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gloss inserted after Gaza had passed away, and that
it at length crept into the text (cf. HDB iv. 918 b ).
In the Epistle to the Hebrews reference is
made to the persecuted followers of Christ 'who
wandered in deserts and mountains' (II 88 ). Prob-
ably this refers to the Jewish Christians of the
Holy Land during the great war with Rome and
after the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus. The
apostolic writings also contain repeated allusions
to the wilderness of Israel's wanderings. In the
speeches of St. Stephen and St. Paul, as recorded
in the Acts of the Apostles, we find the story of the
desert sojourn, in the accounts of the history of
God's revelation of Himself to mankind (Ac 7^ 6- 3a
2 - 44 13 18 ). St. Paul in 1 Co 10 5 refers to the
temptation, sin, and punishment of the people in
the wilderness as a warning to Christian believers
against giving way to temptation. A similar use
of the temptation in the wilderness is made in
He 3 8 - ".

In Rev 12 1 - 14 ' the woman clothed with the sun '
has a place prepared for her in the wilderness,
whither she flees from before the dragon, while in
17 s the seer is carried to the wilderness to see the
' woman sitting upon a scarlet-coloured beast, full
of names of blasphemy.' The thought behind the
former reference, of the wilderness as a place
of refuge for the woman, may be taken from the
history of the Jews who fled from Pharaoh to the
wilderness, but there may be no more than the
general idea of the wilderness as a place of refuge
and concealment, so amply illustrated in the life
of David. The idea in the latter instance may be
connected with the Jewish conception of the desert
as the home of demons or evU spirits (cf. art.

DESTRUCTION. The material is scanty in St.
Paul's writings for ' a detailed theory on this most
awe-inspiring of all subjects,' and it is proper for
us to note ' the " wise Agnosticism " (the phrase is
Dr. Orr's in discussing the teaching of Scripture
on eternal punishment) of St. Paul with the at-
tempted theories of the Synagogue- theologians '
(H. A. A. Kennedy, St. Paul's Conceptions of the
LaM Things, 1904, pp. 313, 315; cf. also^-E^r. ix. 13,
' Enquire not further how the ungodly are to be




tormented, but rather investigate the manner in
which the righteous are to be saved'). But there
can be little doubt that the term 'destruction' to
St. Paul meant, not annihilation, but a continual
existence of some sort in the outer darkness away
from God. St. Paul has a group of words for this
idea. 6py^ (1 Th I 10 , Ro 2 5 - 5 9 ) is a more general
term and applies to the Day of Judgment.
(Ro 6 21 - ffl 8 6 ) is not the death of the body, which is
true of all, but rather the second death of Rev
20 6 - w . The NT gives no scientific description of
death, nor is one possible in the spiritual sphere.
The analogy of Nature (see Butler s Analogy, ed.
Gladstone, 1896, and Drummond's Natural Law
in the Spiritual World, 1883) does not make an-
nihilation necessary. The words <pdeipw and </)dopd,
(Gal 6 8 , 2 P 2 12 ) have the notion of corruption.
Note the contrast in 1 Co 15 42 between iv ipOopq.
and iv &(t>6apaiq.. St. Paul uses <f>6eipw in 1 Co 3 17
for the punishment of one who destroys ((f>6dpu)
the Temple of God. In Ro 3 16 destruction (cvv-
rpifj,fj.a) and misery (Ta\anrwpla.) are coupled together
for the ways of the sinful. But the chief words
for the idea of destruction of the unbelieving are
dTTwXeto, (oTroXXi/w) and cXeflpos, both from 5\\v/j.i, ' to
destroy.' In Rev 9 U 6 'An-oXXtfow, the destroyer, is
the title of Satan. The use of a-iro in air6\\v/j.i and
diroiXeta is perfective, and in Greek literature
generally the terms mean 'destruction.' This
fact is used by the advocates of conditional im-
mortality in favour of the doctrine of the annihi-
lation of the wicked, but it is by no means clear
that the words connote extinction of consciousness.
Least of all is this true of the LXX use of the
words. In 2 P 3 7 dTrcoXeta is used for the Day of
Judgment and punishment of the wicked, which
implies life after death. In Ph I 28 the word is in
opposition to erwrripia, in He 10 39 it is opposed to
Trepnroi^crjs TT)S tyvxfns (see also Ja 4 12 , Jude 6 , 1 Co I 19
10 9 15 18 , 2 Co 2 15f - 4 s , Ro 2 12 , Ph 3 19 , Rev 17 8 - ").
There seems no good reason for reading into the
context the notion of annihilation of the soul, for
that was probably an idea wholly foreign to St.
Paul. The term 5Xe0/>os meets us in 1 Th 5 3 , 2 Th
I 9 , 1 Ti 6 9 (els 6\eGpov K al d.iru\eiav). In 2 Th I 9 we
have riffovtriv SKeOpov alwviov, which is the only pas-
sage that makes a statement about the duration
of the destruction of the wicked. Aristotle (de
Ccelo, i. 9, 15) defines al&v as the limit (rb rtXos)
either of a man's epoch or the limit of all things
(eternity). The word does not in itself denote
eternity, but it lends itself readily to that idea.
The context in 2 Th I 9 makes the notion of final-
ity or eternity necessary (Milli^an, Thess., 1908,
ad loc.). The word 8\e6pos denotes hopeless ruin
(cf. Beet, The Last Things, ed. 1905, p. 122 ff.). In
4 Mac 10 15 we have rbv al&viov rov rvpdvvov 6\e0pov
in contrast with TOV doLdi/j-ov r&v eiiae^uiv fiiov (cf.
Milligan, op. cit. p. 65). St. Paul's natural mean-
ing is the ruin of the wicked, which goes on for
ever. It is a dark subject from any point of view,
but eternal sinning seems to call for eternal
punishing. See also artt. on LIFE AND DEATH,


DEYIL (5id/3oXos). In this article the conception
of the Evil One in the apostolic writings and of
the various names used to describe him will be
considered ; for the passages in EV where ' devil '
represents dai(i6inov see DEMON.

1. The name SiipoXos. (a) It is used as a common
noun or as an adjective to denote ' a slanderer' or
'slanderous' (NT in Pastoral Epistles only), as in
1 Ti 3 11 (women not to be slanderers), 2 Ti 3, Tit 2 3 ;
and so in LXX of Haman (Est 7 4 8 1 ; Heb. iy, YIS,
Vulg. hostis and adversarius). The corresponding
verb is used of accusation, where the charge is not
necessarily false, as in Lk 16 1 (5te/3Xi}^) of the unjust

steward, though probably a secret enmity is in-
ferred ; and Papias (ap. Euseb. HE III. xxxix. 16)
uses the verb (unless it is Eusebius' paraphrase)
with reference to the ' woman accused of many
sins before the Lord.' It is noteworthy in this
connexion that the devil's accusations against man,
though undoubtedly hostile, are not always untrue.

(b) As a proper name 3td/3oXos is constantly used
in the NT, usually with the article, but occasion-
ally it is anarthrous (Ac 13 10 , 1 P 5 8 , Rev 12 fl 20 2 ).
It is explicitly identified in Rev 12 9 20 2 with the
Heb. name Satan, and, like that name, it is not
used in the NT in the plur. (except in the primary
sense of 'slanderer' as above), and is not applied
to Satan's angels, as we apply the word ' devils '
to them. It is curious that we never in English
use 'Devil' as a proper name without the article,
while we always use 'Satan' in this way. Hence
the title does not convey to our ears quite the same
idea as it conveyed to the Jews. Conversely we
should do well if we did not always treat ' Christ '
as a proper name, but sometimes used it as a title
or attribute, 'the Christ,' as occasionally in RV
(e.g. Lk 24 26 ). In the OT ' Satan ' (from jefr, to
hate,' ' to be an enemy to,' the root idea being the
enmity between the serpent and the seed of the
woman, Gn 3 15 ) is generally used with the article,
jEb'n, as denoting the adversary : in 1 K 5 4 it is used
without the article, as denoting any adversary
(LXX <?7r/otAos, A^ulg. Satan). The name ' Satan,'
liowever, had not been transliterated into Greek
till shortly before the Christian era, for we never
find it so rendered in the LXX, but always 6
Std^SoXos. The latter is used as a proper name in
the LXX of Job I 6f -, Zee 3 1 (Vulg. Satan), and
Wis 2 24 (Vulg. Diabolus) ; and so often in the NT.
There we have, as frequently, 6 Zctraj'as, almost
always with an article, but in 2 Co 12 7 we have Saray
or without the article ; some cursives in
Rev 20 2 have ZarcwSs anarthrous. The translitera-
tion ' Satan ' is found 34 times in the NT, of which
14 cases are in the Gospels.

(c) We find in the apostolic writings some para-
phrases of the name ' Satan.' 'The Evil One' (6
irovr, P 6s) is used in Eph 6 16 , 1 Jn 2 13f - 3 12 5 18f - ; this
designation is also found 5 times in the Gospels,
and, in addition, probably in the last clause of the
Lord's Prayer. In the Apocalypse ' the dragon ' is
frequently used as a synonym for Satan, 6 dpdicwi>
probably meaning 'the sharp-seeing one,' from
SfpKonai.* It is used in Rev 12 s * 13 2 - n 16 13 20 2
as denoting a large serpent (as in classical Greek),
explicitly identified with the ' old serpent ' of Gn 3
in Rev 12 9 20 2 . This identification is perhaps im-
plied in Ro 16 20 , 2 Co II 3 (cf. Wis 2 24 ). Satan is
also called ' the Accuser ' and ' the Destroyer ' (see
below, 2). For other names see ADVERSARY,

2. Apostolic doctrine about the devil OF Satan.
The apostles, like their Jewish contemporaries,
taught that Satan was a personal being, the prince
of evil spirits or demons (Rev 12 7 - 9 , Eph 2 2 ; cf. Mt
25", Mk 3 22 , but the name ' Beelzebub ' is not found
in the NT outside the Gospels), and therefore one
of the 'angels which kept not their own princi-
pality' (Jude 6 , 2 P 2 4 ). In accordance with the
conception of Wis 2 s4 , that his malignity towards
man is caused by envy (for Jewish ideas see
Edersheim, LT*, 1887, i. 165), he is represented as
pre-eminently the adversary of man (1 P 5 8 ), and
as accusing him to God (Rev 12 10 /car^yopoj 01
Kartfyup ; the reference seems to be to Job and
Joshua the high priest). He has power in this
world, though only for a while (Rev 12 12 ), and
therefore is called the ' god of this world ' or ' age '

* The word Spaiuav in the LXX renders three Hebrew words :
J'JB, tannm (Job T* 2 ), B>|JJ, nafrash (Job 26*3), j{i;]^, livyathan
(Job 4025).




(aidv) who ' hath blinded the thoughts (
the unbelieving ' (2 Co 4* ; cf. Jn 14 80 16 11 ' the
prince of the [this] world '). This ' power of Satan '
is contrasted with ' God ' as ' darkness ' with ' light '
in the heavenly vision at St. Paul's conversion
(Ac 26 18 ). 'The devil' has 'the power of death'
(He 2 14 ), not that he can inflict death at will, but
that death entered into the world through sin
(Ro 5 12 ) at his instigation (Wis 2 24 ). As Westcott
remarks (on He 2 14 ), death as death is no part of
the Divine order, but is the devil's realm ; he
makes it subservient to his end. He must, there-
fore, almost certainly be identified with ' the De-
stroyer' who appears as Apollyon (dn-oXXiW) or
Abaddon ({V^x, lit. ' destruction ' ; see ABADDON)
in Rev 9 11 , the king of the locusts who has power
to injure men for five months the name is akin to
'Asmodaeus'of ToS 8 ^:??*:, fromns?, 'to destroy'),
but not with the 'Destroyer' of 1 Co 10 10 (see
ANGELS, 5 (6)).

The devil uses his power to seduce man to sin ;
he tempts Ananias to lie to the Holy Ghost (Ac 5 s ) ;
he deceives the whole world (Rev 12 9 20 s - 10 ) ; he
is pre-eminently 'the tempter' (1 Th 3 s , 1 Co 7 e ) ;
he tempts with wiles and devices and snares (Eph
6 11 , 2 Co 2 11 , 1 Ti 3 7 , 2 Ti 2 26 ) ; he uses evil men as
his instruments or ministers, who ' fashion them-
selves as ministers of righteousness' even as he
'fashioned himself into an angel of light' (2 Co
1 1 14t ). A passage in the Pastoral Epistles ( 1 Ti 3 6 )
suggests that the fundamental temptation with
which Satan seduces men is pride. The Christian
4irlffKoiros must not be puffed up with pride lest he
fall into the condemnation (/cpfyta) into which the
devil fell (i.e. when cast out of heaven ; this seems
to be the most probable interpretation, not 'the
judgment wrought by the devil ' ; cf. Jn 16 11 ' the
prince of this world hath been judged,' K^Kpirai).
Satan is far from being omnipotent ; man can re-
sist him, and he will flee (Ja 4 7 ) ; man must not
'give place to' him, i.e. not give him scope to
work (Eph 4 s7 ). Not that man can resist by his
own strength, but only by the indwelling power of
the Holy Spirit, who helps his infirmity (Ro S 26 ,
1 Co 3 16 , and in St. Paul's Epistles passim ; cf. Mt
12 28 ) ; the Holy Spirit is man's Helper or Para-
clete against the Evil Spirit.

The devil is described as instigating opposition
to Christian work * and persecution ; whether by
blinding the minds (lit. thoughts) of the unbeliev-
ing (2 Co 4 4 ), or directly by suggesting opposition,
as when he ' hindered ' St. Paul's return to Thessa-
lonica (1 Th 2 18 ), perhaps (as Ramsay thinks [St.
Paul, 1895, p. 230 f.]) by putting into the minds of
the politarchs the idea of exacting security for the
leading Christians of that city (Ac 17 9 ). Similarly
in Rev 2 10 the devil is said to be about to cast some
of the Smyrnaean Christians into prison ; and Per-
gamum, the centre of the Emperor- worship which
led to the persecution described in the Apocalypse,
is called Satan's throne (2 13 ). No phrase marks
more clearly than this the difference of attitude
towards the Roman official world between the
Seer on the one hand and St. Paul and St. Luke
on the other, or (as it seems to the present writer)
the interval between the dates of writing. The
Seer looks on the Emperor and his officials as
closely allied with Satan, while St. Paul and St.
Luke look upon them as Christ's instruments (Ro
13 4 , etc. ; and note the statements about Roman
officials in Acts). In close connexion with the
above passages, the persecuting Jews are called a
' synagogue of Satan* (Rev 2 s 3').

3. The conflict with Satan. Michael and his

good angels are represented as at war in heaven

with the devil and his angels (Rev 12 7 ) as a direct

result of the spiritual travail of the Christian

In this sense Peter is called ' Satan ' in Mt 1623.

Church (vv.*- 6 ). Satan is cast down to the earth
and persecutes the Church (v. ls ). But he is bound
by the angel for a thousand years, i.e. for a long
period, and cast into the abyss that he may no
longer deceive (20 21 '). This period of binding
synchronizes with Christ's reign of a thousand
years (see v. 7 ), when the triumph is shared by the
martyrs (vv. 4 ' 6 ) ; this is the ' first resurrection,'
and is best interpreted as taking place in the pre-
sent life, and as referring to the cessation of the
persecution, which was to last for a comparatively
short time 3 days (II 9 - ") as compared with 1000
years (20 2 - 4 ), and to the establishment of a domin-
ant Christianity. But the reign of Christ is not
said to be ' on earth.' The reign of the martyrs
was not to be an earthly one ; they ' would live
and reign with Christ as kings and priests in the
hearts of all succeeding generations of Christians,
while their work bore fruit in the subjection of
the civilized world to the obedience of the faith.
. . . The age of the martyrs, however long it
might last, would be followed by a far longer
period of Christian supremacy ' (Swete, extending
and adapting Augustine, de Civ. Dei, xx. 7ff.).
In other words, Satan's power for evil now is not
to be compared with his power at the beginning
of our era. This conception of an anticipatory
victory over Satan may be compared with Ro 16 20 ,
1 Jn 3 8 5 18 .

After the thousand years the devil will be re-
leased (Rev 20 3 ) ; there will be a great activity
of all the powers of evil before the Last Day ; but
he will be finally overthrown (v. 10 ), and Christ's
triumph will be complete. This is the great mes-
sage of the Apocalypse. The struggle between
the Church and the World will end in Satan being
vanquished for ever.

4. Satan dwelling in men. This subject is con-
sidered in art. DEMON; but certain NT phrases
may be noticed here.

(a) Wicked men are called 'children of the
devil' (Ac 13 10 , Elymas ; 1 Jn 3 10 ) ; and in Rev 2 M
the 'mysteries' of the false teachers at Thyatira
are called ' the deep things of Satan, as they say,'
as opposed to the ' deep things of God ' of which
St. Paul speaks (1 Co 2 10 ; cf. Ro II 83 , Eph 3 18 ) ;
i.e. ' the deep things as they call them, but they
are the deep things of Satan. ' In these wicked m en
and teachers Satan is conceived as dwelling ; but
pre-eminently he dwells in the man who is his re-
presentative, and who is endowed with his attri-
butes, ' the lawless one ' (Antichrist) who works
false miracles and has his Parousia even as Christ
has (2 Th 2 9 , where see Milligan's note).

(b) Delivering unto Satan. This phrase is found
in 1 Co S 4 *- and 1 Ti I 20 , and is perhaps based on
Job l ia 2*, where the patriarch is delivered to Satan
to be tried by suffering. In St. Paul the phrase
seems to denote excommunication, the excommuni-
cate becoming a dwelling-place for the Evil One.
It is, indeed, thought by some that the phrase
'destruction of the flesh' in 1 Co 5 5 means the
infliction of death, as in the case of Ananias and
Sapphira (Alford, Goudge, etc.). But in 1 Tim.
death cannot be intended, for the object of the
discipline is that the offender may be taught not
to blaspheme ; and in 1 Cor. the balance of proba-
bility perhaps lies with the opinion that the
offender is the same as the man who was received
back into communion in 2 Co 2 7 7 12 (for the contrary
view see A. Menzies, Second Corinthians, London,
1912, p. xviiff.). Ramsay thinks that the phrase
was an adaptation of a pagan idea in which the
punishment of an offender is left to the gods. Un-
doubtedly excommunication in the early Church
was a severe penalty ; bodily sufferings are not
impossibly referred to, for these are attributed to
Satan in the NT (Lk 13 18 , the woman whom Satan



had bound), and St. Paul calls his ' stake in the
flesh," whatever form of suffering that might have
been, ' a messenger of Satan to butfet me ' (2 Co 12 7 ).
Yet this discipline is intended to bring about re-
pentance, ' that the spirit may be saved in the day
of the Lord Jesus.'

LITERATURB. H. St. J. Thackeray, The Relation of St.
Paul to Contemporary Jewish Thought, 1900, p. 142 ff. (esp. p.
170 f.); E. B. Redlicb, St. Paul and his Companions, 1913,
index, .. ' Satan ' ; A. Nairne, The Epistle of Priesthood,
1913, pp. 57, 267 ff. ; T. J. Hardy, The Religious Instinct, 1913,
p. 151 ff. ; T. Haering:, The Christian Faith, Eng. tr., 1913, i.
481 f. See art. DEMON. For the Apocalypse passages see espe-
cially H. B. Swete's admirable Commentary, London, 1906.


DIANA. The use of the name ' Diana' in Ac 19
(AV and RV) to indicate the Ephesian goddess is
probably due to the influence of the Latin Vulgate.
From a very early time the Romans used the Italian
names of their own divinities to indicate also Greek
divinities whose characteristics were analogous to
those of their own. It was thus that the Greek
maiden huntress-goddess Artemis was early equated
with the Latin goddess Diana, maiden and huntress.
(In the earliest Roman period Diana and lanus
[=Dianus] are male and female divinities corre-
sponding to one another.) But the Artemis of
Ephesus is a divinity entirely different in char-
acter from the ordinary Greek Artemis ; and that
such a goddess should come to be represented in
English by the name Diana is almost ridiculous.

The goddess of Ephesus, called Artemis by the
Greeks, was a divinity of a type wide-spread
throughout Anatolia and the East generally (cf., for
instance, ch. iii. in Ramsay's Cities and Bishoprics
of Phrygia, Oxford, 1895). She represented the re-
productive power of the human race. The Oriental
mind was from early ages powerfully impressed by
this, the greatest of all human faculties, and wor-
shipped it, now under the male form, now under
the female. There are still in India, for instance,
survivals of phallic worship. The Artemis of Ephe-
sus was represented in art as multimammia, covered
with breasts. The worship of such divine repro-
ductive power naturally lent itself in practice to
disgusting excesses. Instead of being kept on a
spiritual level, it was continually made the excuse
for brutalizing and enervating practices prostitu-
tion, incest, etc.

The origin of the name 'Artemis' is veiled in
obscurity, and the attempts of both ancients and
moderns to derive the word have been unsuccessful ;
the best suggestion is that of Ed. Meyer, that the
word is cognate with dpra/^eys, Spra/tos, dpraneiv, and
means ' the female butcher.' This would suit certain
early aspects of the cult very well. But it is as a
Nature-goddess that we find the most wide-spread
worship of Artemis in the earliest days of which
we have any knowledge. She was worshipped on
mountains and in valleys, in woods and by streams.
Her working and her power were recognized in all
life, plant and animal, as beneficent in their birth
and growth, as signs of wrath in their destruction
and death. With her is sometimes united a male
counterpart. She is in any case wife and mother ;
she nourishes the young, aids women in childbirth,
and sets bounds to their life. Afterwards various
developments in this original conception take place.
The wife and mother element, with the growth of
the Apollo legend, both Apollo and Artemis being
children of Leto, retires into the background, and
Artemis becomes a maiden goddess. She also
becomes the goddess of seafaring men, and is
patroness of all places and things connected with
them. In Homer she appears mainly as the god-
dess of death of the old Nature religion. From
the 5th cent, onwards we meet her as goddess of

the moon, while Apollo is god of the sun. On the
boundaries of the Greek world her cult is associated
with the barbarous ceremonies of other divinities
recognized as related.

The most important aspects of the Artemis cult
for the NT are naturally those connected with the
life of Nature, but the whole idea of Artemis must
be sketched as briefly as possible. Various trees
are sacred to her. Moisture as fertilizing them is
sacred to her lakes, marshes, and rivers. She is
thus also a goddess of agriculture. Her beneficence
causes the crops to grow, and she destroys opposing
forces ; whence offerings of crops are made to her.
Of all seasons she loves spring best. She is mistress
of the world of wild animals, such as bears, lions,
wolves, and panthers, and also of birds and fish.
Out of this conception the huntress idea would
naturally develop. And it seems that it was in con-
nexion with this that the idea of the goddess as a
virgin arose. She was also the protectress of cattle.
Further, she was reverenced as the guardian of
young people, and to her maidens made ottering of
the toys, etc., of their childhood. Among her other
attributes was that of goddess of childbirth, goddess
of women in general, especially goddess of death
(particularly for women), and as such she demanded
human sacrifice. She was a goddess of war, of the
sea, of roads, of markets and trade, of government,
of healing, protectress from danger, guardian of
oaths (by her women were accustomed to swear),
goddess of maidenhood, of beauty, of dancing and
music. Finally she was a moon-goddess.

The Ephesian cult was in its origin non-Greek.
The application of the name Artemis to a goddess
of the characteristics of the Ephesian divinity
shows that this identification must have been
made in very early times, before any idea of vir-
ginity attached to the goddess among the Greeks.
The cult of the Ephesian goddess remained Oriental,
and she was never regarded as virgin. Her temple
was a vast institution, with countless priests,
priestesses, and temple-servants. The priests were
eunuchs, and were called (teydfivtoi ; there was one
high priest. The goddess was also served by three
grades of priestesses, called fj.e\\itpai, lepa.1, and
irapitpai ; at the head of these was a high priestess.
Under the dominion of these priests and priestesses
there was a large number of temple-slaves of both
sexes. The cult was wild and orgiastic in its char-
acter. As a result of partial hellenization two
developments took place. First, the worship of
Apollo was sometimes associated with that of his
Greek sister. Second, games were established on
the Greek model, called 'Apre/j-lo-ia. or QlicovneviKd,
and were held annually in the month Artemision
(= April).

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