; all things consist, have their ordered
being, in Him ; He is the head of all principality
and power (Col 2 10 ), just as ' all the fulness of God*
dwells in Him (2 9 ). And of all this created order
the Church is the crowning work ; of the Church
Christ is the Head (Eph I 22 ) ; i.e. the Church, as
in some way distinct from the rest of creation,
stands in a unique and timeless relation to Christ.

It is impossible to enter into these daring
thoughts without asking, What then of evil?
Was evil too created by God, and through Christ !
To the childlike thought of the OT, evil was, or
rather is, created by God, like good (Is 45 7 ; cf.
Am 3 6 ). And the NT writers were too fully
steeped in the thought of the OT to feel the prob-
lem as we feel it to-day. But it was felt none the
less. In 1 P 4 19 , indeed, the sufferings of the good
only suggest the thought of a ' faithful Creator.'
Ps 8 6 is quoted three times in the Epistles : once in
Eph I 22 , with simple approval ; in 1 Co 15 27 it is
recognized that the subjection of all things to
Christ is not yet complete ; so in He 2 81 -, where this
recognition is joined to the author's characteristic
teaching with regard to the sufferings of Christ.
For the most part, St. Paul refers moral evil to the
'spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly
places ' (Eph 6 12 ; cf. 2 2 , also 2 Th 2", 2 Co 4 4 ).
But in one pregnant passage, illuminating yet ob-
scure, Ro 8 1Bfi -, he hears in the long wail of the
misery of creation the cries of the birth-pangs
which herald a new order, of which the leaders
and inaugurators are the sons of God ; and in the
apparent vanity (fruitlessness) of nature (in which
'of fifty seeds she often brings but one to bear'),
he sees the preparation for a new revelation of the
creative order and purposefulness of God ; while
no created thing is able even now to separate us
from the love of Christ (v. 89 ). It is therefore not
surprising that, in contrast to the old order, St.
Paul should speak of the appearance of a new, here
and now. If the whole of creation is through
Christ, much more is the new character or self a
new creation (Gal 6 18 ; cf. 2 Co 5 17 , Eph 4 24 with
Eph 2 18 and Ps 51 10 ). The 'new man in Christ'
explains and satisfies the longing of the created
and imperfect world. *

Hitherto, no reference has been made to the
Epistles of St. John, and indeed in these Epistles
no mention is made of the act of creation. But it
may none the less be maintained that St. John
adds an essential element to the whole apostolic
doctrine. A consideration of this may be intro-
duced by a summary of the foregoing. As we have
seen, the majority of apostolic writers are not in-
terested in the question, How did things originate?
Their language can be used with equal sincerity by
those who believe in separate acts of creation and
in some form of evolution (though doubtless, if
questioned, all of them would have upheld a literal
interpretation of Gn 1). Their interest is in crea-

* A word should here be added on the four terms for creation
and created objects ; aria-is denotes created things either singly
or collectively, like the much rarer Kritr/jM (Bo 8&, Col I 2 *.
He 9 11 , 2 P 3 4 ; cf. Wis ID 6 ). KO<T/J.O; is the world as an ordered
system ' relative to man as well as Qod ' (Westcott), and thus
comes to denote the order of things apart from Qod, separate
from Him. and even in antagonism to Him (e.g. in Ro 3 6 , 1 Co I 2 *
4 9 , 2 Oo 6l, He II 7 , Ja I 2 ?, and constantly in 1 Jn.). auav is chiefly
a dispensation evolving into something further : when used in
the singular, it refers either to the present age or to the perfect
age; but it is often used, quite naturally, in the plural (cf.
He 12 113, also 2 Co 4, Eph 22).




tion as a stage or epoch ; an epoch destined, after
its work is done, to give place to a better, whose
beginnings can even now be discerned. Neither
of these stages can be understood apart from Christ.
The first, like the second, is good, because it is the
work of God. It is based on Christ ; it is held to-
gether in Christ. But its goodness (to employ the
profound Aristotelian distinction) is a matter of
duvafj-is rather than of ^vreX^x^a. Moreover, it
exists side by side with another order, jcoV/*os, which
is ruled over by the powers of evil, and which is
doomed not to be superseded but destroyed. The
second stage or epoch, whose succession to the
first is sometimes spoken of in terms of a sudden
catastrophe, sometimes, as it would seem, as the
result of a long process ' one far-off divine event '
is the complete manifestation of the will of God ;
it involves a kind of transfigured pantheism, in
which God .is all things, and in all things (1 Co 15 28 ).

St. John does not, however, pay attention to
these two epochs ; his antithesis is throughout
between the present evil order and God's final
purposes (the phrase 6 *($0>tos 6 ne\\uv is never used).
This order is the abode of evil (1 Jn 2 16 ) and of the
great enemy of God (4 4 ) ; it lies, indeed, in the evil
one (5 19 ) ; it is passing away (2 17 ) ; it is not to be
loved (2 15 ; contrast Jn 3 16 ), but to be conquered (5 4 ).
On the other hand, the Son of God has been sent
into the world ; and through believing in Him is
enjoyed, here and now, the gift of eternal life a
gift so complete and final that only in one passage
does 1 Jn. speak with any detiniteness of a future
order at all (3 2 ). As the other apostolic writers
imply, the order of creation which centres in Christ,
properly understood, is not physical, but moral
and spiritual ; and therefore, to those who believe
in Christ, it is present here and now.

References in the Apostolic Fathers are not
numerous ; the deeper aspects of NT teaching were
hardly caught ; attention may be called, however,
to 1 Clement : ' the Creator and Father of the ages '
(ch. xxxv.), 'the God of the ages' (lv.), and 'the
King of the ages' (IxL). In Hernias we have a
further reminiscence of the NT ( Vis. I. i. 6) : ' God,
who dwelleth in the heavens and created out of
nothing the things that are, and increased and
multiplied them for His church's sake.'

LITERATURE. References to the literature on Creation as a
part of theistic doctrine cannot be given here, but the reader
may be referred to G. H. A. v. Ewald, Old and New Test.
Theology, Engr. tr., 1888 ; A. M. Fairbairn, The Philosophy of the
Christian Religion, 1902 ; D. Somerville, St. Paul's Conception
of Christ, 1897 ; and the Comm. of Westcott, Lightfoot, and
Sanday-Headlam, ad loco. W. F. LOFTHOUSE.

CRESCENS (KpiJoTCTjj). Crescens, a companion of
St. Paul during his last imprisonment, had at the
date of the writing of 2 Timothy gone to Galatia
(2 Ti 4 10 ), which may mean either Galatia in Asia
Minor or the western province of Gaul. We find
two of the best MSS (N and C) reading Ta\\lav
(Gaul) for TaXariav (Galatia), and Eusebius (HE
ill. iv. 9), Epiphanius (Hcer. li. 11), Theodore of
Mopsuestia, and Theodoret understand Western
Gaul to be meant in the passage. If the Apostle
visited Spain, as we have every reason to suppose,
it is probable that he passed through Southern
Gaul and may have founded churches there to
which Crescens may have been sent as a delegate.
On the other hand, the fact that the other delegates
mentioned in the verse were sent to the east of
Rome has led some to think that Asiatic Galatia
is meant. The reference in the Apostolic Constitu-
tions (vii. 46) is ambiguous, as Western Gaul might
be referred to as Galatia. Lightfoot thinks it
likely that Western Gaul is indicated, and that
the Apostle would certainly have written ' Galatia '
when referring to the province in the West. He
also holds that FaXX/av (Gaul) is an early explana-

tory gloss which crept into the text of several MSS
(Galatians 6 , 1876, p. 31). The churches of Vienne
and Mayence both claimed Crescens as their
founder. Of the man himself nothing further is
known. His name is Latin, and he may have
been a Roman freedman. He is commemorated in
the Roman Martyrology on June 27 and in the
Greek Menologion on May 30, where he is treated
as one of ' the Seventy ' and bishop of Chalcedon
(Acta Sanctorum, June 27 ; Menologion, May 30).


CRETE, CRETANS. One of the largest islands
in the Mediterranean, Crete (K/sijri;) lies 60 miles
S. of Greece. It is about 150 miles in length from
E. to W., and varies from 7 to 30 miles in width.
The greater part of it is occupied by ranges of
mountains, but the valleys are exceedingly fertile,
and the climate is delightful. While the northern
coast has good natural harbours, the southern is
much less indented, the mountains in many parts
rising almost like a wall from the sea. In ancient
times Crete had very numerous cities ; Horace
(echoing Homer, 11. ii. 649) describes it as ' centum
nobilem Cretam urbibus ' (Epodes, ix. 29 ; cf.
Virgil, JEn. iii. 106). The recent excavations of
early sites have furnished astonishing evidence of
a highly developed pre-historic civilization, with
' Minoan ' palaces and shrines, a ' Minoan ' art of
which that of Mycenae is only an offshoot, and a
' Minoan ' script of which the Phoenician alphabet
is but an altered copy (EBr 11 vii. 421).

Tacitus (Hist. v. 2) commits a curious error in
suggesting that the Jews came originally from
Crete, and that the name Judcei was derived from
Mt. Ida. The Jews who resided in Crete in the
early Maccabaean period (1 Mac 10 67 15 23 ) were of
course immigrants. In 67 B.C. the island was
annexed by Rome, and combined with Cyrenaica
to form a single province, which remained senatorial
under the Empire.

The ship in which St. Paul sailed from Myra for
Italy would under ordinary conditions have gone
north of Crete, but she was driven by stress of
weather to seek the shelter of the south coast.
Rounding the promontory of Salmone in the east,
she coasted as far as Fair Havens, where she
remained for some time weather-bound. In an
attempt to reach the better harbour of Phoenix
(now probably Lutro), she hugged the shore til]
she rounded Cape Matala, when a violent E.N.E.
wind suddenly beat down upon her from the
central mountains of the islana, and compelled her
to scud till she was able to get under the lee of
the small island of Cauda (Ac 27 W6 ). See FAIR

It is not known how Crete was first evangelized.
Cretan Jews and proselytes were present at the
first Christian Pentecost, and some of them may
well have been among the 3000 converts (Ac 2 U - **).
It is hardly likely that St. Paul was idle while he
was perforce spending ' much time ' (licavov -xfbvov)
near the city of Lasea (27 s - 9 ). The Epistle to
Titus, though perhaps not Pauline, reflects a
credible tradition which links the name of Titus
with Cretan Christianity. The need of the churches
of which he had the oversight was organization
(Tit 1 s ). ' The natural inference is that up to this
time the Christians of Crete had gone on without
any kind of responsible government, and that this
anarchic condition was one considerable cause of
the evidently low moral condition to which they
had sunk. Accordingly, the appointment of elders
was a necessary first step towards raising the
standard of Christian life generally ' (F. J. A.
Hort, Christian Ecclesia, 1897, p. 176).

The Cretans were a brave and turbulent race,
hard to govern, with an evil reputation for avarice,
mendacity, and drunkenness. The writer of Tit




quotes a hexameter of Epimenides, a prophet of
their own called by Plato 0etos dv^p (Laws, i. 642
D) who brands them as 'always liars, beasts, and
idle gluttons' (Tit I 12 ). For this indiscriminate
condemnation, uttered with prophetic indignation
and scorn, there was much excuse. The Greeks
coined a special word (Kprjrifeiv) for a kind of talk
and conduct which was characteristic of Crete, and
to out-Cretan a Cretan (irpds Kprjra 'Kprrrifciv) was to
outwit a knave (Plut. JEmil. 23, Lysand. 20).

LITERATURE. T. A. B. Spratt, Travels and Researches in
Crete, 2 vols., London, 1865 ; A. J. Evans, Scripta Minoa, i.
Oxford [1909] ; C. H. and H. B. Hawes, Crete the Forerunner of
Greece, London, 1909. JAMES STRAHAN.

CRISPUS. Crispus (Kpfo-Ti-oj) was the ruler of
the Jewish synagogue at Corinth (Ac 18 8 ) who ac-
companied St. Paul when he abandoned the syna-
gogue for an adjoining house, and who became a
Christian. Crispus was one of the few persons whom
St. Paul himself baptized in Corinth (1 Co I 14 ), the
Apostle usually leaving the baptizing to others ;
but Crispus was one of the first converts, and one
of uncommon importance, whose conversion cost
him dear, whilst it was a notable encouragement
to St. Paul. The example set by a man of such
eminence had considerable influence. His own
household became Christians with him ; and their
conversion seems to have inaugurated a large in-

LITERATURE. Artt. in HDB, vol. i., on ' Crispus,' ' Corinth,* p.
481, and 'L Corinthians," p. 485 ; C. v. Weizsacker, Apostolic
Age, i.2 [London, 1897] 305-310 ; R. J. Knowling, EGT, 'Acts,'
1900 ; and G. G. Findlay, EGT, ' 1 Cor.,' 1900, ad loco.


CROSS, CRUCIFIXION. The English word is
derived from the Latin crux through the French
croix (Old French and Middle English, crois). The
Greek o-ravp6s is wider in its meaning than the
English word, and includes the upright stake, crux
simplex, to which the criminal was bound or upon
which he was impaled, as well as the crux com-
posita, of various shapes. In the NT, however,
ffravp6s is confined to the usual English significa-
tion, and is equivalent to crux. It was the instru-
ment upon which criminals suffered death, and the
references in the NT are chiefly to the crucifixion
of Jesus Christ, the instrument becoming the
symbol of the cardinal doctrine of the Christian
faith, the atonement and the work of human re-
demption, and in general the gospel itself.
_ 1. Archaeological. The crossing of two lines at
right angles as a symbol not only antedates Chris-
tianity, but is of the remotest antiquity, being pre-
historic in origin. The primitive form of the cross
was probably the gammate cross (crux gammata)
known by the Sanscrit name of swastika, as it is
designated by students of archaeology. The form

of this cross M-j, used as a token of benediction and

good luck, has been found on the ruins of ancient
Troy, on the Hittite monuments, in Cyprus, and in
Greece. In pre-historic times it was used, according
to de Mortillet, as a symbol of consecration and
not as a merely ornamental device. The gammate
cross has been found on ancient Buddhist remains,
and it was largely employed by the Buddhists.
It has also been seen upon jewels and weapons
amongst the Gallic, the German, and the Scandi-
navian peoples, in China, and Ashanti, and amongst
the South American Indians. Although it was
used by the early Christians as a prophylactic
symbol, it was often placed alongside the other
forms of cross. In Egypt the cross is found in the

paintings on the tombs in the form -Q-, as the key

of life ; and although its material origin is doubtful,
the symbolism clearly indicates the vital germ.

From Egypt its use extended to the Phoanicians,
and afterwards to all the Semitic tribes.

2. Historical. The relation of the non-Christian
symbolism of the cross to that of the Christian
Church need not be discussed here, although the
connexion is held by some writers to be very close.
We are on sure ground, however, in tracing the
Christian doctrine of the cross to the historic oasis
as found in the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. This
mode of execution was exceedingly ancient in the
Orient, and it was practised amongst the Phoeni-
cians (Valer. ii. 7), the Egyptians (Thuc. i. 110),
and the Persians (Herod, ix. 120). Amongst the
Romans it was a punishment considered too de-
grading for the citizens of the Empire ( Josephus,
Ant. XX. vi. 2, BJ II. xii. 6, xiv. 9, V. xi. 1).
Cicero (in Verr. II. v. 66) speaks of it as being the
severest penalty, reserved only for slaves ('servi-
tutis extremum summumque supplicium '). It
was inflicted upon those convicted for highway
robbery, piracy, and similar crimes (Petron. Ixxii. ;
Flor. in. xix. ), also for the public accusation of a
master by a slave, for sedition, tumult, or false
witness. The arbor infelix spoken of by Cicero is
suggestive of the penalty of crucifixion (pro Rabir.
iii. ff.). The Jews did not crucify their criminals
whilst they were alive, although dead bodies were
hanged by them to the accursed tree ; consequently
the execution of Jesus Christ was carried out by
the Romans. The Jewish mode of execution was
by stoning to death (Lv 20 2 24 16 - *, Dt 13 l 17 s , etc.).

There were generally two forms of cross used in
capital punishment : the crux simplex, which con-
sisted of a single stake to which the victim was
fastened or upon which he was impaled ; also the
crux compacta. The latter was made of cross
pieces of wood and took the form of : (a) the crux
andreana or crux decussata, in shape like the
Greek X ; or (b) the crux commissa, in the shape
of the letter T or Greek Tau ; or (c) the crux
immissa, in which the vertical trunk extended
higher than the transverse beams. It was upon
the last-named form of cross, according to the
testimony of the Fathers, that Jesus was crucified.
Matthew tells us (2T 37 ) that the titulus was placed
over (tir&vu) the head of Jesus.

Crucifixion was preceded by scourging (virgis
ccedere), according to the custom of the Romans,
after which the prisoner was compelled to carry
his cross, or at least the transverse portion of it,
to the place of execution. There the cross would
be uplifted, and the victim bound to it by cords
(toller e in crucem). Then he would be fastened, to
it by three (or perhaps four) nails (Lipsius, de
Cruce, II. vii.), and probably also supported by
ropes (Pliny, xxviii, 46), and the placard or titulus
bearing the name of the criminal and his sentence
would be fastened to the upper portion. The con-
demned man would in the ordinary way die of
hunger and thirst in the course of time ; but in order
to shorten the duration of the agony, the legs
of the sufferer might be broken, although this
practice was not common amongst the Romans.
Nor would the Romans permit the removal of the
corpse without special authorization.

The historical account of the crucifixion of our
Lord agrees with all the above details of the mode
of execution. He was condemned (falsely) for
sedition and tumult. He was scourged, and com-
pelled, until He was relieved, to carry His cross.
His legs were not broken, it is true, because it was
found that He was dead already ( Jn 19 s2 - **). The
brigands who were crucified with Him were sub-
jected to crucifragium, but one of the soldiers
pierced His side with a spear to make sure that
He was really dead, and there flowed out 'blood
and water.'

To the Romans the cross had no religious signi-




ficance as it had in the East ; they merely regarded
it as the material instrument of a most degrading
punishment. The Hebrew Scriptures, on the other
hand, contain what may be regarded as suggestions
of the crucifixion, as in the case of the uplifted
brazen serpent in the wilderness (Nu 21 8 - 9 ), the
piercing of hands and feet in Ps 22 ltf , also in the
suppressed passage, referred to by Justin Martyr,
formerly contained in Ps 96 10 (LXX version, some

As the instrument of Christ's execution came to
be regarded in the early Church as the means of
human redemption, it became the symbol of the
Passion, and later still it was used as a sign of
protection and defence. Some of the earlier forms
of the crucifix represented the Lord as reigning
from the tree, the triumphant Saviour-King, with
no signs of agony. There is, however, no monu-
ment of the cross or crucifix remaining which
belongs to the 1st century.

The ceremony of making the sign of the cross is

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