James Hough.

The history of Christianity in India : from the commencement of the Christian era : second portion: comprising the history of protestant missions, 1706-1816 / by James Hough (Volume 5) online

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CHAP, aging committee^ consisting of fourteen members,
five of whom were to be the trustees, and the re-
mainder chosen from among the shareholders. The
plan of the Edinburgh academy was to be pursued
as nearly as the circumstances of the country would
admit. The Rev. J. Macqueen, from the College
of Edinburgh, was appointed head-master, with a
second and third master under him. To provide
for the educational department, it was proposed to
raise a sum of money by transferable shares, which
were to bear interest arising from dividends of profit.
Subscriptions were collected for the erection of pro-
per buildings and the establishment of a library.^

Unexceptionable as this institution was in the
opinion of all right-minded men, it did not escape
the opposition of those who were jealous of the
growing influence of the Bishop and his clergy, and
of all their plans for the advancement of Christi-
anity in India. But, unmoved by the virulenc eor
sarcasm of several correspondents in the Calcutta
papers, the Bishop persevered, and was constant in
his attendance at the meetings of the Committee,
and indefatigable in promoting the efficiency of the

form, in every respect, to the doctrines, usages, and forms of
the United Church of England and Ireland ; and members of
the college only to be received as resident students within its
walls, and these to be subject to such rules of discipline, and to
Buch an extent, as may be hereafter determined.

Other regulations follow, relative to the government of the
college, the funds, and the nomination of students. — Memoirs of
Bishop Corrie, pp. 450-453. Missionary Register 1830, p. 102.

^ Missionary Register 1831, p. 35. Memoirs of Bishop
Corrie, pp. 478, 479. India Gazette, June 21. 1830. On
the circulation of the Archdeacon's '^ Proposal," 24,000 rupees
were collected for his projected college, and 30,000 rupees were
placed in his hands for the same purpose, by a gentleman in
England. These sums were now appropriated to the High
School, — {India Gazette, June 23. 1830.)



15. The Bishop estabhshed an Infant School, |^{f^"^\gg.
the first which was known in Calcutta, and the tabiished
whole expense of which was borne by him till his ^^^j^^^^^^^'

death. by the

An account has already been given of the Free ^^^^^p-
School at Calcutta, and we have seen the great
improvement in its management which Bishop
Middleton effected.^ This was an institution of
too much importance to fail specially to interest
Bishop Turner. The accommodation for divine
worship being insufficient, he proposed to erect a Erection
new chapel in the grounds ; and, on the 13th of cha^peiTt
April 1830, Lady WiUiam Bentinck laid the first t^he^Free
stone, in presence of the Members of Council, the
Governors of the Institution, and a numerous and
respectable assemblage of ladies and gentlemen.
The Bishop preached on the occasion from Ps.
exxvii. ver. 1, '' Except the Lord build the house,
they labour in vain that build it." ^ In the annual
report of the School, which the Bishop himself
consented to draw up, he thus explained the neces-
sity for this chapel, and the accommodation it
would afford to others residing in the neighbour-
hood : — '' Amongst the events of the year, a pro-
minent place must be given to the measure of
erecting a church on the school premises. The
Governors were unanimously of opinion, that in
thus supplying the want, which has long been felt,
of the means of stated attendance on the public
services of the Church, they were consulting the
highest interests of the individuals entrusted to
their superintendence, and thereby acquitting them-
selves most effectually of the responsibility attach-
ing to their charge. Nor has the advantage of the

' Vol. iv. Book ix. chap. 1. sees. 5, 14; Book mu. chap, i,
sees. 5, 22.

3 Bengal Hurkaru, April 14. 1830.


CHAP, community at large been lost sight of : to a con-

L siderable portion of the residents in that part of

the town, a facility will be afforded for regTilar
attendance on the public ordinances of the Church,
such as these have never before enjoyed ; and there
can be no doubt they will derive much satisfaction
and comfort from the arrangement." ^

The remainder of the report sufficiently evinces
the lively interest he took in this establishment,
which contained at this time two hundred and
nine boys, and one hundred and eighteen girls.

The graduated system of Christian instruction,
of which the Bishop laid the foundation, and which
was intended by means of the Infant School, the
Free School, the High School, and Bishop's College,
to provide for the intellectual wants of infancy,
childhood, youth, and opening manhood, would
have left nothing hardly in this respect for the
Christian community to require. But his views
were not confined merely to that community : he
thought he saw in the state of things which had
already been effected, an opening through which
Christian instruction might be successfully imparted
to the natives ; and as he was convinced that no
other description of education would ever render
them, what it is desirable they should become,
namely, well-principled, well-informed, and well-
conducted members of society, he was therefore
determined to avail himself of every favourable
opportunity that offered for directing their views
to this object. He visited the different native
schools and colleges, in which so much progress
has been made in the acquisition of European
literature and science.
Hindoo^** 16. To the Hindoo College he paid several visits.


^ Bengal Hurkaru, July 17. 1830.


in company with the Governor-General and his lady,
the Members of Comicil, and other distinguished
individuals, and examined the students in the dif-
ferent branches of natural and experimental philo-
sophy, geography, history, and other departments
of general knowledge, in which they acquitted them-
selves with great credit. Not long after, several
of the students waited upon him, and testified the
strongest disposition to cultivate the most cordial
communication with him. He had purchased, at
a considerable expense, various astronomical and
mathematical instruments, for the purpose of assist-
ing them in the prosecution of their studies in the
higher branches of those sciences ; and he was in
hopes that the minds of the native youth, who
might thus by degrees collect themselves around
him, would, in the progress of these pursuits, be
led '^to look through nature up to nature's God,"
that enlightened men might one day issue from
these institutions to dispel the darkness in which
their countrymen had been for ages involved. But
these hopes were little likely to be realized under
the present system. The Hindoo College, espe-
cially, was under the patronage of Government,
religion was excluded from the course of instruc-
tion, and the evil consequences to the British inte-
rests of such a mistaken policy, which Bishop
Middleton had anticipated,^ were already beginning The Arch-
to appear. Archdeacon Corrie had watched the shewrthe
progress of the system from the beginning ; and, evil effects
in 1831, he thus described the result: — ''The lion w*i?h-
mode proceeded on has succeeded in detaching ^^^ reii-
many of the Hindoo youths from religion of every ^'°°'
kind. In sentiment this has appeared for three or
four years : it now begins to appear in practice."

" Book xiii. chap. 1. sec. 49.


Chap. '^ Mr H . D. became so convinced of the need of
1 morals to the Hindoo College system^ that he pro-
posed a moral philosophy lecture^ and D. the lec-
turer. W. B.^ who is one of the Committee of
Pubhc Education^ let his colleagues, who had con-
sented, know the character of D., and it was agreed
to be best to postpone the appointment ; and now
D. is dismissed from the Hindoo College on a charge,
by respectable Hindoos, of atheism. He stoutly
denied the charge ; but they said, ' We see your
works.' It is evident the English I have named
are at their wits' end. The young men say they
will no longer be guilty of the hypocrisy of up-
holding Hindooism. Christianity they have been
warned against as an English prejudice ; and they
seem to hate Christianity and England heartily."
'^ Some of the youths are gone to other schools.
Upwards of fifty have left the Hindoo College : six
are entered at the High School." Speaking of the
wealthiest class, the Archdeacon adds : — ^^ They
seem to a man opposed to every thing English.
Not a movement in favour of religion in any form
is heard of This has arisen, in a degree, from the
part R. and his friends" (wealthy East Indians,
who, for some time past, had been clamouring for
political privileges) ^^ have been and are playing.
They complain as if they had lost mighty privi-
leges once in possession, and claim to be employed
by the State as a matter of right. This, I think,
has arisen from Government having withheld all
patronage from plans of Christian imiDrovement.
The little they are advanced above former days is
entirely through their own exertions." '^ With them
the enlightened Hindoos seem disposed to make
common cause. They can effect nothing at present ;
but the im2oolicy, not to say the sin, of withholding
Christian instruction, is now beginning to appear." *

* Memoirs of Bishop Corrie, pp. 494, 495.


Such a system of anti-christian policy Bishop
Turner could not countenance, how desirous soever
to promote the mental improvement of the people.
Every right-minded Christian had long foreseen
the consequences here detailed, but Uttle or nothing
has since been done by the Indian Government to
correct their fatal mistake.

17. Besides attending to the various public District
charities in Calcutta, the Bishop was the means of go^let^^^^®
establishing a Society, similar to the ^^ Friend-in- formed,
need Society" at Madras, already described.^ Of
late years, European paupers had increased to such
an extent in Calcutta, that not only had the chari-
table funds in the hands of the Select Vestry at
the cathedral become inadequate to meet the
exigencies of the distressed, but frauds had been
practised with such facility on the charitable part
of the community, that it became necessary to
provide for the fuller investigation of the cases of
applicants for relief Frauds the most gross were
practised on the public vnth such facility, that
impostors, speculating on the benevolence of the
community, and making, as it were, mendicity a
trade, found no difficulty in procuring from money-
lenders advances, proportionate in amount to the
probability of success which the acquisition of
certain leading names to their applications for relief
justified a reasonable expectation of ultimately
obtaining. To remedy these evils, a ^^ District
Charitable Society " was formed, at the Bishop's
suggestion, and carried on by a central committee of
superintendence, aided by subordinate committees,
corresponding in number with the ecclesiastical dis-
tricts into which Calcutta was divided. The subor-
dinate committees were charged with the distribu-

Vol. iv. pp. 234-236.




south —
Madras —

Visits the

tion of the funds ; the Committee of Superintendence
determined the principle on which the distribution
was to be made^ and disposed of cases specially re-
ferred to them for consideration.^

On the 20th of June 1830, the Bishop left Cal-
cutta, in company with the Archdeacon and others,
on a visitation of the upper provinces. They pro-
ceeded, however, only as far as Chunar, circum-
stances having induced the Bishop to defer his
visitation of l3elhi and the intermediate stations.
He therefore returned to the presidency by the
latter end of September.^ No record is left of his
proceedings on this journey.

18. A few days after his return, he sailed from
Calcutta on his visitation of the other presidencies,
and arrived at Madras October 15th, where he was
received with the usual honours. On the follow-
ing Sunday, he preached at St George's Church,
from Isaiah lii. 7. On the 19th, he confirmed
the candidates residing within the districts of St
George's ; and in order to meet the convenience of
candidates in other districts, he held a confirma-
tion in every church at Madras. On each occa-
sion he deUvered an impressive and appropriate
address. After the confirmation in Black Town
Chapel, he examined the male and female orphan
asylums, and expressed himself highly pleased with
their condition. He also complied with the msh
of the directors, to preach in behalf of these valu-
able institutions.^

19. Besides his numerous and laborious official
engagements, he inspected the different mission
establishments connected with the church. That

^ Memoirs of Bishop Corrie, pp. 475, 476.
March 12. 1830.

^ Memoirs of Bishop Corrie, p. 481.

India Gazette,

Calcutta Government Gazette, Nov. 1. Hurkaru, Nov. 2.


of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge
he fully appreciated. '^ The Vepery Mission In-
stitution/' he remarked^ ^^ so long an object of
interest to the friends of the Church in India,
assumes now an increasing importance. The esta-
bUshment of the Heber scholarship, in addition to
what had been previously accomplished, is a rea-
sonable cause of satisfaction. I look forward with
confident expectation to the probable results of
this measure."^ He regarded it as a nursery for
Bishop's College, and expressed a hope that it
would ere long send forth useful labourers into the
missionary vineyard.

20. With the Church Missionary Society's esta- Also the
blishment he w^as equally satisfied. The children ^g'tibiis^h-
from all the Society's native schools in the neigh- ment.
bourhood, amounting to three hundred boys and Ordains
six hundred girls, were assembled together in the catecMsts.
mission grounds, when the Bishop examined the
upper classes. He also confirmed seventy-three
members of the Society's congregations, at a confir-
mation held at Vepery : and at an ordination in St
George's church he admitted to deacon's orders two
of the Society's catechists, Mr Edmund Dent, an
East Indian, and John Devasagayam, a pupil of the
late Dr John, mentioned in our last volume.^ He

^ Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge Report, 1832.
In another letter to the secretary, dated thiee daj^s after the
above, Nov. 26. 1830, he remarks on the S. India missions
generally. " The report I shall have to make to the Society of
the state and prospect of their affairs in this archdeaconry will
be most satisfactory ; but I delay the preparation of it till I
have completed the visitation of those districts which I can
hope to visit in person during this season" (Eeport 1831).
It does not appear that he was spared to draw up this report ;
nor has any account been published of this visitation. The
notices of his proceedings given in the text are collected from
the newspapers of India, the reports, and periodicals of the time.

" Book X. chap. ii. sec. 9. Note.


CHAP, had been for fourteen years a native inspector of

'_ the Society's schools in and near Tranquebar^ and

during a considerable portion of that period the
unwearied and steady assistant of the missionary^
the Rev. T. Barenbruck.^ Mr Dent had for some
time been occupied as a teacher in the Society's
seminary at Perambore, in the neighbourhood of

On his last Sunday at Madras, the Bishop advo-
cated the cause of the Church Missionary Society
at St George's church, preaching from John x. 16,
^^ Other sheep I have, which are not of this fold ;
them also I must bring, and they shall hear my
voice ; and there shall be one fold, and one shep-
herd." He spoke of this text as furnishing abun-
dant materials for the exercise of the Christian
graces — Faith, Hope, and Charity, and discoursed
at large on these subjects — the doctrines to be be-
lieved, blessings to be thankful for, and duties to
be performed.

On the evening of the same day, he closed his
labours in this neighbourhood with a service in the
Pioneer Camp.^

While at Madras, he visited St Thome, where
many East Indians resided, who were baptized in
the Church of England, and connected with the
Vepery congregation, distant four or five miles.
Here he supplied money to purchase a piece of
ground for the erection of a place of worship.^
Bishop 21. After holding a confirmation at Tripassoor,

passoor"' ^hirty-four miles west from Madras, the Bishop

lore, Se- —


tam. 1 Book xiii. chap. vii. sec. 3.

' Church Missionary Society's Report 1831. Missionary
Register 1831, pp. 456-461.

^ Bengal Hurkaru, Nov. 80. 1830.

* Bishop Corrie's Memoir, p. 626,


pursued his journey to Bangalore, a large military
cantonment, in the north of the kingdom of Mysore,
where he arrived on Friday, November 19 th, and
preached on Sunday. We have no further account
of his exertions at this station. He proceeded
thence to Seringapatam, and Mysore, the capital of
the district, where he wrote, ^^ I had very inte-
resting communications with the Mysore Christians,
sixteen candidates for confirmation, and nearly
thirty communicants. We set apart and dedicated
a portion of ground near the fort as a site for a
church, dnd the first stone was laid. The funds
are nearly ready, and no doubt Mr Casamajor (the
British resident) will see it well finished."^ This
station was occupied by Mr William Miller, who
was educated at the military asylum at Madras,
and now stationed at Mysore as a schoolmaster and
catechist in the service of the Society for the Pro-
pagation of the Gospel. He was much encouraged
in his work by the Bishop's visit, paternal advice,
and promise of assistance in books, and whatever
he required besides.

On his route to Bombay, the Bishop passed a The Neii-
few days on the Neilgherries (the blue mountains themes.
of Coimbatoor). While there, he drew up a plan
for the improvement of the poor people inhabiting
these mountains, the counterpart of one he had
sent home to the Society for Promoting Christian
Knowledge, in behalf of the poor natives of the
Rajmahal Hills in Bengal, to be established at Ban-

22. After spending a week in this salubrious Bombay,
and exhilarating climate, he pursued his journey to

^ Private letter to the Kev. Dr Boy, senior chaplain at
Madras, dated December 4. 1830.
« Ibid.


CHAP. Bombay, where he celebrated the festival of Christ-
^^' mas, and then proceeded to Ceylon.^ He landed at

Ceylon. Columbo on the 17th February 1831, and, after a
short rest, entered upon the busmess of his visita-
tion. Besides his official engagements, and atten-
tion to the business of the Christian Knowledge
Society at Columbo, he visited the four stations oc-
cupied by the Church Missionary Society in the
island, and refreshed and encouraged the hearts of
the missionaries by his paternal counsels and con-
duct. At a confirmation of English candidates at
Columbo, nine of them were from Cotta ; and at a
subsequent confirmation in the Portuguese, Tamul,
and Cingalese languages, held February 24th,
seventy-eight were from the same station. The
service was performed in St Paul's Church, when
Mr Lambrick, from Cotta, read the prayers in Cin-
galese. This was the first time that the Cotta
translation of the Pray er-Book was ever used in any
church in Columbo. Mr Lambrick also read the
confirmation service in Cingalese, after the Bishop.
The prayer at the laying on of hands was also read
in Tamul and Portuguese.

Cotta. March 3d, the Bishop went to Cotta, and spent

nearly the whole of the day in examining the chil-
dren of the out-schools, and the students of the insti-
tution. He expressed himself much pleased with
both, and particularly with the institution students;
to each of whom he promised to give a Bible and a

Kandy. He ncxt visitcd Kandy, where he confirmed

thirty-six persons belonging to the mission, and
examined some of the schools. He was satisfied
with the scholars' progress, and remarked to the

V Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge Keport 1831.
The author has found no record of the Bishop's proceedings at


missionaries, that they had enough to encourage
them, and nothing to elate them.

At Baddagame he confirmed fifteen candidates, Badda-
and examined all the country schools, the girls, and ^^^^'
the boys of the boarding school, ^^ all of whom, I
believe," Mr Trimnell remarks, ^"^gave him satis-

The account of his visit to the Tamul province,
in the north of Ceylon, we will give from the report
of the missionary, Mr Knight : — '^ April 18. 1831.
— We have just been cheered by a visit from our
excellent Bishop. He reached Jaffna on Wednes-
day the loth instant, and remained among us over
the following Sunday ; delighting every one, but
especially the missionary circle, by his condescen-
sion, Christian kindness, and affability. He entered
deeply into every plan calculated to promote the
best interests of the inhabitants ; and we were
much struck, considering how recently he arrived
in the country, with the accuracy of his views on
all subjects connected with the moral improvement
of India. On Friday he visited and examined the
seminary of our American brethren at Batticotta ;
and the next day, came to Nellore, where he heard
some of the boys of the out-schools read in their
own language, asked them a few questions by an
interpreter, and then examined some of the classes
of the seminary, with w^hich he appeared to be
much pleased. On Sunday, he held a confir-
mation in the Fort Church, at seven o'clock in
the morning ; and preached at eleven o'clock. Great
numbers came to hear his instruction ; to witness
the performance, for the first time in this place, of
this primitive and simple rite ; or to participate in
the privilege thus afforded them, of publicly ratify-
ing their baptismal vow. We trust that much good
has been done by his lordship's visit. The direct
sanction which he gives to missionaries and mis-


CHAP, sionary efforts ; and the bright testimony which he
1_ leaves, wherever he goes, of fervent piety and dis-
interested attachment to the cause of his Divine
Master ; are such as cannot fail to promote the
cause of true religion. On the whole, it will not
soon be forgotten that a Christian Bishop has
visited Jaffna — that a dignitary of our Church,
worthy of the exalted station which he holds, has
been among us."

Hitherto he appears to have enjoyed tolerable
health ; but in Ceylon he began to feel the effects
of the long and fatiguing visitation that was now
drawing to a close ; and the missionaries and others
could not but be apprehensive of the result. Mr
Knight remarked, in concluding the account of his
visit: — ^^We regret that his lordship's health ap-
pears to be in a declining state ; so that we almost
fear he will not be able to bear the climate of India
long. His visit to Jaffna was in the hottest and
most trying month in the year : he seemed to suf-
fer much from a little exertion, and to be unable to
bear the least exposure to the sun."

His spirit, however, was still active in his work,
and the following communication from Mr Selkirk,
of Cotta, will shew his impression as to the pro-
gress of Christianity within his diocese : — ^^ During
the Bishop's long journey through India, he has
delivered four different charges ; two of which have
been printed at this press. The testimony which
the Bishop here bears to the great advance that
Christianity is making, not only among the Euro-
peans who are scattered over different parts of the
vast continent of India, but also among the native
population, is so much the more valuable, as it is
given by one who speaks from accurate observation.
Those who are conversant with the people from
day to day may not be able to trace so distinctly
the progress that is made in Christian knowledge.


as those who are only occasional visitants. Such a
testimony, borne too by the head of the Christian
Church in India, must be a source of great joy to
the friends and supporters of missions in our own

Online LibraryJames HoughThe history of Christianity in India : from the commencement of the Christian era : second portion: comprising the history of protestant missions, 1706-1816 / by James Hough (Volume 5) → online text (page 52 of 54)