James Hough.

The history of Christianity in India : from the commencement of the Christian era : second portion: comprising the history of protestant missions, 1706-1816 / by James Hough (Volume 5) online

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goes on to remark, ^^ might be accounted for in a
great degree, from the bad conduct of the late
chaplain, which must have driven many from church,
whom it would be very difficult for the most popu-
lar preacher to bring back again, from the want of
a decent place in which to meet, it being very un-
likely that any respectable families would attend,
to be crowded up promiscuously, in a room not
laro-e enouuii to accommodate half the soldiers ;
and from the too prevalent practice of sending young-
officers to India, whose religious principles can be
expected, at the least, only to be loose and un-
formed."' These painful circumstances had a de-
pressive influence on the Bishop's spirits. '^What
I saw," says his lordship, ''both at and after church,
made me low and sad, to which perhaps the op-
pressive heat of the day greatly contributed."
Before he left this place, he succeeded in re-estab-
lishing the school, and in o])taining from the colonel
aud several of the olficers, a promise that they


CHAP, would give their patronage and support to the chap-
^^^^^' lain^ Mr Northmore^ in his efforts to instruct the
people, and would see that the lending library
should be regularly distributed.

This is a correct description of the state in which
the Bishop found religion among the Europeans in
the upper provinces generally. He quitted Dina-
pore, August 25, and on the evening of the next
day reached Buxar. Finding in this garrison a
goodly company of European soldiers, he regretted
that he could not remain over Sunday ; but he
preached on the following morning to a crowded
congregation, and was highly gratified with their
apparent devotion. '^ All w^ere very attentive," he
wrote, '^ and the old soldiers, most of whom had
Prayer-books, joined in the responses with a regu-
larity, and exactness, and a zeaUvhich much affected
me, and shewed how much, in their situation, they
felt the blessing of an opportunity of public worship."
Here the Churct Missionary Society had a school
and small native congregation, under a catechist,
Kurreem Messeeh (mercy of Christ), which was es-
tablished by Mr Corrie on a previous visit. The
scholars were of all ages, several boys, and some
girls, but the greater part were women. The
Bishop heard them read in the Hindoostanee Testa-
ment, and examined them in Watt's Catechism.
They also repeated to him the Creed, the Lord's
Prayer, and the Ten Commandments, giving a sort
of exposition of each. ^^ I was extremely pleased
and surprised," he remarked, ^^ at all I witnessed
here ; and heartily wished for some of the enemies
of missions to see, in this small and detached in-
stance, the good Avhich, in a quiet and unpretending
way, is really doing among these poor people."

In the afternoon of the same day, August 27, he
left Buxar ; arrived next day at Ghazepoor, and
preached on Sunday to the European residents, in


a large thatched buildmg, which had been a riding-
school^ but was now in so ruinous a state as to be
unsafe to meet in. Here he remained till the 31st,
refreshed with the intelligent society of his host,
Mr C. Bayley, and a friend, Mr Melville, from whom
he obtained much information about the inhabit-
ants and state of the country. The prevalence of
suttees in the neighbourhood distressed him exceed-
ingly, and he resolved, should he live to return to
Calcutta, to use his utmost influence to have the
barbarous custom abolished.^

11. On the 3d of September the Bishop arrived chm-ch
at Benares, a station of the Church Missionary
Society, occupied by the Rev. Thomas Morris, who "
had a small chapel and native congregation. A

chaplain also was stationed here, the Rev.

Frazer, and his lordship at last found a Company's
Church, ready for consecration. On Sunday, the
5th, he attended the mission chapel, at six in the
morning, when Mr Morris read the service and
preached in Hindoostanee, and the Bishop pro-
nounced the blessing in that language, for the first
time. On the same day he held a confirmation,
and consecrated the Company's church. In the
evening he preached in English to a crowded con-
gregation, and administered the Lord's Supper to
about sixty communicants, fourteen of whom were

and school
at I5c-

^ The Bisliop mentions the following circumstance, which
occurred not far from Ghazepoor, to prove how little a female
death is cared for by the natives : — " A dispute liad arisen be-
tween two freeholders, about some land, when one of tlie con-
tending parties, an old man, more than seventy, for the sole
purpose of being revenged on his antagonist, brought his wife,
of the same age as himself, to the field in «]uestion, and with
the assistance of his children and relatives, forced her into a
little straw hut they had built for the purpose, and l)urned her
and the hut together, that her death, as lie imugined, miglit
bring a curse upon the soil, and her spirit haunt it after death, to
prevent for ever his antagonist deriving any advantage from it.''


CHAP, native Christians just confirmed, with respect to
^^^' whom he officiated in Hindoostanee. Next day he
consecrated the burial ground, and examined the
school endowed by Jay Narain, which we have
already described/ He expressed himself highly
pleased with the pertinent and intelligent replies
of most of the pupils to his inquiries, and remarked,
that the scene was indeed a very interesting one.
The school was originally organized by Mr Corrie,
who was present on this occasion ; and the Bishop,
after describing the company assembled to witness
the examination, adds — '' One, however, of the
most pleasing sights of all, to me, was the calm and
intense pleasure visible on Archdeacon Corrie's
face, whose efforts and influence had first brought
this establishment into activity, and who now, after
an interval of several years, was witnessing, mth
mingled emotions of joy and gratitude, its useful-
ness and prosperity."

The school now contained about one hundred and
forty boys, with three teachers — English, Persian,
and Hindoostanee — the whole being under the in-
spection of Mr John Adlington. The Bishop ^vas
glad to learn, in answer to his inquiries, that none
of the boys' parents objected to their reading the
New Testament ; that the boys themselves were
very fond of it, and understood it as well, if not
better than the majority of English scholars of their
own age. Nevertheless, the school was not suffi-
ciently of a missionary character to satisfy him,
and he could not but feel apprehensive that many
of the boys would settle down into a compromise
between the two creeds, allowing that Christianity
was best for the English, and Hindooism for them-
selves. He remarks — "' On mentioning these ap-

Chap. vi. sees. .39-41


prehensions to Mr Morris and Mr Frazer, the mis-
sionary and chaplain ; they observed that the same
danger had been foreseen by Mr Macleod, and that
in consequence of his representations^ they had left
off teaching the boys the Creed and the Ten Com-
mandments, not wishing too early to expose them
to a conflict with themselves, but choosing rather
that the light should break in upon them by degrees,
when they were better able to bear it. They said,
however, that they had every reason to believe
that all the older and many of the younger boys,
began already to despise idolatry, which they attri-
buted, partly to the comparison which the boys
learn to make between their system of worship and
ours, and partly to the enlargement of mind which
general knowledge and the pure morality of the
Gospel have a tendency to produce.

12. After spending a week at this celebrated Mission at
seat of Hindoo learning, the Bishop pursued his way ^'^""^'■•
to Chunar, where he arrived September 10th. This
was the station of the indefatigable missionary, Mr
Bowley, with whom Mr Greenwood was associated.
Next day, Saturday, the Bishop confirmed above
one hundred persons at the church, a large and re-
spectable building. The men and elder women who
offered themselves, had been Mr Corrie's converts
during his residence here. He was now i)resent,
and gave the following interesting account of the
Bishop's proceedings : —

'' At Chunar, I may say, we beheld more than
had previously been told us. On Saturday morn-
ing, the 11th of September, fifty- seven of Mr
Bowley's congregation were admitted to Confirma-
tion, together with nearly the same number of

^^ Next day, a vStill greater number of native
Christians connuunicMt(Ml^ togetlier witli a lai'go
inimber of Europeans. Sevrral g^'utU'iiicn cauie


xvni" ^P ^^'^^ Benares, and some officers from Sultan-

' pore. Among them were Mr Fraser, Mr Morris,

and Mr Adlington : these, with Mr Greenwood and
Mr Bowley, made a greater number of clerici than
are to be met with in one place, on this side of
India, out of Calcutta. The whole had the appear-
ance of a jubilee ; and the fine church, which the
Bishop calls handsome and appropriate, was entirely
filled. This service was in the morning : the heat
was not oppressive, though the service continued
from seven till ten o'clock. The Bishop preached,
in English, on the parable of the good Samaritan ;
and here, as at Secrole, ministered to the native
Christians in Hindoostanee. I had here the plea-
sure to assist in administering the Lord's Supper ;
and with no ordinary feelings — partaking, I trust,
of gratitude to the God of all grace — I beheld the
blessed fruits of the Gospel, in the improved reli-
gious state of so many, both European and native
Christians, in the place where I entered on my
ministry in this country."

^'^ In the afternoon, worship was held in Hindoo-
stanee, when Mr Morris read prayers, and Mr
Bowley preached. One aisle was filled with native
Christians, the other by natives ; among whom,
towards the upper end, were twenty or thirty
respectable Hindoo inhabitants of Chunar, several
of whom seem on the very threshold of the king-
dom of God. The middle of the church was occu-
pied by Europeans."

'^ In the evening, there was a second English
service, when Mr Greenwood preached."

Mr Bowley remarked, that the morning service
was nearly four hours long ; and that, from the
active part which the Bishop took, it seemed as if
he could never be tired while thus engaged. Then,
after describing the other services, he concludes : —
"" Thus lias his lordship de\'oted seven hours of


this day to public worship. May his example, and
his zeal for the extension of Christ's kingdom, pro-
voke very many."

13. Instead of halting here a few days to rest, Aiiaim-
he pursued his journey on Monday, and with great p'lo^cds
difficulty reached Allahabad on the afternoon of i^yi^nHi-
Sunday the 19th, when it was too late to make
any arrangements for divine service. On the fol-
lowing Sunday, he preached, in a place fitted up
for the purpose, to a good congregation. He then
confirmed about twenty candidates, and afterwards
administered the Lord's Supper to nearly eighty
communicants. The English residents expressed
a great desire for a chaplain ; and as there was no
hope of one being at his disposal for some time,
the Bishop promised, if possible, that they should
have one of the Church missionaries.

As he intended to proceed the remaining part
of his way by land, he dismissed his boats, and
directed preparations to be made for his journey.
Owing to the difficulty of obtaining what he re-
quired, he was detained here until the morning of
the 30th, when he started, with a respectable cara-
van, well furnished with conveniences for so long
a land journey. He was still accompanied by Arch-
deacon Corrie, and also by Mr Lushington ; and
after suffering no httle inconvenience from the
heavy rains which fell, arrived at the next Euro-
pean station, Cawnpore, October 9th. Here he ^^^"^^'"-
found a chaplain without a church ; but divnic
service was regularly performed in a thatched
bungalow. The Bishop next morning, Sunday,
confirmed above eighty candidates, and afteiwards
administered the Lord's Supper to about the same
number of communicants ; and in the evening he

Here he remained over tlu^ following .Sunday
for the convenience of his caravan, and to make


CHAP, what arrangements were required for the prosecu-

" ; tion of his journey. As Cawnpore was a large

military cantonment^ he was enabled usefully to
employ his time. He visited the regimental school^
which was well conducted : hut the pubHc town-
school^ through the incompetency or neglect of the
master, was so ill managed as to be almost useless,
though liberally supported by Government, and
under the superintendence of a committee. There
were excellent school-rooms and a commodious
house, but few scholars, either native or European.
At the Bishop's suggestion. Archdeacon Corrie
undertook to put the master upon a better plan
than he had hitherto adopted ; and his Lordship
wrote out a list of books, which he recommended
the Committee to procure, — suggesting, at the same
time, some of the simplest elements of Bell's system
for their consideration. The chaplain being dis-
abled by sickness. Archdeacon Corrie remained here
for the purpose of supplying for a time the spiritual
necessities of the place.
Kingdom 14. On Monday the 18th, the Bishop quitted
Cawnpore with a strong guard of sepoys, in conse-
quence of the turbulent state of the kingdom of
Oude, through which he had to pass. In four days
he reached Lucknow, the capital of Oude, into
which city he was conducted by a respectable
escort, which the British resident at the court of
Oude, Mr Ricketts, had sent to meet him. There
was neither church nor chaplain at this place ; but
the resident had read the public service regularly
every Sunday in a large room in his own house.
Here the Bishop preached on Sunday, and also in
a room at the cantonments fitted up for the pur-
pose. In the course of the ensuing week, he was
variously employed for the benefit of the Europeans,
visited the King of Oude, and gathered information
about whatever interested him in the place. On

of Oude.


Saturday, he lield a confirmation ; and, on Sunday,
administered the Lord's Supper, preaching on both
occasions. He was detained here ten days, having
kindly promised to officiate at the marriage of the
resident, which was fixed for November 1st. After
the service, in the afternoon of the same day, he
proceeded on his journey, but without his vahied
companions, the Archdeacon and Mr Lushington,
who were both too unwell to accompany him any
further. At the first stage, the Bishop was himself
taken so seriously ill as to deliberate whether to
return to Lucknow, having no medical attendant
or any European companion with him. He finally
resolved, however, to move forward as well as he
could, though his indisposition continued to increase
for several days. At length he obtained relief ; and,
on the lOtli of November, when they arrived at
Shahjehanpoor, he seems to have recovered his
wonted health and spirits.

15. Shahjehanpoor is the first European station Enters the
in the Company's territories beyond the frontier of pPP^/
the kingdom of Oude. But the Bishop) did not
remain here longer than to refresh himself and to
give his caravan time to rest. He met the Euro-
pean residents, who expressed to him great desire
to have a chajilain, having long regretted, they
said, the want of public worship. Being unable to
comply with their request, he reconnnended them
to follow the example of the resident at Lucknow,
by meeting constantly at some convenient place on
Sunday, and reading a selection, which lie pointed
out, from the Church Prayers, the Psalms and
Lessons of the day, and a printed sermon.

He arrived at Bareilly on Sunday the l-lth of
November, in time to preach to a numerous con-
gregation of the civil and military olHcers, with
their families, as well as a good many Christians
of humbler rank. He concluded with the admini-





stration of the I^ord's Supper to about sixteen com-
municants. '^ After breakfist on Monday morn-
ing/' he says^ ^^ I had a number of children brought
to be baptized^ and three couples came to be mar-
ried. One of the females was a native, who had
engaged to be married to an English soldier, and
who was a candidate for baptism. Her intended hus-
band had evidently taken much pains to instruct
her in her new belief. I explained to her, as far as
our means of communication went, her obligations,
both baptismal and matrimonial. For the former
she seemed very anxious ; and, to judge from her
extreme seriousness during the ceremony, and the
trembling earnestness with which, both in English
and Hindoostanee, she made the promises, I trust
it was not performed in vain."

16. In prosecution of his journey, having deter-
mined to take Almorah in his way, though he knew
that it would lead him through a tract of country
so pestilential that, during many months of the year,
even the monkeys, and every living animal fled
from it instinctively, he left Bareilly, and arrived
at Shahee on the 18th, a small village, where he
rested for the night. Here he met with Mr Boul-
derson, the collector of the district, who offered
him the loan of a sure-footed pony, and proposed
to accompany him to the foot of the Himalaya
mountains. With this intelligent and agreeable
companion, he reached the foot of the mountains
on the 22d, where he found suitable equipments
provided by Mr Adams of Almorah. Next day
they began the ascent. Mr Boulderson accom-
panied him another day's journey, and was then,
on the 24 th, compelled to leave him to pursue his
way alone ; and in three days he reached the small
town of Almorah, after a toilsome journey up the
hills. Next day, November 28th, he preached and
administered the Lord's Supper to a respectable


congregation, being, as he remarked, the first Pro-
testant minister who had officiated '' in this cele-
brated and remote region." Here he met with Sir
Robert Colquhoun, the commandant of the local
troops of the Kemaoon, with whom, and his lady,
he passed an agreeable day, and obtained from
several gentlemen much useful information respect-
ing the country, the manners and customs of its
inhabitants, with its productions and resources.

On the 2d of December he resumed his journey,
accompanied by Sir Robert and Lady Colquhoun,
who travelled with him till the evening of the Gth,
when they parted. Advancing through a wild,
mountainous country, he reached Moradabad on
the 11th, the next European station. Next day,
Sunday, he read prayers and preached in a com-
modious room in the collector s house, administered
the Lord's Supper, and baptized three children.
Afterwards, he says, that he had ^^ an interesting
visit from a fine, grey-bearded old man, who said
that he had been converted by Mr Corrie to Chris-
tianity, at Agra ; that his name' was Noor Musseeh
(Light of the Messiah) ; that he was come to ask
for books, if I had any to spare for him." He then
introduced his son, whom he had been catechizing,
and who now expressed a wish for baptism. As,
however, the bishop could not then examine him
sufficiently to judge of his qualification for admis-
sion into the Christian Church, he proposed that
the young man should accompany him to Mcerut
for the purpose. He also interceded witli the col-
lector for the protection of Noor Musseeh against
his enemies, some bigoted Mussulmans, who, on
account of his religion, tried hard to have him re-
moved from a small office which he held. '' This,"
said Heber, '^ is the third or fourth Christian I have
heard of scattered up and down in tlie mountain
provinces ; but it is likely, which indeed Mr Corrie


thinks is the case^ that there are many more be-
lievers in Christy who dare not^ by owning them-
selves such, take the risk of incurring the ill-will
of their neighbours."
Meerut. 17. He left Moradabad December 13th, and

arrived at Meerut on the 18th ; the chaplain, Eev.
Henry Fisher, with his two sons, having gone out
to Mow, a short day's journey, to meet him. Here
the Bishop was gratified to find a large and hand-
some church, capable of accommodating at least
three thousand hearers. ^^ It is remarkable," he
wrote, " that one of the earliest, the largest, and
the handsomest churches in India, having in it one
of the best organs, should be found in so remote a
situation, and in sight of the Himalaya mountains."
But what pleased him more was, that this church
was well filled and well served, Mr Fisher being
indefatigable in the discharge of his duties ; and,
besides the Sunday services, preaching twice in the
week. Besides the British troops, he had also a
small flock of native Christians, to whom he
preached on Thursday ; and a school for natives in
the town, which the Bishop visited, and remarked,
'^ The boys are taught reading and writing, in
Hindoostanee and Persian, and receive, such of them
as desire it, which they all do, instruction in the

On Sunday he consecrated the church. ^^ The
congregation,'' he says, ^Svas very numerous and
attentive, the singing good, and the appearance of
everything highly honourable, both to the chaplain
and military officers of this important station.'' On
the following Friday he held a confirmation, which
Mr Fisher thus described — ''The whole of the
native Christians, whether resident in Meerut or
within convenient reach of us, came forward with
peculiar meekness and simplicity of deportment ;
and, as I venture to believe too, with consistent


warmth of feeling, and a just understanding of the
nature and benefit of this ancient and holy rite ;
and received the imposition of hands. Two hundred
and fifty-five Christians (Europeans and natives
included) were publicly confirmed in the church ; a
considerable portion of whom were converts to the
faith as it is in Jesus — many from Hindoo idola-
tries and Mahomedan infidelity — others from the
apathy and ignorance of a nominal profession,
worse than heathenism — all, I have much reason •
to hope, seriously in earnest to give themselves to
God.'' They were in fact converted under his own
ministry. '' Surely this is a greater work,'' re-
marks the Bishop, ^^ than could have been expected
in so remote a part of India, and where no English-
man had set his foot, till the conquests made by
Lord Lake and Sir Arthur Wellesley.''

Saturday being Christmas day, he preached and
administered the Lord's Supper to above two hun-
dred communicants. Next day he preached again ;
and after evening service confirmed several candi-
dates, who were not able to attend on the former
occasion. He was indefatigable during the ten
days he spent here, and it is hard to say wliether
himself or the English residents were the better
pleased with his visit. After his departure, Mr
Fisher gave the following account of the effect he
produced : — '' Our dear and respected Bishop has
left an impression behind him, which, I think, will
not soon or easily pass away. Proofs, indeed, are
continually before me, that the savour of his truly
apostolic visit dwells generally in allectionate and
grateful remembrance. He interested himself about
every minute circumstance of this beloved vineyard
— accompanied me to my native congregation —
visited my native school — and saw and conversed
with many of the Christians who were introduced
to him, with the afilibility and kindness which we
VOL. V. N n


CHAP, had been prepared to expect. We all still cherish

-5^^' the humble hope that the blessing of God Almighty

was abundantly with him, and that the peace of

God which he bequeathed us through Jesus Christy

remains upon our souls."

Delhi. He left Meerut on the 28th, and reached Delhi

next day, the resident, Mr Elliott, meeting him on
the northern bank of the river, and escorting him
to the city with oriental pomp. Though the
humble mind of Heber was always more at ease,
and therefore much happier, without such parade ;
yet he knew it to be the usual mark of respect in
the country, and, therefore, quietly submitted to it.
Here he was joined by his friend, Mr Lushington,
and also by Mr Fisher, who had followed him from

Online LibraryJames HoughThe history of Christianity in India : from the commencement of the Christian era : second portion: comprising the history of protestant missions, 1706-1816 / by James Hough (Volume 5) → online text (page 46 of 54)