James Henry.

Aeneidea, or, Critical, exegetical, and aesthetical remarks on the Aeneis : with a personal collation of all the first class Mss., upwards of one hundred second class Mss., and all the principal editions online

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Online LibraryJames HenryAeneidea, or, Critical, exegetical, and aesthetical remarks on the Aeneis : with a personal collation of all the first class Mss., upwards of one hundred second class Mss., and all the principal editions → online text (page 25 of 75)
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sensisset, exponerem." Where not only is piety — piety in the
present vernacular sense of the word — , assumed to be the sole
foundation of human dignity, the sine -qua- non of an elevated
human character, — an assumption of course to be condoned
by all who would not incur the imputation of atheism and the
ban of the religious society in which they live and into the midst
of which they have been bom — but the assumption that it is
so, is put forward as affording gi*ound for the inquiry; what
were Virgil's opinions concerning the deity? an inquiry, to issue
in a verdict on the character of Virgil, of dignified or undignified:
dignified, if the evidence should show that Virgil was jhou« in
the modem acceptation of the term; undignified, if it should
show that he was pious only in that moral sense in which the
word pins was understood by a people with whom piety, in the

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modern sesiBe of the word, had not yet come into fashion, a
people with whom, as we have seen, affectionate parents, dutiful
children, kind brothers and sisters, faithful friends, woiihy
citizens, sturdy patriots were all pii; a people with whom, as
we have seen, dead and lamented relatives, even their supreme
god himself, in fai^ benevolent paternal character, werei^ii; a
people who, as we have seen, deified their highest conceivable
moral quality, their beau -ideal of morality, erected temples to
it, and set it above all gods: "summa deum, Pietas." See
vers. 548 and Rem. also vers 607 and Rem. also 3. 42 and 75,
and Rems.

Insignbm pietate. — Why ^Husig^tem pietate" here, and
^^gravem pietate" at verse 155 V Because here it was to the
poet's purpose to speak only of the character, independently of
its operation on others , while at verse' 155 it was necessary,
in order to the completeness of the picture, to speak of the
effect of the character, of the weight and influence thereby

Insionem. — In-signis; 6r. e7ct-«no(xo;

PaUutcMtta Taddei, ai CawUeggitri^ Livorn^^ Uec. 26. 1868.
Dalkey Lodge, Daihey (Ireland), Fcbr, 8. 1872.

14 (b).

accost 80 many labors, adirb LABORfss is the precise Latin re-
presentative, if not our author's own express translation, of the
Homeric avriaJ^eiv, or avriaav, aeOXwv : Od, 22, 28, (the suitors
to Ulysses) :


oXXwv avTtaaet?'
Compare Ovid. Met. 12. 161:

**Inque vices adita atque exhansta pericula ftaepe
commemorare juval."

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188 AENEIDEA [14 tot— laborbs

and (Politiani epist. lib. 12) Bartolom. Scala Angelo Politiano
suo; "Die (Alcides) jussa adibat monstra; tu tibi ea confingis,
instruisque ut superari a te queant."

iMPULBRiT. — Cicer. pro Milon. Ed, Lamh. p. 537: "nisi
eum dii immortales in earn mentem impulissent, ut homo
effoeminatus forlissimura virum conaretur occidere, hodie rera-
publicam nuUam haberetis."

LABOR^s. — aOXou;. Anacr. 1. 7:



A formal comparison of Aeneas to Hercules had been misplaced
here on the threshold of the poem, had committed the poet to a
race for glory between Aeneas and Hercules all through his
work ; allusion to the labors of Hercules is perfectly apropos,
and the more graceful because not forced on the reader, but
only placed in his path where he can hardly avoid seeing it .
If he has not seen it, if he has read "regina defun tot volvere
casus, tot adire labores impulerit", and then "tantaene animis
caelestibus irae ? ! " without once thinking of the persecution of
Hercules by the same vindictive goddess, it can only be either
because "insignem pietate virum" has taken him farther away
in the opposite direction from Hercules than was intended by
the author, or because he has settled down , with the gramma-
rians, into a brown study of the grammar of "quo numine laeso,
quidve dolens?" But there is, although the poet has not
committed himself to it by an express , formal comparison of
Aeneas to Hercules here on the very limen , a race for glory
between the two heroes all through the poem. How could it
be otherwise? They are both heroes; botii of the highest
race, the blood of Jove supreme,

(**et mi genus ab Jove summo" says Aeneas in express comparison of
himself with Alcides)

the mother of the one being Alcmena, breathing from hair
and caerulean eyelids such perfume as breathes from golden

Hesiod. 8ctU. Hercul. 3,

6uY«T7)p Xoooao^uHXexfJJuwvo;^

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7} pa Y^vacxcov 9uXov exouvuto OrjXuTEpacDV
eiSst Ts {JLEYsOet te* voov ys [xtv ouit^ Epi^e
Tawv, OLi OvTjTai Ovrjoi; texov EuvijOEuaf
TT)^ xat aTuo xp7]0Ev pXE9apct)V t* a;:o xuavEatuv
Toiov arfi* otov te 7roXu3(puaoo AypoSitrj;,

the mother of the other , golden Aphrodite herself. They are
botll great travelers, explorers and adventurers; botll
founders of cities; botll institutors of ludi:
Find. Nem. W. 32, ed. Dissen,

uTcaTOv B'EoyEv ITiaa
HpoxXEo; teOjxov
Diod. Sicul. 4. 14: tsXs90(^ ds (HercuUs) toutov tov oiSXov, tov OXu(x-
Trtfltxov aytova auvET:r,<Jato. Aen. 5. 596,

^'Hiino morem, bos curtail, Jttqae hjiec cerUmiaa, primna

Aacanias, longam maris quam cingeret Albam,

retalit, ot pri.<)eo8 docuit celebrare Latinos, i , ' .

qao paer Ipse modo, secim qao TrolCa pobM, /

Albanl docaore saos : bine maxima porro ^ i,

adcepit Roma, et patriom sorvavit honorem ;

Trojaqae nano pmeri, Trojanam dieitnr agmea.

bao tteUbrftto tenos sancto cartamioa patri/*

bothy forefathers of a long and mighty line of descendants,
named after them respectively Heraclidae and Aeneadae ; botht
persecuted by Juno, who has one common ground of antipathy
to botllf viz. descent from rivals of her own, from the wrong
side of Jupiter's bed ; they botll visit Hades alive, and return
from it no hair the worse ; they are botll translated to heaven,

parallelism acknowledged and testified-to even by the scoffer:
^alter Aqois, alfer flammis ad ddera minoi **

bOtll9 adored as gods:

Liv. 1. 7. "Sacra dils aliis Albano ritu; Graeco, Hercnii, tit ab Evan-
dro institata erant, faeit (Bofluiltts).'* Aen, 8. 268,

"Ex illo qelebratas bonot, laetlqae minorea
serravere diem, primasqae PotiUus aaotor,
et domas Hercalel castos Pinaria sacrL
banc aram loco statoit, qoae maTnma semper
dicetar nobis, et erit qaae maxoma semper,
quare agito, o javenes , tantarom in manere laadam
ciugite fronde comas, et pocala porgite dextris,
commanomqae vocate doaro, et date vina volentos."

i2. 704,
" Indigetem Aenean scls ipsa et scire fateris
deberi ca«V>^ tetfsqne ad «<dem tolll/*


190 AENEIDBA [14 tot-labor«s

Juno in the long run making- up her quarrel with botll« —
giving her daughter Hebe in marriage to Hercules:

Senec. Octavia, 210:

*'Deas Alcidea posiidet Heben
nee Jononis jam timet irat"

and entering into solemn convenant with Jupiter not to per-
secute either Aeneas or his Trojans any more:
12. 838:

^'Hine genaa Auionio roixtnm qaod sanguine 'anrget,
supra homines, supra ire deos pietate videbis ;
nee gens ulla tnoa aeque celebrabit honores.
Adiiuit his Jnno et mentem laetata retonit.
Interea excedit caelo nnberoque reliqoit/*

they botll visit Pallanteum and are entertained by Evander,
who in good, set terms invites Aeneas to condescend to that
hospitality which Hercules had not disdained : 8. 363,

"Haec, inqait, limina victor
Alcides sobiit, haec iUum regia cepit.
Aude, hospes, contemnere opes, et te qaoque dignntn
finge deo, rebnsque veni non asper egenis

(qnoque : as well as Hercules).

Dixit et angnsti sabter fastigia teeti
ingentem Aenean duxit, stratisque locavit
effultum foliis et peUe LIbysUdfs ursae.
Nox ruit et fu8cis tellurein amplectitur alis."

where^, who is so short-sighted as not to discern, beyond ingens
Aeneas in his bear s skin , ingens Hercules himself in his lion's
skin , stretched on his bed of leaves asleep in the same com-
fortable quarters? nay, so full is our author of this famous
object of Juno's enmity, that Hercules makes his appearance
at every turn, even where he is least to be expected. Entellus's

**Quid si qui? caestns ipsins et JTercnlis arma
vidisset tristemquc hoc ipso in littore pagnam?^

is not less a surprize to the reader, who is thinking of any thing
but Hercules, than it is an underhand compliment to Aeneas,
president of the games, the battle spoken -of being the famous
battle in which Hercules, the prototype of Aeneas, had beaten

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Eryx the patron god of Entellus who was to be victor in the
then impending fight. If the victory of Entellus was a compli-
ment which could not well be avoided to the Sicilian host, it
was, with our author's usual inimitable tact, softened both to
Aeneas and his companions by the sweet recollection of that
greater battle in which even the god and patron of the present
victor had been defeated by him whose equal and near relative
Aeneas claimed to be :

*^Quid Thesea, magnam
quid memorem Alciden? et mi genus ab Jove snmmo,"

and against whom it was a glory to the Sicilian to have entered
the lists, to have so much as stood-up at all: 5. 414,

*'His magnum Alciden contra stetit."

Compare Ovid. 9. 5. (Achelous, of his own contest with the same

"Nee tam
tarpo fuii viaei, qoam contendiMe decomm eat/*

As little do we expect Alcides at 6. 801 , the subject being the
military expeditions of Augustus, yet nothing could be more
correct, or in more perfect keeping with the whole plan and
system of the work, than this compliment to Augustus, at the
expense not only of Hercules, prototype of Aeneas, but of
Aeneas, prefigurer of Augustus, it being the part alike of pro-
totype and prefigurer to yield the foremost ground to him, for
whose sake alone either is brought on the tapis. In like manner
Alcides is perhaps tlie last of all the gods to whom we should
a-priori expect Pallas to address his prayer at the moment he
flings his spear at Tumus, yet Alcides is the very god who
occurs to Virgil as the most proper, the reason assigned being
not that Alcides was himself always invictus and victor, but
that Alcides had been his father's guest, had dined at the table
ofEvander: 10.460,


^*Per patris hospitium et mensas qoas advena adisti
te precor, Alcide/*

this is the reason assigned — the reason for the reader ~ but
there is another reason in the back ground, the poet's special
reason , which only appears later, and not to every reader, viz.

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192 AENE1DEA , [14 tot—laborcs

that Pallas y left in the lurch by the God Hercules, guest of

"Audlit Alcidofl Javonem, mftgnmnqae sob Imo
corde premit gomltum, lacrimasqno eflfundit inAnoa.,**

may be avenged, both on the spot:

'^Proxima qaaeque metit gladio latamqtie per sgmen
arden* Hinitem ag!t ferro, te, Tame, superlmm
caede nova quaerena/"

and ultimately:

. • *<PaUas te hoc vulnere, Pallas
Inunolat et poonam acelerato ex sang aine smnit'^

by the second, not yet deified Hercules, no-less guest of Evander,
and inspired with the very feeling, the guest's obligation, with
which Pallas had in vain endeavoured to inspire the god whose
place the second Hercules, also guest of Evander, came but a
moment too late to fill :

. . '*Pa]Iafl, Evander, in ipsis
omnia sunt oeultt, mentae qnas advena piimaa
tunc adiit dextraeqne datae," . . .

where we have not only the sentiment, [but almost the very words, of
Pallas adressing the god Hercules :

"Por patris hospltiuro et mensat qoaa ad vena adistl''

Still further, if Hercules has his contest with the Stymphalides
aves „quae alumnae Martis fuisse dicuntur, quae hoc periculum
regionibus inrogabant, quod cum essent plurimae volantes,
tantum plumarum stercorumque de se emittebant ut homines
et animalia necarent, agros et semina omnia cooperirent" (Serv.
ad. 8. 300), Aeneas has his with the Harpies, than whom (3.214)

**trUtius baud . • . mooetrum, ncc saevior ulla
pestis et ira deura Stygiis sese extnUt uudis.
Virginei volucrum vnltus, focdissima vcntris
proluvies, uncaeque manus ct pallida semper
era fame.'*

if Hippolyta, virgin queen of the Amazons, is defeated in battle and
has her girdle carried - off in triumph by an invading Hercules,
Camilla, virgin queen of the Volsci, is defeated and falls in
battle in defence of her native land against an intruding Aeneas
and his Trojan crow, if Hercules, during a temporary lying-to
of the Argo on the coast of Mysia, takes bow and arrows in

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hand and goes ashore and into the woods to kill game for self
and brother Argonauts (who by the by, having obtained a fair
wind, rather ungenerously sail-off without him),

Orphic. Argon. 640,

ApTttvOou xati^atve PocOuoxorcXoi te xoXoivou.
HpaxXeY]^ S'tj^ceiyct' av* uXyjcvxoi^ evoiuXou;,
Tojov 6)^u)v 7caXa(xa({ iSs TptYXw^^tva; oVoxou^
o^pa xc 07)p7]aaiTO, :copot S'em dopTcov sTacpot;
7) oua;, 7] TCopTiv xepa7)V, tj aypiov at-ya-

Aeneas shipwrecked on the coast of Africa forthwith applies his
skill in archery in the same praiseworthy manner, and not only
is not left behind by his comrades, but kills one after another
no less than seven huge head of deer, and, with the help of his
bowbearer Achates, carries them home to the port and his half-
starved comrades :

**Moo prioa abaiatit, quam septem In^ntla rlctor
corpora fundai hami, et namarom ornn navibaa a«qiiet.
Hinc portum petit, et socios partitar in omnea/'

if Hercules exhibits his brute strength by supporting the heavens
on his shoulders for a day, Aeneas exhibits the tenderness and
kindliness of his heart by taking on his shoulders and carrying
away by night safe to the mountains, through the enemy's midst
and the flames of the burning city, not only his own and aged
father's household gods, but his aged father himself, and deli-
berately dons the lion's skin for the occasion, 2, 717:

**Ta genitor cape sacra manu patrlocqne penates.
MC) bello 6 tanto digreMun et caede recentt|
attrectare nefas, donee me flamine vivo

Uaec faint laioa hnmerot aabjectaqn* eoUa
veate anper, fulviqne inaternor pelle leonia,
anecedoqne onerl.'*

Ovid. Met, 13. 624,

<*aacra et aacra altera patrem
fert homeria, venerablle onoa, Cythereina beroa."

if Hercules buries his friend Pholus, the centaur, at the foot of
a mountain which, called Pholoe after him, perpetuates his
name and fame to all ages:

Diod. Sicttl. BibUfdh, Hi$t. 4. 12: tStov 8i xt ouvEpi) nep t tov UpoxXtou;
91X0V tov ova|jioi(opi£vov ^oXoy. outo^ "ptp Eta ti)v ouff*^^^*^ OaxTti>v


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194 AENEIDEA (14 toT— labohm

Tou; TcfiffTojxotoi; Kmoupooff xat ^eXo; ex t(vo( s^aipeov, utfo tv); fiext^{
iT:Xrj'pi 7 xat to Tpaufia Byrtayt aviatov eTcXsotijosv* ov Hp«xXf}{ fiE-yoXo-
TzpiTzta^ cGa^Ev u:co to opo? , o otijXt]; £vSo?ou yt^o^ft xpsitrov. ^Xoi]
Yop ovo(xai2^Eyov , 8ia ttj$ 0{i.(i>vu(xta^ jjltjvuei tov xa^Evra , xai ou 8t' etii-

Aeneas buries his friend Misenus, the trumpeter, at the foot of
a mountain, which, called Misenus after him, perpetuates his
name and fame to all ages, 6. 232:

"At pins Aeneas ingenU mole sopulcram
imponit} saaque arma vlro , remamqae, tabamque,
moDte snb aSrio, qui nunc MUenus ah illo
dlcitur, aeternamque tenet per laecula nomen.**

nor to any one who recollects the flight of Hector before
Achilles, or of Tumus before Aeneas himself, will the flight of
the latter before the giant Cyclops take away much from the
parellelism between Aeneas's adventure with cannibal Poly-
phemus and the adventure of Hercules with cannibal Cacus.
as little to any one acquainted with ancient morals and who
calls to mind how much more honorable in heroic times was
exploit by fair and open day than exploit shrouded in the
darkness of the thievish night, 9. 150:

'Henebrai et inertia ftirta
Palladii, ca«sl8 ftimmae enstodibiu ards,
ne timeant, neo •qui caeoa oondemur in alvo.
lace palam certum est igni eircomdar* mnros."

will the broad -day escapade of Aeneas and Dido in the cave
not stand forth in advantageous contrast with the secumbere
in the cave, all night long, of Hercules and Omphale, Omphale
wearing the lion's skin and Hercules the petticoats, and still
less to any one at all versed in the heroic duelling -code will
the killing of Tumus by Aeneas appear a less magnanimous
and memorable deed than the killing of Cycnus by Hercules
either because Aeneas was equipped in a complete suit while
Hercules had but three odd pieces, of impenetrable celestial
armour, or because while the Vulcanian embossings of the shield
of Hercules were emblematic and historic, and occupied in tfieir
description no less than one hundred and eighty verses or
fully one third of Hesiod's poem, the Vulcanian embossings of
Aeneas's shield were of mere prophetic visions of the iiiture

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glories of the Aeneadae^ wholly unintelligible at the time either
to Aeneas or any one else, and occupying no more than one
hundred verses, or scarce one seventieth part of th.e poem .of
Virgil. Nay — crown and acme of the parallel, last finishing
Touch of the marble before the model is put out of sight — when
Aeneas, following the example of Hercules, visits Hades, and
Charon reminded, at first glimpse of him and even before he
has approached the boat, of his prototype and the violence
committed by his prototype in the domains of Dis, demurs to
admit him on board, the Sibyl comes forward to explain that
there is no danger to be apprehended here (hie), i. e. from this
visitor, a man of so great tenderness of heart ("tan tae pietatis'*) as
to brave all the difficulties and dangers of a descent to Hades in
order to see once more and speak with his deceased parent —
that very point of difference between Aeneas and Hercules
just now insisted-on with so much effect and so much to the
disadvantage of Juno, whose persecution of the second Her-
cules was even less excusable than her persecution of the first,
in as much as it was the persecution not of a coarse, rude^ iron-
hearted, inflexible man: Tzetzes, Antehom. 21,

n$p9E fotf ouT7)v (TroJMn) llpoxXeoc (Ovo; aYp(oOu[Jiou.
but of a man of the tenderest, gentlest disposition, "insignem
pietate virum". Therefor© the question, at once , and exclam-
ation: '^Tantaene animis caelestibus irae?!" She might have
been angiy at Heroulea, but how could she be angry at Aeneas !?


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196 AENEIDEA [15 tantaene-ieak




Irae I III. S«rv. ed. Lion ( ^' tahtaeme quasi exclamatio est mirantis ....

nonnuili tamtabme legunt ut interrogatio sit"); Heyoe; Bninck;

Wakef.; Wign. (1832).
lEAs? Ill D. Heins.; N. Heine. (1670); I. U. Voss, Thiel, Jahn, Gossrau,

Wagn. (1861); Ladew.; Ribb.; Coningt.;

Very plainly a question , but not the less on that account an
exclamation. Very plainly an exclamation, but not the less on
that account a question; in other words, a question which is
exclaimed, not asked — not proposed for the purpose of being
answered — an exclamatory question, as it may be called, or
an interrogative exclamation, exactly corresponding to the Is
it possible?! with which we are so apt to greet alarming news
even when it arrives by letter, ami no one is near to hear and
answer, and not curiosity or desire to know whether the thing
be or be not possible (for we know but too woU the possibility)
has prompted the expression. Regarded as a question the words
have never yet received a satisfactory answer; regarded as an
exclamation are as apropos at the present day as they were the
day they were uttered, and no matter in which light regarded,
or whether in both lights at once, are likely to afford to the
poets and romance-writers of the next two thousand years as
fertile a theme, as they have afforded to their predecessors
for the last Of our author's own not only inability to loose,
but want of courage to cut, the Gordian knot : of gods subject
to human passions, and the best men worse treated by heaven
than the worst, we need no further evidence than the re-present-
ation, at the distance of no more than one hundred and twenty
verses from the end of the poem, of the identical nodus here
presented in the fifteenth verse from the beginning. 12. 830:

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BOOK I. w. 16—314.

Google *

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Since the publication of the First Volume of the Aeneidea the
author has died, his death having been, apparently, acceleratet by
the death of his daughter, Katharine Olivia, his fellow labourer
and only child. He, however, left to trustees the publication of
the remaining, and by fai* the larger, portion of the work, the
manuscript of which was fortunately complete; and to one of those
trustees, John Fletcher Davies, tlie author specially and confidently
entrusted the superintendence of the literary part of the work.

Dalkky IjOWJk, Dalkev (Irfxand),
Juno, 1877.

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"Bs germana lovis, Saturnique altera proles;
irarum tantos vol vis sub pectore fluctus?"

There is a precisely similar exclamatory question, or inter-
rogative exclamation, in the beginning of the fourth Book:

*^ Quis novus hie nostris successit sedibus hospes ? !
Quern sese ore ferens? ! quam forti pectore et armis? ! "

where Dido as little expects or receives an answer from her
sister, as Virgil in our text little expects or receives an answer
from his auditor or reader.

The imitations of our text are all in the exclamatory
question, or compound of question and exclamation: Milton,
Par, Lost, 6, 788,

'' in heavenly breasts could such perverseness dwell?! "
Pope, Rape of the lock, 1, 12:

"and in soft bosoms dwells such mighty rage?!"

Boileau, Lutrin, 1, 12:

"tant de fiel entre-t-il dans I'ame des d6vots'?!"

Animis caelestibus; minds of celestials, with a special
reference to Juno; minds of celestials, of whom Juno is one;
exactly as 7. 432:

*' Caelestum vis magna iubet." . . .

power of celestials J with a special reference to Juno: poicer
of celestials, of whom Juno is one. The general animis < ae-
LESTiBus is less invidious than a second direct and explicit
reference to Juno as the angry one had been, axactly as the
general "Caelestum vis magna iubet" is more authoritative
than a second reference to Juno specially as the authoress of
the command. See Rem. 7. 432.

Stabile Pexxini, at Cavaleggieriy Liromv, Jan. 12. 1S67.
Dalkey Lodge, Dalkeyy Ireland, Dee. 26, IS 72.

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198 AENEIDEA [18 DPnts opum



FuiT, teas once, but is no longer. See Remark on "Fuimus
Troes, fuit Ilium," 2. 325; and compare "campos ubi Troia
fuit," 3. 11.

The sense was perceived by Servius, if we may judge from
his observation (ed. Lion): *'Eam deleverat Aemilius Scipio."



Possessed of abundant means; in easy, affluent circumstances;
not labouring for subsistence.

The epithet is no less applicable to Carthage a parte post, or
looked-back-upon as it is here looked-back-upon, after its de-
struction by the Romans, than is the almost opposite epithet
facilem victu, applied, verse 449, to its inhabitants, a parte
ante, or before the settlement of the for-ages-struggling, simple-
living colony. See Rem. on '* facilem victu," verse 449. Com-
pare Oeorg. 2. 468: "dives opum variarum," possessing a va-
riety of resources. The exact opposite of dives opum is,
however, not facilis victu, simple in their living, but nudus
opum— bare of the means of living, ill supplied >nth the com-
modities of life — applied by Silius, 14. 211, to Archimedes:

•' uudus opum sed cui caelum terraeque paterent"

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20 mc— t-OTTj BOOK I. 199



One can undei stand why Neptune, god of the sea, should keep
his chariot and horses at his splendid submarine villa near
Aegae, Horn. //. 13. 20; but it is not so easy to guess why Juno,
queen of heaven, wife of Jove, and goddess of the air, should
keep not only her currus (chariot and horses: see Rem.),
but her arma too, in so out-of-the-way a place as Carthage: ''Est
in secessu longo locus." Instead, however, of entering on an in-
quiry which, curious and edifying though it could hardly fail to
be, might cost much time and trouble, I shall content myself, and
I hope my reader too, with the observation (perhaps less irrelevant

Online LibraryJames HenryAeneidea, or, Critical, exegetical, and aesthetical remarks on the Aeneis : with a personal collation of all the first class Mss., upwards of one hundred second class Mss., and all the principal editions → online text (page 25 of 75)