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THE COVENANTERS




KINiv r MARINES FIRST.



THE

COVENANTERS

A HISTORY .OF THE CHURCH IN SCOTLAND FROM
THE REFORMATION TO THE REVOLUTION, BY

JAMES KING HEWISON

M.A., D.D. (eDIN.): fellow OFTHE SOCIETY OF
ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND : EDITOR OF THE
WORKS OF ABBOT NINIAN WINZET: AUTHOR OF
'THE ISLE OF BUTE IN THE OLDEN TIME,' ETC.

IN TWO VOLUMES




VOLUME I



GLASGOW : JOHN SMITH AND SON

1908



Edinburgh : T. and A. Constable, Printer* to Hi-. Majesty



TO THE MEMORY
OF

MY FATHER AND MOTHER



PREFACE

Students of History, and readers generally, have long felt the need
of an adequate work, stating as concisely as possible the most
important facts in the history of the Covenanters, exhibiting the
exact terms of their religious and secular bonds and leagues, and
tracing the growth of the spirit of freedom in Scotland, as that was
affected by the life and work of the National Church from 1560
until 1690. During that era sacred and civil affairs were much
intermingled, so that the historian now has great difficulty in marking
the boundary between the ecclesiastical and political spheres, and
in classifying the various facts which present themselves, as he
endeavours faithfully to depict the influential men and women of
that time.

Certain definite conclusions regarding the Covenanters, as a
rigid sect in the Christian Church, and as a restless, rebellious
political party in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, have
been arrived at by many students; and, as a general rule, a far
from favourable estimate of these brave and defensible patriots has
been based upon generalisations which will not bear investigation.
Perhaps unintentionally Sir Walter Scott, by his marvellous creation
of characters, of which the less worthy — as Ruskin pointed out —
have influenced the popular judgment, while the more virtuous and
delightful have been left out of consideration, helped to defame
one of the most extraordinary orders of devotees which the civilised
world ever saw. An absolutely impartial account of the Covenanters
was therefore a desideratum.

Notwithstanding what some authors of repute have written of late
regarding the credulity and the unreliability of the Reverend Robert



viii THE COVENANTERS

Wodrow, parish minister of Eastwood — the historian par excellence
of the Covenanters — all investigators in this department of his-
torical knowledge must continue to acknowledge indebtedness to one
whose vast collections of original and transcribed documents, too little
consulted, remain an inexhaustible treasure-house of relevant facts
and dates. These are easily accessible in the Advocates' Library,
Edinburgh, in the Library of the Church of Scotland, Edinburgh, and
in the Library of the University of Glasgow. A careful inspection
of these authorities proves that Wodrow was painfully anxious to
obtain reliable facts and attested accounts of events. The errors
of his printed History of the Sufferings are, after all, comparatively
few, and, in many instances, might not have existed, if his transcribed
manuscript entitled Scotia Sub Cruce had been literally adhered to,
and his invaluable notes been more utilised by his editor. Dr. Robert
Burns, in 1835. When the Scottish History Society publishes an
Index to these important papers, and when the Minute-Books of the
Justiciary Courts and Privy Council are printed, students will then
realise the extraordinary labours of Wodrow in his praiseworthy
efforts to secure, in most difficult circumstances, verification for the
facts he chronicled.

The light thrown upon the period under review, in our own day,
has been most definitive, and still more light is now appearing out of
unexpected quarters. Discerning the necessity for a thorough search
among unpublished papers and rare pamphlets yet hidden in public
archives, Town Council and private muniment rooms, and in the
repositories of Church papers, I have worked in these sources and
obtained some most interesting facts. The yields from various
collections of manuscripts in the Advocates' Library (Kirk, Den-
mylne, etc.), the Laing MSS. in Edinburgh University Library, the
Clarendon MSS. in the Bodleian Library, the MSS. relative to Laud
in Lambeth Palace, the Lauderdale MSS. in the British Museum,
and the still unpublished State Papers, Warrant Books, and Letters
in the Record Office, London, and in the Register House, Edinburgh,
are very important. Extracts from the Books of Adjournal can no



PREFACE . ix

longer be overlooked. The production of the Covenant signed by
Kincr Charles the Second must awaken a fresh interest in that
Covenanter's defections. A pathetic interest is attached to the
Minute-Book of the Lords of Justiciary on circuit in 1684 (especially
Queensberry, Drumlanrig, and Claverhouse), which assiduous
Wodrow could not find. These, and other priceless documents, will
abide to rectify the overhasty judgments of recent writers.

In my youth it was my privilege to dwell among a peasantry whose
ancestors fought and fell for the Covenant. Their vivid traditions,
narrated with awe-inspiring reverence around their hearths, in sight
of the trusty weapons which once guarded them, are now substantially
corroborated from the indestructible records, of whose existence the
raconteurs never heard. And it is remarkable how little error had
crept into the rural chronicles. I have elsewhere lingered to hear
woeful tales from the descendants of the favourers of Episcopacy,
who suffered at the hands of the rigid Presbyterians. To be sure of
my ground, I have visited scenes hallowed by the memories of
Romanist, Reformer, and Rebel, from Orkney to the Water of
Blednoch, from Dunnottar to Eilean Gherig, and have obtained
photographic memorials, many of which are herein reproduced.

The risks of error in dealing with the numerous facts and dates
which are embodied in this work are obvious ; but much care has
been taken to eliminate inaccuracies and to present the truth without
prejudice.

The first part of the book I have refrained from loading with
references to authorities, since the history of the earlier period has
been already fully treated and authenticated by competent writers.
Investigations among unpublished documents have produced so many
new facts that for the later periods more numerous references have
been necessary.

I tender my best thanks to Dr. David Hay Fleming for the great
privilege of being permitted to consult, in his home and library, his
unique collection of valuable books and rare pamphlets, and for much
kind help. I record my gratitude for the kindness and forbearance



X THE COVENANTERS

shown to me by the keepers of our great Hbraries : — Mr. J. T. Clark,
late Keeper of the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, Mr. Stronach,
and his assistants ; the Rev. Dr. Christie, Librarian to the General
Assembly ; Mr. James Lymburn, late Librarian in Glasgow
University, and his successor, Mr. James L. Galbraith ; Mr.
Alexander Anderson, Librarian in Edinburgh University; Mr. J.
Maitland Anderson, Librarian in St. Andrews University ; and
Mr. Robert Adams, Mitchell Library, Glasgow. The Rev. John
Anderson, Curator of the Historical Department, H.M. Register
House, Edinburgh, has rendered me invaluable assistance. I am
also much indebted to the Rev. Dr. R. Menzies Fergusson, Logie,
the Rev. Robert Hislop, Thornhill, and Mr. D. J. Knox, Glasgow,
for reading the proof-sheets, and for valuable suggestions.

The work is enhanced by photographic reproductions of por-
traits, pictures, and Covenants, for which I offer my thanks to: —
The Most Honourable the Marquis of Tweeddale ; Sir James H.
Gibson-Craig of Riccarton, Baronet ; Mrs. Elizabeth Milbank,
Melville House; Rev. Thomas Kidd, M.A., Moniaive ; Mr. John
C. Montgomerie, Dalmore ; Mr. J. B. Dalzell, Larkhall ; Mr. Alfred
G. Miller, Hamilton; Mr. J. R. Brown, Liverpool; Mr. Charles
Pearson, Alloa; Mr. George N. Hislop, London; Mr. James
M 'Crone, Rothesay; Messrs. Valentine and Co., Dundee; Messrs.
G. W. Wilson and Co., Aberdeen ; Messrs. Drummond Young and
Watson, Edinburgh ; Messrs. T. and R. Annan and Sons, Glasgow ;
Mr. A. M. Nicolson, Wigtown ; Mr. Malcolm Macfarlane, jun., Bridge
of Allan ; Mr. Alexander Whitelaw, Cupar ; Rev. J. C. Walker,
Kirkinner ; Mr. R. Lauder, Glasgow; Colonel Horace Walpole, Heck-
field Place, Hants ; Professor C. Sandford Terry, Aberdeen ; and to
the possessors and custodiers of the Covenants, mentioned in the
Appendix, who have permitted me herein to present these historic

bonds in facsimile.

JAMES KING HEWISON.

The Manse, Rothesay,
January 1908.



CONTENTS



CHAPTER I



THE HISTORICAL BEGINNINGS OF THE COVENANTERS— 1545-1561



The Roman Church in Scotland in

1557

Origin of the Protestant Church in

Scotland
Internal Church Reforms
Reformers not illiterate
Fundamental Principles of Reformed

Church ,
Standpoint of Covenanters
Origin of Covenants .
Wishart and Beaton, 1546
John Knox, 1515-1572
The Dun Covenant, 1556
The Godly Band, Edinburgh, 1557
Subscribers to Edinburgh Covenant
The Earls of Argyll, Glencairn, and

Morton ....
Regent Moray, 1531 (?)-i57o
First Church Standards
Martyrdom of Mill, 1558 .
Rising in Perth in 1559
Prayer of Congregation
Perth Covenant, 31st May, 1559
A religious crusade
Aim of Knox



9

10



13
14

15
16

17

18

19
21



Edinburgh Covenant, 13th July

1559

Stirling Covenant, ist August 1559

Leith Covenant, 27th April 1560

Parliament, August 1560

Confession of Faith, 1560 .

Disestablishment Acts, 1560

Continuity of Church .

Birthday of the Protestant Church

First General Assembly, 1560

Tolerance of Church .

Needs of new Church .

Spottiswood, Wynram, Willock, and

Row ....
Confession of Faith, 1560 .
Doctrines of the Confession
First Book of Discipline
Results of Book of Discipline
Book of Common Order
The Psalter

The Order not a Liturgy
Calvin's Catechism
Church office-bearers .
Church Courts .



24

25
27
30
30
31
32
33
33
34
35

35
36
37
38
41
41
42
43
44

45
46



Xll



THE COVENANTERS



CHAPTER II



MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS AND THE ROMANIST REACTION— 1561-1567



Queen Mary Stuartj 1561 .

Edict of Toleration, 25th August 1561

The Jesuit policy

The giddy Queen

Abbot Quintin Kennedy

Ninian Winzet ....

Ayr Covenant, 4th September 1562

Legislation in 1562

Knox on the situation

Maitland of Lethington

Mary marries Darnley, 29th July 1565



PAGE
. 48


General Assembly, 1565


PAGE
58


49


Rizzio slain, 1566 ....


59


• 50


Knox on Rizzio's death


60


• 51


Collapse of Reform party, 17 th March




• 52


1566 ......


61


• 53


Darnley's doom


61


• 54


Mary marries Bothwell


62


• 55


Carberry Hill, 15th June 1567 .


63


. 56


Mary, in Loch Leven, abdicates, 24th




■ 57


July 1567


^3


57


Battle of Langside, 13th May 1568


64



CHAPTER I II



THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE CHURCH BY LAW— 1567-1580



Establishment of Religion .
Coronation of James VI., 1567
Moray Regent ....
Edinburgh Assemblies, June and July

1567

Edinburgh Covenant, 25th July 1567
Moray's Parliament, 1567 .
Church self-organised .
Murder of Regent Moray, 23rd January

1570

Distractions in Scotland, 157 1 .
Leith Convention, 1572
Leith Concordat ....
Leith Covenant, 2nd July 1572 .
Perth Interim, 1572 .



65
66

67

68
68
69
70

71

71
72

73
75
75



Death of Knox, 1572 .


76


Rise of Regent Morton


77


Confession of Faith made a test .


• 78


Tulchan Bishops


. 78


Andrew Melville, 1574


80


Scots Church affairs in 1574


81


Debate on Episcopacy, 1575


82


General Assembly, 1576


^^


King reigns, 12th March 1578 .


83


Second Book of Discipline .


84


Function of the Church


85


The ideal clergy ....


86


Origin of presbyteries .


87


The Scots Bible ....


89


The new Christian Commonwealth


90



CONTENTS



Xlll



CHAPTER IV



THE KING'S CONFESSION— 1580-1582



Tragedies in the sixteenth centu


PAGE

ry . 91


Origin of the National Covena


int of


1580-1 ....


. 92


Papal plans ; the Arrnada .


• 93


Reason for Establishment .


• 93


Deaths of Church leaders .


• 94


Dundee Assembly, 1580


• 95


D'Aubigny, 1579


. 96


Earl of Arran .


• 97


John Craig


• 98


The King's Confession, 1581


. 99


Subscribers to the Confession


• 103


Fall of Morton .


104



Glasgow Assembly, 1581 .


PAGE


Archbishop Montgomery, 1581 .


105


Assembly in St. Andrews, in April




1582


106


John Durie, 1537-1600


107


Perth Convention, 1582


108


Policy of Covenanters


109


Gowrie Bond and Raid of Ruthven,




1582


109


Politics in the Church


I ro


Flight of Lennox and Arran


III


Death of Buchanan, 28th September




1582


112



CHAPTER V



THE FIGHT FOR PREROGATIVE— 1582-1603



Character of King James .

Scotland in 1584

Letter from James to the Pope .

Archbishop Adamson, 1537-1592

Andrew Melville's case

Melville's flight to England, 1584

The Brownists, 1584

The Black Acts of 1584 .

The Scottish Pope

Paralysis of the Church, 1584 .

St. Andrews Covenant, 1585

Capture of King James, 1585

A Royal /r^w/fTi?/?, 1585

Adamson's case

Holyrood Assembly, 1586



PAGE


• 113


• ^15


• 115


. 116


. 116


. 118


. 119


. 119


. 120


. 121


. 124


. 124


. 125


. 126


. 126



Execution of Queen Mary, 1587
Fateof Adamson, 1592


PAGE
127

128


Covenant of 1590


129


Condition of people in 1588
Marriage of James, 1589 .
The King at work


130

131

132


Parliament of 1592 .


133


The parochial system
The ' Spanish Blanks '
Aberdeen Covenant, 1593.


134
134
135


David Black's case .


136


Edinburgh Assembly, 1596
Covenant signed, 1596
Octavians and Cubiculars .


137
138
139


Falkland Convention, 1596


^39



XIV



THE COVENANTERS



Emeute in Edinburgh, December 1596 141 1 The King's literary works



Royal Proclamation .
Linlithgow Test, 1596
Perth Assembly, 1597
Dundee Assembly, 1597 .
Parliament, 13th December 1597
Falkland Convention and Holyrood
Conference . . . . .



142

M3

144

145
146

147



Montrose Assembly, 1600 .
Gowrie Plot, 1600 . . . .
Birth of Prince Charles, 19th Novem-
ber 1600 . . . . .
Burntisland Assembly, 1601
Holyrood Assembly, 1602 .



148
150
151

152
152
153



CHAPTER VI
CLERICAL LIFE AND LEARNING AFTER THE REFORMATION— 1560-1625



PAGE

Rudeness after Reformation . .154


Illiterate ministers


PAGE
. 162


Impious Reformers .




154


Schools ....


. 163


Poverty of clergy






155


' Form of Prayers '


. . 163


Stipends .






156


Influential treatises .


. 164


Miseries of ministers






157


Leading Reformers .


164-166


Debts






158


Printers ....


. 167


Libraries and Books .






158


Scots poets . . , .


. 168


Assaults on ministers






159


The Melvilles .


. 168


Immoral ministers






160


Grammarians


. 169


The Reformers men of culture




161


Robert Bruce, 15 54-1 631 .


. 172


Famous graduates in the ^'


inisti


y


162







CHAPTER VII
THE ERASTIAN KING— 1 603-1625



King James in England . . -173
Puritanism . . . . -174

Hampton Court Conference, 1604 . 175
Archbishop Spottiswood, 20th July
1603 ...... 176

Hierarchy restored . . . -177
Aberdeen Assembly, 1605 . . 177



Clergy invited to London, 1606 . 178

The Red Parliament, 1606 . . 179

Temporal lordships . . . -179
Conference at Hampton Court, 1606 180
Trials of the eight Scots . . . 181
Melville's hardships and death, 1622 . 182
The Blackness convicts . . .183



CONTENTS



XV



Constant Moderators

The Angelical Assembly of Glasgow

8th June 1610
Consecration of Scots bishops .
National Bible, 161 1 .
Pope blesses Queen .
Edicts of Aberdeen Assembly, 1616
The Five Articles
King James returns in 161 7
Parliament of 161 7 .



PAGE
. 184


Assembly at St. Andrews, 25th
ember 1617 .


Nov


. 186


Perth Assembly, 16 18




. 187


Perth Articles .




. 189


Book of Sports, 16 18




. 191


Black Saturday, 1621




192


Policy of extermination




• ^93


The Stewartoh revival;, 1622




. 194


The Shotts revival, 1630 .




• 195


King James dies, 1625





197
197
198

201
202

203
204

205

206



CHAPTER VIII



THE LITURGY IMBROGLIO— 1625-1637



Charles i., 1625 . . . .


PAGE
208


William Laud


209


Misery of Scotland in 1630


"213


Charles marries, ist May 1625 .


213


General Revocation . . . .


214


Liturgy mooted, 1628


215


Coronation of Charles, 1633


216


Liturgy read in St. Giles .


219


Parliament of 1633 .


220


New constitutional party, 1633 .


223


Lord Balmerino's trial


224


Laud's primacy, 1 633


225


The Scottish Liturgy, 1616-1619


, 226


Book of Canons


227


Evolution of the Scottish Prayer Bool«


: 230



Charles the r'edacteur of the Liturgy

Scope of Prayer Book

Popish doctrines in the Prayer Book

Horror of Presbyterians

Papal alliance suspected .

Prayer Book not approved by Rome

Laud's desire of uniformity

Attitude of Puritans .

St. Giles Church, 23rd July 1637

' The Stony Sabbath '

Alleged conspiracy of Henderson and

others

Jenny Geddes ....
Prayer Books suspended .
Glasgow riot ....



232
233

235
236

237
238
240
241
242
244

246

247
248
248



CHAPTER IX
THE NATIONAL COVENANT— 1637-1638



Anger of King Charles i. .
Alexander Henderson's appeal .



250 Henderson's character, 1583-1646

251 Council's decision
C



PAGE
252

253



XVI



THE COVENANTERS



Riots in Edinbursrh in autumn i


637 •


254


Petitions of ' Supplicants ' .




256


Appointment of Commissioners of the




Covenanters, afterwards called The




Tables




256


Earl of Loudoun




257


The Tables resist autocracy




258


Views of King Charles




259


Edinburgh in February 1638




259


The night ride to Stirling .




260


The Stirling Protestation .




261


Protestation at Edinburgh, 22nd


Feb-




ruary




261


An anti- Royalist combination .




262



PAGE
263



Johnston of Wariston

The 1638 Covenant in course of pre
paration ....

Nature of the Covenant

Aim of the Covenanters

Subscribing of the Covenant . 267-272

Opposition to Covenant in Aberdeen . 275

Covenanters masters of the field

The Aberdeen Doctors

Privy Council proceedings in March
1638 . . .

The Covenant a constitutional docu-
ment

Opinion of the King's jester



264
265
266



276
276

278

279

280



CHAPTER X

•.V

THE GLASGOW ASSEMBLY AND THE ABOLITION OF EPISCOPACY— 1638



The King's opinion of the crisis

National enthusiasm .

Doleful report of the bishops

The third Marquis of Hamilton, 1638

The Covenant held to be legal

The King's instructions

The King prepares force

The Primate's ruse .

The Tables alert

The King's fixed idea

The Protestation

Scheme to divide the Covenanters

The Tables prepare for Glasgow

Assembly .....
Privy Council subscribe 1581 Covenant
Advice of Royalists ....
The Aberdeen Doctors (jualify the

New Bond .....



281

282
283
284
286
286
287
288
289
289
290
292

292
294
295

296



The Tables in a difficulty .
Complaint against the bishops .
Preparations for Assembly in Glasgow
Assembly in Glasgow Cathedral, 21st

November 1638
Declinature of the bishops
Commissioner dissolves the Assembly
Assembly passes seventy-two Acts
Episcopacy abolished
Processes against the bishops
Montrose's opinion of the bishops
The Bishops' Doom .
Justification of the sentence
Sundry Acts ....
The Moderator's parting Council
Results of Covenant .
The Assembly alleged to be incom

petent .....



PAGE
296

297

298

299

302

306

306

307
308
310

311
312

313

314

3^5



CONTENTS



xvii



CHAPTER XI



THE FIRST BISHOPS' WAR— 1639



Policy of the Crown .
Preparations for war .
The Earl of Montrose, 161 2-165
The Earl of Argyll, 1598-1664
Charles summons an army, ist

1639 ....
King's plan of campaign .
Field-Marshall Leslie, 1582-166
Leslie captures the arsenals
Activity of the Covenanters



April



317
317
318

319



323
324
325



PAGE

Montrose traps Huntly . . -325
Hamilton's expedition, ist May 1639 326
English army at Birks, 30th May . 326
Baillie's description of the camp at
Duns ...... 327

Second campaign of Montrose . -328
Aboyne's force . . . . -328

Councils at Birks, June 1639 . . 329
Terms of Pacification of Berwick, . 330



CHAPTER XII



THE SECOND BISHOPS' WAR— 1639-1641



Tortuous policy of the King

Edinburgh Assembly, 1639

Act abolishing Episcopacy

The first Barrier Act .

Large Declaration condemned

Assembly dissolved, 30th August

Meeting of Scots Parliament, August

November 1639 .
Fate of the Prelates .
Perfidy of the King .
Traquair inflames the King
Letter of Scots to French King, igtl

February 1640
Loudoun threatened with execution
The Short Parliament in England,

1640 ......



331

334
335
337
337
338

339
340

341
342

342
343

344



Scottish preparations for war in 1640 .
Acts of Parliament of 1640 restoring

Presbyterianism
Argyll and Monro's campaigns .
Aberdeen Assembly, July 1640 .
The Scottish muster at Duns, July

1640 .....
Scots enter England, 17 th August
Battle of Newburnford, 28th Augus

1640 .....
English and Scottish grievances
Treaty of Ripon, 26th October 1640
The Long Parliament, 3rd November

1640 ......

Treaty of London, 10th August 1641



345

345
346

347

348
349

350
351
352

352
353



XVIU



THE COVENANTERS



CHAPTER XIII

•LEX REX'— THE RISE OF PARLIAMENTARY POWER-
SCOTLAND— 164 1



-THE KING IN



Loyalty of the Scots .... 354
Charles visits Edinburgh . . -355
Parties in 1641 . ... 356

Montrose's Damnable Band . -357
Treachery of Montrose . . -358
A Montrose junto .... 359
Inception of Solemn League and

Covenant, 1641 . . . . 360
Meeting of Parliament, 17th August

1641 361



Montrose in prison . ' .
The Incident ....
The Irish Massacres, 1641
Largesse from the King
Revolutionary events in England
Civil War begun
Immediate cause of the Solemn
League and Covenant .



362
362
363
364
365
367

368



CHAPTER XIV



THE SOLEMN LEAGUE AND COVENANT— 1642-1643



The Solemn League and Covenant,

1643

Covenant ratified by Convention

Purport of Solemn League

Robert Douglas and Samuel Ruther

ford

George Gillespie

Duke of Lauderdale .

The Earls of Cassillis and Loudoun

Covenant subscribed in London

Covenant accepted in Scotland .



Origin of idea of Uniformity


PAGE
• 370


Covenanters tolerant .


• 371


Remodelling of Standards .


• 372


Spread of idea of Uniformity


• 373


General Assembly in 1642


• 374


Proposed English Assembly


• 375


Intrigues at Court


• 375


Montrose's plan


• 376


Counterplots of Covenanters and P


uri-


tans


• 377


General Assembly, 1643 .


• 377



378

379
380

381
383
384

385
386
388



CHAPTER XV
THE WESTMINSTER STANDARDS— 1643-1 650

I'AGE 1

English Parliament convene Assembly 389 I Assembly discuss Covenant
Assembly proscribed . . . 390 ! Covenant enjoined in England

Divines sit in Westminster . . 390 | Directory for Public Worship



PAGE
392
392

393



CONTENTS



XIX



Opposition from Independents .
Cromwell and ' The Accommodation '
Debates on Presbytery



PAGE

394
395
396



Westminster Confession of Faith
The Catechisms
The Metrical Psalter .



PAGE
398



CHAPTER XVI

THE GREAT CIVIL WAR: THE STRUGGLE FOR LIBERTY OF
PARLIAMENT AND FREEDOM OF CONSCIENCE— 1644-1645



State of Country in 1644 .


404


Scots under Leven invade England .


405


Huntly in hiding ....


406


Armies, meet at Marston Moor, 2nd




July 1644


407


Montrose raises Royal Standard at




Blair-Athole


408


Battle of Tippermuir, ist September




1644


410


Montrose proclaimed traitor


411


Montrose's victory at Aberdeen, 13th




September


412


Argyll's expedition . .' .


412


Montrose invades Argyle .


413


Montrose's mountain marches ,


414


Victory at Inverlochy, 2nd February




1645


414


Attempts at peace-making .


416


Baillie recalled


416



Raids of Montrose .

Capture of Dundee .



Online LibraryJames King HewisonThe Covenanters, a history of the church in Scotland from the Reformation to the Revolution (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 49)