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The history of Christianity in India : from the commencement of the Christian era : second portion: comprising the history of protestant missions, 1706-1816 / by James Hough (Volume 5) online

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2. Progress of mission work in Madras and the neighbourhood . 457

2. Negapatam 458

3. Bangalore 459

4. Bombay — A mission commenced 460



CONTENTS. xliii

CHAPTER XII.

AMERICAN MISSION IN liOMBAV, 1817-1826.

PAGE

1. Progress of the mission — Cordiality of the Jews .... 462

2. A chapel built 463

3. Conversion of a Mahomedan 465

4. Schools prosper — continued on Sunday 466

5. Female and boarding schools begun 468

6. The press employed by the Christian Knowledge and other Societies 469

7. Mahratta translation of the Scriptures 470

8. Death of Gordon Hall, founder of the mission 471



CHAPTER XIII.

AMERICAN MISSION IN CEVLON, 1816-1826.

1. The mission commenced at Tillipally and Batticotta — Assisted by

Government with lands and buildings 473

2. The stations increased to six around Jaffnapatam .... 475

3. A revival 475

4. Male, female, and boarding schools 477



CHAPTER XIV.

LONDON MISSIONARY SOCIETY IN NORTH INDIA, 1817-1826.



483
484
485

486

487



1. A mission formed at Calcutta ....

2. Tally Gunge given up to the S. P. C. K.

3. Chapels built at Dhurrumtollah and other stations

4. Schools for the young and adults ....

5. Printing press

6. Schools at Chinsurah — School Book and Calcutta School Societies 487

7. Chinsurah restored to the Dutch, but schools continue to be sup-

ported by the British Government 489

8. Mission schools opened 489

9. Mission commenced at Benares 491

10. Report of the mission 493



Xliv CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XV.

LONDON MISSIONARY SOCIETY IN SOUTH INDIA, 1817-1826.

PAGE

1. Madras — Account of the first native convert 496

2. Missionaries engaged in English services 501

3. A' central school established 502

4. Vizagapatam — Teloogoo translation of the Scriptures . . . 503

5. South Travancore — Nagracoil 506

6. Mission at Combaconum ........ 510

7. Schools — A seminary 512

8. Union with the Church missionaries in forming a tract association 514

9. Quilon • ... 515

10. Belhary — Baptism of the first converts ..... 516

11. Translation of the Scriptures into Canarese 518

12. Bible, missionary, and tract association — Schools .... 518

13. Bangalore — Exertions of Major Mackworth 520

14. Converts from among Romanists and natives .... 521

15. Belgaum— The missionary employed as chaplain by Government . 523

16. Baptism of Brahmins 524

17. Benefits of the missionary's tour and labours .... 525

18. Cuddapah — Mission station commenced — Various translations into

Teloogoo • 526



CHAPTER XVI.

LONDON MISSIONARY SOCIETY IN WESTERN INDIA, 1817-1826.

1. The missionaries preach to English as well as natives •. . . 529

2. At length succeed in establishing schools ..... 530

3. Translation of the Scriptures and other books into Guzerattce . 531



CHAPTER XVII.

SCOTTISH MISSIONARY SOCIETY IN WESTERN INDIA, 1823-1826.

1. Commenced by Mr Mitchell — Success of schools in neighbouring

villages 533

2. Arrival of four more missionaries 534

3. Scriptures in Mahratta supplied by the Bible and Christian Know-

ledge Societies' associations 536



CONTENTS.



xlv



1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.
10.
11.
12.
IS.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.



28.
29.
30.
31.



CHAPTEK XVIIl.

EPISCOPATE OF DR REGINALD HEBER, SECOND BISHOP OF CALCUTTA.



Appointment of Rev. R. Heber to the Sec of Calcutta

Arrival in India

Examines the state of education

Bishop's College

Liceses Church missionaries

The first ordination of a native

Confirmation — Visitation of the clergy

Embarks for the Upper Provinces

Death of his chaplain

Destitute state of religion

Church and school at Benares

Mission at Chunar

Allahabad — Proceeds by land— Cawnpor

Kingdom of Oude

Enters the Upper Provinces

Himalaya mountains

Meerut — Delhi — Agra

Central India

Baroda — Kairah — Broach — Sui

Arrival and exertions at Eombav

Visitation of Ceylon

Return to Calcutta .

Embarks for Madras

Proceeds to South India .

Mayaveram — Combaconum

Tanjore — Trichinopoiy

The Bishop's death .

Public demonstrations of sorrow

Expediency of dividing the diocese

Comparison of Middleton and Heber

Estimate of Heber's character .



PAG K

537
538
539
540
540
542
544
545
546
548
551
553
555
556
557
558
560
563
564
565
569
576
578
580
582
582
585
587
589
589
690



CHAPTER XIX.



■ EPISCOPATE OF DR JOHN THOMAS JAMES, THIRD BISHOP OF CALCUTTA.

1. Appointment of Rev. J. T. James — His consecration — Lands at the

Cape of Good Hope 593

2. Confirmation — Proposes the erection of a church .... 595



xlvi CONTENTS.

PAGE

3. Arrives at Calcutta 595

4. Visits Bishop's College — Consecrates the Chapel and settles business

connected with the College ...... 596

5. Divides Calcutta into church districts 598

6. Chaplains appointed surrogates 598

7. Consecrates the church in Fort William — Confirmations — Advocates

female education 598

8. Deplores the exclusion of the Bible from the colleges in Calcutta . 599

9. Missionary views 599

10. Visitation — Addresses the missionaries in his charge . . . 600

11. Ordination 602

12. Supports the Bible Society 602

13. His health begins to suffer 603

14. Commences his visitation north, but obliged to return . . . 604

15. Resigns his bishopric — Sails for Penang — Dies on the voyage . 606

16. Testimonies borne to his life and character 607



CHAPTER XX.



EPISCOPATE OF DR JOHN MATTHIAS TURNER, FOURTH BISHOP OF CALCUTTA,

1. Circumstances which induced Dr Turner to accept the bishopric . 609

2. Interviews with Missionary Societies 610

3. Holds a confirmation at the Cape, and establishes a Sunday school . 612

4. Conveys the proposal from Government to arrange an ecclesiastical

establishment there . . • 612

5. Proceeds to Calcutta— Meeting of the S. P. C. K.— Visitation . . 614

6. Archdeacon and Mrs Corrie become residents at the palace . . 615

7. The Bishop's estimation of his character — Various societies estab-

lished in Calcutta 616

8. Three churches built — Bishop promotes the observance of the Lord's

day 617

9. Proposes measures for the benefit of India 620

10. Zealous for an efficient ecclesiastical establishment .... 622

11. Proposes the extension of the benefits of Bishop's College . . 623

12. Ordination — A central school established at Howrah . . . 624

13. Support of the Church Missionary Society 625

14. Calcutta High School established 625

15. Infant School established and maintained by the Bishop — Erection

of a new chapel at the Free School 629

16. Visits the Hindoo college — The Archdeacon shews the evil eff'ects of

education without religion 630



CONTENTS. xlvii

PAGE

17. District charitable society formed 633

18. Visitation south — Madras confirmations 634

19. Visits the S. P. C. K. establishment 634

20. Also the C. M. S. establishment — Ordains two of its catechists . 635

21. Bishop visits Tripassoor, Bangalore, Seringapatam — The Neil-

gherries 636

22. Bombay — Ceylon — Cotta — Kandy — Baddagamc .... 637

23. Testimony to the work of the C. M. S 641

24. Report of the S. P. C. K. versions 641

25. Bishop's declining health — His view of the state of religion generally 642

26. His illness— Death 643

27. His character drawn by Archdeacon Corrie 645

28. Effect in England of the news of his death 647

27. Concluding remarks 649



APPENDIX ^53



A HISTORY

OF

CHRISTIANITY IN INDIA.



BOOK XIII.
CHAPTER I.

EPISCOPATE OF DR THOMAS FANSHAW MIDDLETON, FIRST
BISHOP OF CALCUTTA

] . The appointment of Dr Thomas Fanshaw Mid- The
dleton to the Bishopric of Calcutta was mentioned arrival L
above.^ On the first mention of an Episcopal Calcutta.
Establishment for India, a strong prejudice against
it had been excited in the country ; and at the time
of the Bishop's arrival, a great jealousy of this
new dignity, no doubt, prevailed among the higher
powers. It was not, then, much to be wondered
at, that his public reception, as appears from his
first letters from Calcutta, somewhat disappointed
his expectations. The apparent inattention, how-
ever, which he remarked, may be accounted for, in
some degree, by the absence of the Governor- Gene-

^ Book X., chap, 1, sect. 34. See Appendix A of this Vol.
This chapter is drawn up chiefly from Le Bas's Life of Bishop
Middleton.

VOL. v. A



2 HISTORY OF CHRISTIANITY

CHAP, ral, the Earl of Moira, who was in the upper pro-
^' vinces, engaged in carrying on the Nepaulese war.
There was an uncertainty also, on the part of the
acting authorities in Council, of the Bishop's exact
position in the order of precedency, and, conse-
quently, of the honours with which he should be
saluted. '' But whatever might be his public recep-
tion, his private welcome," his biographer well ob-
serves, ^^ was all that he could desire." He found
even in those who did not see the necessity of
sending out a Bishop, a disposition, now that he had
actually arrived, to do him honour ; a ready con-
sent that he should have a house and a suitable
income appointed him : and representations to this
effect were promptly sent home.
His first 2. But gratifying to the Bishop above all, was

aScetn'the the manifestation of public feeling^ towards him,
pulpit. through the whole society, on occasion of his first
sermon in Calcutta. He had landed on the 28th
of November, but deferred preaching till Christmas
day following ; and next day he thus described the
service and its effect to a friend in England : —
'' Yesterday (Christmas day) I made mj first ap-
pearance in the pulpit ; the church was filled long
before the service began ; 1300 persons were pre-
sent : I preached to them from Luke xi. 10, 11,
on the need of a Saviour, and the true notion of
Him whom God hath sent us ; concluding with
some reflections arising out of the new relation in
which I stand towards the people of India. I was
heard with mute attention for fifty-five minutes.
I told them that I came to India, as Titus went to
Crete, ' to set in order the things that are wanting ;'
and that in the primitive ages, ' Episcopacy was at
once the bond of unity and the safeguard of truth.'
From the sermon we proceeded," (as was usual in
Calcutta on Christmas day), '' to make a collection
for the poor, and raised £750, and afterwards to



IN INDIA : BOOK XIII. 3

the Sacrament^ which I administered to upwards
of 160 persons, including the judges, the council,
general officers," &c., &c. All parties were, as he ex-
pressed it, ^^ abundantly well satisfied" — the friends
of religion, especially, rejoicing in the noble confes-
sion he had made of his principles and of his mo-
tives, in undertaking the responsible situation which
he was called to fill/

3. Sitting down to contemplate his situation^ and His ano-
to make arrangements for the adjustment and super- JJJiVuon to
intendence of the English Church in India, the hisciei-y.
Bishop soon found himself environed with unex-
pected and complicated difficulties. One source of
perplexity arose from the imperfection which he
now discovered- in his Letters Patent. These Let-
ters, it appears from his own account,^ were sub-
mitted to him in England in the rough draft, with
a view, doubtless, to any corrections or additions
that he might wish to suggest ; and he did not fail,
he says, to inquire into the object and true con-
struction of every part of them, before he returned
them to His Majesty's Government. One thing,
however, of primary importance, he now found that
he had not sufficiently adverted to, — the peculiar
institution of the clergy over whom he was to pre-
side. This might easily have been ascertained,
throuo-h the Board of Control or the East India
House, and it is not a little remarkable, that it
appears wholly to have escaped his attention. From
this inadvertence, the Letters Patent, formed simply
on a view of the ecclesiastical system at home, were
found to be, in some important particulars, inappli-
cable and invalid in India. They authorised him
to exercise full ecclesiastical power over all chap-
lains and ministers of the Church of England within



' Memoirs of Rev. T. Thomason, p. 239.
^ Le Bas's Life, vol. i. p. 437.



1: HISTORY or CHRISTIANITY

CHAr. his diocese, to whom he was directed to grant
^' licences to officiate. In India, however, there was
no occasion for the exercise of either branch of the
Episcopal function — institution or licensing. The
only clergy he found there were the Company's
chaplains, who had come out, not on the mere
nomination of the Court of Directors, but under the
express sanction of the heads of the Church of Eng-
land, the Archbishop of Canterbury or the Bishop
of London, on the presentation of the same testimo-
nials as are required for institution to a benefice ;^
and in India, they received their appointments to
particular stations on the uncontrolled authority of
the respective local governments. Their '^ licence
to officiate" then rested on an authority antecedent
and paramount to his own, and their stations, or
cures, on the sole will of the chief secular powers.
This anomalous state of things, anomalous with
relation to the constitution of the Church at home,
which, it would seem, might easily have been pro-
vided for in England, while the Letters Patent were
yet in the rough draft, was found to be impractica-



' The following is the form of approval : —

These are to certify, to all whom it doth or may concern, that
the Court of Directors of the East India Company have ap-
pointed The Keverend to be an Assistant
(/haplain on the Establishment. In witness whereof,
I have hereunto set my hand, at the East India House in Lon-
don, this day of , in the year of our Lord,
one thousand eight hundred and forty

(Signed) Secretary.

Extract of the Charter granted to the East India Company,
dated 5th Sept. 1698.
'' And, moreover, that no Minister shall be sent by the Com-
panv to the East Indies, or other parts within the limits afore-
said, until he shall have been first approved of by the Arch-
bishop of Canterbury, or Bishop of London, for the time being."
I approve the above appointment.

(Signed)



IN" INDIA : BOOK XUl. 6

ble in India, and it caused the Bishop much em-
barrassment. He promptly addressed the Supreme
Government on the subject, forcibly representing
the unpleasantness of his position under such a
limitation of his authority as a continuance of the
■present system of patronage must involve. The
question was reserved for the Governor-General,
who, on his return to Calcutta some months after,
coinciding entirely with the Bishop's views, passed
an order in Council, ^^ that the nomination of chap-
lains of the United Church of England and Ireland
to particular stations should hereafter originate with
his Lordship ; and he was requested to communicate
accordingly to the local governments of the respec-
tive presidencies, all such arrangements as he might
think proper to make." The acquiescence of the
other governments, however, did not follow so readily.
They appealed against the resolution of the Su-
preme Government ; and the Court of Directors,
finally, having decreed, '^ that the privilege of ori-
ginating the appointment of each chaplain to a
particular station, would be an encroachment on
the patronage of Government, sent out a peremp-
tory despatch, calling on the Supreme Government
to rescind its resolution, and deciding that the
appointment of the chaplains to particular sta-
tions proceed in all cases as heretofore." It was
natural for the Bishop to feel disappointed at this
decision. He was not only denied thereby the
power of distinguishing by preferment those of
his clergy who might appear to deserve it, but he
was not permitted even to select those whom he
might deem the most suitable for the pulpit of
his own cathedral. Nevertheless, it must be ac-
knowledged, that his authority over the chaplains
does not appear to have been more circumscribed
than that of Bishops in England over the beneficed
clergy.



HISTORY OF CHRISTIANITY



CHAP.
I.

Arrange-
ment of
tlie Arch-
deacon-



Attention
to the
Calcutta
Schools,



4. But the Bishop did not wait for this despatch
from home before he commenced the duties assigned
him by the Supreme Government. The arduous
nature of those duties may be imagined^ from the
state of European society^ from the character of
the natives and their superstitions^ disclosed in the
foregoing pages, and also from the immense extent
of his diocese. Nothing could well be more bewil-
dering than the prospect presented to him by the
whole state of religion in all its divisions and varie-
ties. He saw spread out before him a field of
labour, which he afterwards aptly compared to a
vast extent of seemingly impenetrable jungle, of
w^hich he was to commence the clearing almost
without human aid : but in reliance on Divine help
he lost no time in entering on the w^ork.

His attention was first given to the regulation
of the three archdeaconries. Having nominated
fit persons in each to act as registrars, and sent to
them the necessary ofiicial documents, he next gave
institution to the archdeacons, those of Madras and
Bombay by connnission, in consequence of their
distance from Calcutta. He assigned to each his
place and duties in the principal church of his pre-
sidency. He also framed such regulations as he
thought calculated to facilitate the transactions of
business at Madras and Bombay, and directed that
all official correspondence between the clergy and
their respective governments should pass through
the hands of the archdeacons.

5. Another of the earliest objects of his care was
the state of the schools — and first of the free
school at Calcutta, an institution of noble capacities,
but at that time in lamentable need of reform. He
assumed the office of patron, established monthly
meetings of its governors, placed it under the super-
intendence of a master from the National Society in
England, and projected annual examinations of the



Knowlege
Society —
Calcutta
Commit-



IN INDIA : BOOK XIII. i

scholars^ at which he presided in person, and dis-
tributed the prizes with his own hand. Many of
the pubhc functionaries attended on those occa-
sions at the Bishop's request, and encouraged both
teachers and scholars by their presence. Under
these regulations the establishment was speedily
brought to such a state of credit and efficiency, that
a native was induced to express his approbation of
it in the form of a donation of five hundred rupees.
The orphan school, also, for seven hundred East
Indian children, was another institution which expe-
rienced the benefit of the Bishop's early j)rotection,
and he undertook, at the Governor-General's request,
to superintend it in the character of visitor.

6. Seeing the great want of religious books of all Christian
descriptions for the European and Anglo-Indian
communities, as well as of elementary books for
the various schools, the Bishop proposed the for- ^e
mation of a Diocesan Committee of the Christian
Knowledge Society, with a view to supply these
necessities. His design had some impediments to
encounter at the outset, from those chiefly who with
little or no knowledge of the Society, were disin-
clined to any new religious movement. To meet
this, the old difficulty, he printed and circulated a
short account of the Society, which with some other
cautious preliminaries, proved so successful, that he
had the satisfaction of seeing a Committee in May
1815, which, under his prudent management, went
on so prosperously, that toward the end of the fol-
lowing month, June 26th, he wrote, '' We are re-
mitting to London about £650, two-thirds of which
will be returned in books, one-third being the pro-
perty of the parent Society. Our immediate ob-
ject when we receive our books, will be to supply
barracks, cantonments, schools, andhospitals, with
bibles, prayer-books, and useful tracts. We have
a prodigious field before us, and may accomplish



8 HISTORY OF CHRISTIANITY

CHAP, incalculable good without looking beyond the Euro-
^' peans."^

Madras 7. A copj of the resolutious of this committee

Commit- j^g^y^j^g i^ggjj forwarded to the Archdeacons of Ma-
dras and Bombay^ with a request to them to take
such measures as they might deem expedient to
form a district committee in their respective arch-
deaconries^ the archdeacon of Bombay advised^ from
some special local causes, a deferring of any pro-
ceedings, till the Bishop's arrival on his visitation,
which was then contemplated with much desire.
But in Madras he had the satisfaction of finding his
call promptly responded to. A meeting called by
the archdeacon at his own house, was attended by
the chief judge, and others of the most distinguished
members of the Presidency, and though some ad-
dress was here found necessary to meet similar
objections as in Calcutta, a somewhat numerous
and most respectable committee was instantly
formed.

Bishop's 8. The immediate object of these committees,

with that subsequently formed at Bombay, was the
supply of the spiritual wants of the European and
East Indian population, by a free cheap circulation
of the Bible, Prayer-books, and Tracts of the Chris-
tian Knowledge Society. But the Bishop was by
no means insensible to the claims of the natives
also on his Episcopal care. According to his own
statement to one of the chaplains from whom the
author received it, he had come out under such
special, earnest recommendation from the highest
civil authorities, in consequence of certain alarms,
w^hich had been vented, even in Parliament, not to
implicate himself with missionaries, or meddle at
all with direct missionary work ; that it was in-
cumljent upon him to use the utmost caution in

' Life of Bishop Middleton, vol. i. p. 150.



views on
the con
version
of the
natives.



IN INDIA : BOOK XIII.

whatever he did bearing on the natives. He soon,
however, saw sufficient cause to be fully satisfied of
the futility of pretensions of danger from any en-
deavour of ordinary prudence to enlighten them on
the subject of religion. ^^ As to alarm among the
natives/' he remarked at this period, '' I am not
aware that there can be any ground for it, unless
the natives objected to reform or improvement
among our own people. All whom I converse with
hold a different language. They seem almost as
much shocked with the little attention paid by us
to such subjects as vfe do."^ While, therefore, he
deemed it right for the present, so far to defer to
the wishes of persons in authority in India and at
home, as to abstain from all ostensible co-operation
in the missionary work, he could not sympathise
in fears that he knew to be so groundless. With
regard to the conversion of the natives, he declared
that he differed exceedingly from those who asserted
that the case was desperate, while he pronounced
it to be, on the other hand, full of blessed hope.
'' India," he remarked, '' is not the scene of British
glory : we have, indeed, been successful in war and
skilful in finance ; we have made and are making
the most of it ; but all these things will make a sad
figure in the page of the Christian historian ; we
have done nothing for Christianity, and have acted
as if we were ashamed of it ; and with some, I be-
hove, that this is really the case. This feeling I
am labouring to subvert, and whoever subverts it
effectually will have laid the foundation on which
alone missionaries can build. If every Englishman
in India really wished to disseminate Christianity,
recommending it both by his example and his influ-
ence, or even not checking it, it would find its way ;
the people are in a state of great indifterence about



Lifr. of Bishop Middleton, Vol. i. p. ir>2.



10 HISTORY OF CHRISTIANITY

CHAP, their own religion^ and they would gradually adopt
^' any other which was visibly and uniformly better ;
but such is not before them." In a sermon preached
about this time, on a thanksgiving- day for peace,
the Bishop took occasion to press the subject on
the attention of his auditors. After laying down
that God has not conferred empires upon nations
merely to gratify their avarice or ambition, and re-
marking on the field which was open before them
to Christian benevolence, he exclaimed, ^^ Who of
us has not been struck with horror at the exhibi-
tion of the last few days ?^ What Christian has not



Online LibraryJames HoughThe history of Christianity in India : from the commencement of the Christian era : second portion: comprising the history of protestant missions, 1706-1816 / by James Hough (Volume 5) → online text (page 4 of 54)