James Hough.

The history of Christianity in India : from the commencement of the Christian era : second portion: comprising the history of protestant missions, 1706-1816 / by James Hough (Volume 5) online

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quent giddiness, and a severe liver-attack, told how
sorely Mr Hough's powers had been overtaxed. Thus,
'' to his power, yea, and beyond his power, he was will-
ing of himself," to '' spend and be spent" in his blessed
Master's cause ; until, at length obliged to seek rest.



b



OF THP] AUTHOR. XXVll

by returning for a time to Europe. He had now been
at Poonamallee only nine months^ and it is cause for
great thankfulness to observe how much God was
pleased to enable him to accomplish in so brief a space
of time^ — his garrison and hospital duties^ constant
preachings two schools^ English and Tamul, opened,
a small native church erected^ his Tamul Dictionary
in a forward state^ and the translation of the following
portions of Scripture completed, viz., the whole of
St Luke's gospel, six and a half chapters of the Acts,
and three and a half of the epistle to the Romans.
What a bright example of love, zeal, and self-denial,
did God thus make his servant to those who should
come after him ; and how graciously did He own and
honour such labours undertaken for His sake !

After an absence of two years, Mr Hough returned
to India in 1824. Upon his arrival, he was appointed
to St George's Church, in Madras, in which charge he
continued during the brief remainder of his stay in
India. In this year he wrote and pubUshed his ela-
borate and masterly ''Reply to the Letters of the
Abbe Dubois on the state of Christianity in India."

But it soon became apparent that the powers of his
constitution had been already too seriously impaired,
to allow of his continuing much longer his residence
in India. Failing health soon obliged him to retire
to the Neilgherry Mountains, with the hope that their
pecuhar salubrity of climate might effect his restora-
tion. But such was not the will of God. His work
in India was done ; and after a residence of a little
more than a year in the hills, in 1826 he finally left
the land he so dearly loved, and returned to Europe.

From this time he devoted himself to pastoi'al work



XXVlll BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

at liome^in the different ministerial spheres to which he
was successively appointed. But^ even then^ India had
a large share of both his labours and his prayers. He
was a regular and valued member of both the general
and corresponding Committees of the Church Mission-
ary Society^ whose weekly and monthly meetings he
regularly attended^ as also those of the Translation
Committee of the Christian Knowledge Society^ of
which also he was a member.

In 1829^ he published in one volume a series of
letters which originally appeared in the Bengal HuV'
haru, entitled ^^ Letters on the Climate, Inhabitants,
Productions, &c., of the Neilgherries, or Blue Mountains
of Coimbatoor, South India." Having derived great
benefit from his brief sojourn there, he was anxious
to draw the attention of Europeans, and of the Govern-
ment especially in India, to the singular healthiness
of that hill- residence, which was then but little known,
and therefore imperfectly appreciated.

In 1837 appeared a course of lectures, dehvered in
Moorfields Chapel, London, by that well known
Eomish advocate, Dr Wiseman. Statements Avere
therein made so contrary to truth, and so defamatory
of Protestant Missions, that the Committee of the
Church Missionary Society applied to Mr Hough to
reply to these misstatements, rightly judging that the
task could not be consigned to better hands than of
him, who had already so successfully refuted the errors
and exposed the misrepresentations of another Jesuit
emissary from Rome, the Abbe Dubois. Mr Hough
according published his work, — ^* The Protestant Mis-
sions vindicated against the aspersions of the Rev. N.
Wiseman, D.D., involving the Protestant Religion."



L



OF THE AUTHOR. XXIX

Many of those best qualified to judge have long ago
testified their approval and admiration of the spirit
and ability with which the duty thus assigned him has
been discharged.

The last ten years of his life were devoted with per-
severing diligence^ laborious research, and unwearied
study, to the preparation of his last great work, '^^ The
History of Christianity in India," — four volumes of
which he lived to publish, and the fifth and last, now
offered to the Christian Church, was left by him in
manuscript. Of its importance and value, every
reader to whom the Mission cause is dear, will easily
judge for himself The entire work, as has been al-
ready stated, was presented by its author to the Church
Missionary Society. No words can describe better
than his own the disinterestedness of his motives and
views, both in undertaking the work, and in wishing
that the Church Missionary Society should enjoy the
profits of it : — ^^ It has long been my wish to contri-
bute something to our Disabled Missionaries' Fund,
and I have been pleasing myself with the thought of
appropriating to this object the proceeds of my History.
My primary object in composing this work, which has
cost me ten years of hard labour and anxiety, was to
put the Church in possession of authentic information
to meet the Papists' vauntings of their own Missions,
and their attempt to depreciate those of the Protestants.
I hope the public will think that this has been done,
however imperfectly : and it will make me happy in-
deed, to find that some pecuniary advantage has ac-
crued from the publication for our Society's Disabled
Missionaries. May the Lord vouchsafe to accept this
humble offering, and to Him be the praise !"



XXX BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

His last parochial charge was the incumbency of
Ham, Surrey, to which he was appointed in 1832, and
in which he spent the closing sixteen years of his life.
Of the manner of his discharge of his duties, both as
an evangelist and a pastor, his former life is the best
guarantee ; and it is as unnecessary, as it would be
improper, for me to attempt a description. The best
records are to be found in the respect and affection
with which his memory is still cherished, in the deep
sorrow which gathered such a crowd round his grave,
and made the time of his burial a day of mourning in
his parish ; and above all, in those seals to his ministry,
who, united with his spiritual children from India,
will be his ''^ joy and crown of rejoicing" ^^ in the pre-
sence of our Lord Jesus Christ at his coming."

Owing to the precarious state of his health, he had
been sent to winter at Hastings, and there, on 2d of
November 1847, full of calm peace and joy, he entered
into rest, realising in his own happy experience the
truth of the last words which he quoted, — '' Kept by
the power of God through faith unto salvation."

More I fear to add, lest filial devotion should seem
to exaggerate, and I should appear to transgress the
bounds of soberness and truth ; though I am also con-
scious that this very scruple has deterred me from
writing so freely as the subject would have warranted,
and even required, and thus full justice has not been
done to the character and services of one whom God
condescended, by his grace, signally to honour and
bless. I have deeply felt, that a son's is not the hand
to rear a monument to a father's memory. But I pre-
sent this tribute to the Christian Church as furnishing
a bright example to others, not for the purpose of



OF THE AUTHOR. XXXI

lauding and exalting a beloved and sainted parent.
And in so doing I act under the sanction of, and in
accordance with^ his own sentiments. For shortly
before his death^ upon a wish being expressed to him
that he had drawn up for his family a separate account
of what God had done by him, he said, ^' Oh ! how
mean and worthless will the best we have done for
the Saviour appear, when we have joined that bright
fBbmpany around the throne. It is not our doing, it
is all Christ, and his Spirit working in us." And then,
after a pause, he added, ^^ Yet it is well to record what
they who have finished their earthly course have been
enabled to do for Christ, that their example may stir
others up, and cheer others on in the heavenly race,
who are still left to labour here below."

With our praises to God for having given grace to this
^^ wise master builder" thus to lay '^ the foundation,"
let us mingle our prayers to the great Head of the
Church, that he will raise up and equip many others to
^^ build thereon," filling them ^^ with the Spirit of God,
in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge,"
(Exod. xxxi. 3), that so they may rear mth ^^ lively
stones" — the hearts of the faithful in every land — such
a temple as shall prove the ^^ habitation of God through
the Spirit" (Eph. ii. 2).

THOMAS a. P. HOUGH.



Ham Parsonage, July 1860.



CONTENTS OF VOL. V.



BOOK XIII.

CHAPTER I.

EPISCOPATK OF DU THOMAS FANSHAW MIDDLETON, FIRST lilSHOP OF CALCUTTA.

PAGE

1. The Bishop's arrival at Calcutta 1

2. His first appearance in the pulpit 2

3. His anomalous relation to his Clergy . . ... • • 3

4. Arrangement of the Archdeaconries 6

5. Attention to the Calcutta Schools 6

6. Christian Knowledge Society— Calcutta Committee ... 7

7. Madras Committee 8

8. Bishop's views on the conversion of the natives .... 8

9. First confirmation and visitation 11

10. Bishop proceeds to Madras 12

11. Proceedings of the District Committee 12

12. Consecration of St George's Cluirch . .- . . . .13

13. Confirmation and Visitation 13

14. Vepery Mission 13

15 Bishop proceeds southward 14

i6. Cuddalore— Chillumbrum— Tranquebar— Tanjore— Trichinopoly , 15

17. Bishop's comparative view of Romanists and Protestants . 19

18. Palamcottah— Arambooly Pass 20

19. Government treatment of Native Christians 21

20. Quilon— Cochin— Bombay 22

21. Christian Knowledge Society's Committee 23

22. Proceedings at Bombay 24

23. Character of Romanists 25

24. Goa — Cannanorc — Cochin 20



XXXIV



CONTENTS.



25. Interview with the Syrian Metran .

26. Visit to the Syrian Churches .

27. Allepie— Cohimbo ....

28. Progress of Christianity in Ceylon .

29. Bishop preaches at Columbo

50. Bishop returns to Calcutta

31. Measures for the improvement of the church establishment

32. Difficulty with reference to the missionary clergy
33- Impediments in the Bishop's path

34. Indications of a favourable movement

35. Measures for native education .

36. Project of a collegiate establishment

37. Royal Letter for the object

38. Review of the Gospel Propagation Society

39. Grant from the Christian Knowledge Society

40. Grant from the Church Missionary Society

41. Bishop's second visitation

42. Second visit to Madras ....

43. The Christian Knowledge Society's Missions

44. Bishop's visit to Penang ....

45. Relief of the Tranquebar Mission

46. Foundation of St James' Church and Schools, Calcutta

47. Death of the Archdeacon of Madras and the Governor of Penang

48. Bishop's standard of Missionary character

49. Evils of a superficial knowledge among the natives
50 English Liturgy in Cingalese and Tamul

51. Converted soldier at Meerut

52. Improvement in the free school

53. Grant of land for the college

54. Plan and estimate of the building

55. Bishop's preparatory discourse .

56. Lays the foundation-stone

57. Second visitation at Bombay

58. Bishop suffers from his exertions

59. Visit to Cochin

60. Conversion of a Romish Vicar Apostolic

61. Bishop's interview with the Syrian Metran

62. Columbo now under the Bishop's jurisdiction

63. Ordination of Mr Armour

64. Not authorised to ordain a native

65. European prejudices against East Indians

66. School of Industry at Point de Galle

67. Arrival of a principal and a professor

68. Account of Ram Mohun Roy

69. Grant from the Bible Society to the College

70. Third visitation at Calcutta



CONTENTS. XXXV



71. Bishop's incessant occupation

72. Encouraging aspect of the missionary field

73. Bishop urgent for missionary aid

74. English missionaries required

75. Church Missionary Society's annual grant of ^1000

76. Bishop's sickness and death ....

77. His funeral

78. Keview of his character and proceedings

79. Good result from his exertion

80. Public testimony to his worth



CHAPTER II.

CHRISTIANITY IN BOMBAY, 1816-1820.

1. Success of Archdeacon Barnes's exertions 107

2. Increase of chaplains ^^^

3. First supply of books from the S. P. C. K 108

4. The effects of war ^09

5. First schools for natives by the Education Society .... 110

6. Extension of territory, and increase of military force . • .111

7. First Scotch church built 113

8. Churches erected at various stations 114

9. Visitation of Bishop Middleton— Chaplains increased . . .114

10. Visitation of Bishop Heber— Gospel Propagation and Church Mis-

sionary Societies established 115

11. New schools of the Education Society built at BycuUah . . 116

12. The Native Education Society formed 117

13. Government support of regimental schools— Military Asylum esta-

blished 118

14. Retirement of Arch. Barnes 118

Conclusion H^



■ CHAPTER III.

SOCIETY FOB, PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE— SOUTH INDIA MISSIONS,

1817-1826.

1. Revival of the Vepcry Mission 121

2. Printing the Tamul Liturgy 123



XXXVl



CONTENTS.



3. Account of the mission property

4. Arrival of three missionaries
6. Improvement in the schools and congregation

6. A new church erected ....

7. View of the mission in 1826

8. Revival at Cnddalore under the Rev. C. Church

9. Declines again on his removal .

10. Arrival of a missionary at Tanjore .

11. State of the Mission

12. Death of M. Pohle at Trichinopoly .

13. Arrival of a successor ....

14. Christians at Coimbatoor

15. State of the Palamcottah mission in 1819

16. Measures for its improvement

17. Its progress in 1821 ....

18. State of the Negapatam mission

19. Native education in Bengal

20. Native education at Bombay and Columbo

21. Transfer of the missions to Society for the Propagation of the Gospel

in Foreign Parts . .



PAGE

123
124
125
127
128
129
130
131
131
133
134
135
136
140
141
143
144
146

147



CHAPTER IV.



BAPTIST MISSION IN BENGAL ANB TUB EAST, FROM 1817 TO 1826.



1. Separation of the Serampore Mission from the Baptist Society . 150

2. Arrival of missionaries at Calcutta 152

3. Operations extended in the schools 153

4. Generosity of a convert 154

5. Piety of a convert ^ . . 154

6. New chapel at Calcutta and Dura-Dum 155

7. Apostasy of a missionary 155

8. Bralmiins begin to oppose the Gospel 156

9. Accession and loss of several labourers 157

10. Effect of a devoted missionary's death 159

11. Success at Howrah 160

12. Fallacy of a Jesuit's assertions respecting the progress of Christianity

in India 161

13. New missionaries arrive ; their occupations ..... 162

14 Summary of the progress at Calcutta 163

15. Success at Cutwa and Becrbhoom ....... 164



CONTENTS.



XXXVll



16. Description of the converts ....

17. Operations at Moorshedabad ....

18. Mr Chamberlain at Monghyr ....

19. Conversion and death of a Brahmin

20. Also of a Hindoo devotee ....

21. Death of Mr Chamberlain ....

22. Mrs Chamberlain in charge of the station

23. Arrival of a missionary — promising commencement

24. Kemarkable conversions at Digah

25. The missionary's death — exertions of his widow

26. Arrival of another missionary . . . •

27. Labours in the province of Orissa

28. Schools at Agimere

29. Mission in Ceylon

30. Establishment of a college at Serampore

31. Commencement of the studies ....

32. Chartered by the King of Denmark .

33. Progress of general education ....

34. Establishment of useful institutions .

35. A Pastoral Letter to the congregations .

36. Instances of conversion

37. Satisfactory deaths of converts ...

38. Death of several members of the mission

39. Mr Ward's preparation for death

40. Summary of his varied labours ...

41. Accession to the mission — means of usefulness

42. State of the congregation — a Christian village

43. Progress at Jessore

44. Progress among the Romanists and others at Dacca

45. Conversion of a Jewish family

46. Progress of general education

47. Instruction given to Bengalee teachers

48. General thirst for knowledge

49. Chittagong — murder of the missionary

50. Death of his successor

61. Varied progress and trials at the station

62. Station formed in Arracan ....

63. Malda relinquished

64. Dinagepore — assiduity and generosity of Mr Foniai
66. Awakening at Benares ....

66. Commencement at Futtyghur and Muttra

57. Excesses of superstition at Allahabad

58. The missionary's perseverance

59. Visits to Cawnpore

60. Promising commencement at Delhi

61. Native professions to be received with caution



of his



dcz



labours



PAGIC

166

166

168

169

169

171

172

172

173

175

176

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177

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184

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186

187

187

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188

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192

193

194

195

196

196

198

198

200

2 1

202

204

205

205

207

208

209

212

212

213

215



XXXVlll



CONTENTS.



62. Total of converts unknowii

63. Number of labourers hitherto employed

64. Progress of translations of the Scriptures

65. Vindication of their character



PAGE
216

217
218
220



CHAPTEE V.

AMERICAN BAPTIST MISSION TO BURMAH, 1817-1826.



1. Some account of the character and customs of the Burmese

2. Encouraging commencement of the mission

3. Beginning of the missionaries' troubles

4. Missionaries dispersed ....

5. They are reassembled ....

6. Two missionaries from America

7. Commencement of public worship

8. Favourable impression on the natives

9. The first Burmese convert

10. The next two converts ....

11. Death of the king of Ava

12. Unfavourable change in the mission

13. Missionaries' reception at the court of Ava

14. Their return to Rangoon

15. Fidelity of the converts

16. Mr Judson remains at Rangoon

17. Progress of the Gospel ....

18. Satisfactory character of the converts

19. Arrival of a missionary physician

20. He is summoned to the court of Ava

21. Favourably received by the king

22. Mr Judson returns to Rangoon

23. Translation of the Scriptures

24. Arrival of another missionary

25. State of the female converts

26. Mr and Mrs Judson proceed to Ava

27. Burmans' designs against the East India Compr

28. Arrival of a British fleet at Rangoon

29. Imprisonment and sufferings of the Europeans

30. Sufferings of the missionaries and others at Av

31. Their deliverance, and return to Rangoon

32. A new station formed at Amherst

33. Mrs Judson's death ....



any's



territories



223

227

227

230

231

232

232

233

234

235

235

236

237

239

240

240

241

242

243

243

244

245

245

247

248

249

249

250

250

252

262

262

263



CONTENTS. XXXIX



34. Admiration of the English at the court of Ava . • • ' ??^

35. Dr Price's proceedings at Ava

36. Conclusion



264
265



CHAPTEE VI.

CHURCH MISSIONABt SOCIETY IN NORTH INDIA, 1817-1826.

1. Rev. D. Corrie's return 267

2. Baptizes a native convert 268

3. Appointed Archdeacon of Calcutta 269

4. A missionary appointed to the Female Asylum .... 270

5. Extension of education 271

6. Establishment at Mirzapore 272

7. A central school opened 273

8. Female education 274

9. Opening of the first schools . . 276

10. Their rapid increase 279

11. Need of teachers 281

12. Ladies' Society for Female Education 281

13. Public examination of the schools 282

14. A central school established 284

15. The missionaries' preaching 285

16. Several converts 286

17. The mission press 287

18. Church Missionary Association and Auxiliary Society . . . 289

19. Schools and church at Agra ....•.•• 290

20. Abdool Messeeh ordained 293

21. His death 293

22. Chunar 295

23. A missionary joins the station 296

24. Mr Bowley's intercourse with the natives 297

25. His ordination ; increase of his flock 298

26. Schools— Translations 299

27. Church at Buxar 300

28. Opening at Titalya 301

29. Station suspended 303

30. Establishment at Burdwan ' 304

31. Arrival of three missionaries 307

32. Improvement in the schools 307

33. Female schools 309

34. Opening of a church and three chapels 309

35. Schools at Culna 310



xl CONTENTS.

PAGE

36. Native flock at Meemt 311

37. Community of Saadhs at Delhi • 314

38. Success amongst them 316

39. Jay Narain's school at Benares 317

40. Jay Narain's death 321

41. His son fulfils his intentions 322

42. Progress of the school 323

43. Schools in the neighbourhood 324

44. Congregation of natives 325

45. Exertions in the neighbourhood 325

46. GorruclqDore station 326

47. Cawnpore and other stations 327

48. Summary of the mission . . 327



OHAPTEK VII.

CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY IN SOUTH INDIA, 1817-1826.

1. Arrival of missionaries at Madras 329

2. Mr Rhenius makes a tour — visits the Jains . . . . • 329

3. Progress- of schools 331

4. Erection of the mission church, Black Town 334

5. Arrival of more missionaries 337

6. Baptism of a Brahmin and other converts 338

7. Increase of schools — Seminary established 341

8. C. M. S. associations formed 345

9. Printing press 345

10. Poonamallee — Trippasoor . • 346

11. Tranquebar 347

12. Chillambarum 349

13. Mr Schnarre's death 350

14. John Devasagayam takes temporary charge of the station . . 351

15. Head-quarters of the mission removed to Mayaveram , . . 352

16. Tinnevelly — Schools established — Aid from the Church Missionary

Society ' .... 354

17. Rev. J. Hough's report, as given by the Society — A seminary

opened 355

18. Arrival of its first missionaries at Palamcottah .... 361

19. Progress of the seminary 362

20. Progress of the mission — Female education 364

21. Baptism of converts 367

22. Aspersions answered 371

23. Testimony of the S. P. C. K 373



CONTENTS. Xll

PAGE

24. Travancore — Revs. Bailey and Fenn at Cotym .... 373

25. Mr Fenn's tour through Travancore and Cochin .... 375

26. Mission work at Cotym 379

27. Scriptures translated into Malayalim— Arrival of printing press, &,c. 382

28. Progress of translations ' • 384

29. Account of the Syrian Church 385

30. College and schools at Cotym 387

31. Arrival of Rev. J. W. Doran 389

32. Schools for the Syrians 390

33. Female school 391

34. Visits of Bishop Middleton and Rev. W. H. ^Nlill to the Syrians 393

35. Death of Mar Dionysius 395

36. Allepie 399

37. Success of the mission 400

38. Cochin — Labours among the Jews 404

39. Success of Mr Ridsdale's exertions 405

40. Nellore 400

41. Masulipatam 406

42. Tellicherry 407

43. Cannanore . .408

44. Coimbatoor 410

45. Chittoor— Rev. H. Harper commences a mission work . . .411

46. Mr Dacre's exertions for the natives 411



CHAPTER VIII.

CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY IN WESTERN INDIA, 1818-1826.

1. Arrival of the first missionary 417

2. Schools opened 418

3. Translation of the Liturgy 418

4. Extension of mission work northwards— Female education . . 419

5. Church Missionary Association formed 420



CHAPTER IX.

CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY IN CEYLON, 1817-1826.

1. Arrival of four missionaries 421

2. Kandy 422



xlii



CONTENTS.



3. Government grant of land — mission buildings erected

4, Protestant burial-ground opened
6. Missionary encouragements

6. Cotta — Grant of ground— schools built .

7. Printing department ....

8. Baddagme — Character of the inhabitants .

9. Schools built

10. Boarding-school established

11. Missionaries' course of ministry

12. Grant of land — Church, mission-houses, and schools built

13. Missionaries' healths fail — Arrival of Mr Trimnell

14. Nellore — Schools opened . ...

15. EflFects of the ravages of cholera

16. A seminary commenced ....

17. Church and mission buildings erected on ground granted by Govern

ment



PAGE

424
425
426
427

429
430
431
431
432
435
437
438
439
440

441



CHAPTER X.

WESLEYAN MISSION IN CEYLON, 1817-1826.

1. Missionaries obtain native assistants 444

2. A seminary opened 445

3. New Testament and Liturgy printed 447

4. Negombo — Schools established 448

5. Ivornegalle — Land from Government for mission premises . . 449

6. Caltura— Point de Galle — Matura • . . 450

7. Schools — Ministry 451

8. Batticaloa — Trincomalee 453

9. Jaffna — Service held by a Portuguese lady 454

10. Point Pedro 455



CHAPTER XL

WESLEYAN MISSION IN SOUTH INDIA, 1817-1822.



Online LibraryJames HoughThe history of Christianity in India : from the commencement of the Christian era : second portion: comprising the history of protestant missions, 1706-1816 / by James Hough (Volume 5) → online text (page 3 of 54)