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James L. (James Lorenzo) Bowen.

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iMASSACHUSETTS IN THE WAf



1861-1865.



By JA.IVIKS L. BOWEN.



I



WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY

HON. HENRY L. DAWES,

U. S. Senator from Massachusetts.




SPRINGFIELD, MASS.:

CLARK W. BRYAN & CO.,
iSig.



i






Copyright, iS88.
JA-IVIBS Iv. BOWBN

SPRINGFIELD, MASS.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



Introduction,
Preface,
History of the State, 1861-1805
First Rejiimcnt,
Second Regiment,
Third Regiment,
Fourth Regiment,
Fifth V'egiment,
Sixth xicgiment,
Seventh Regiment,
Eiglith Regiment,
Nintli Regiment,
Tenth Regiment,
Eleventh Regiment, .
Twelfth Regiment, .
Thirteenth Regiment,
Fourteenth Regiment,
Fifteenth Regiment, .
Sixteenth Regiment, .
Seventeenth Regiment,
Eighteenth Regiment,
Nineteenth Regiment,
Twentieth Regiment,
Twenty-first Regiment,
Twenty-second Regiment,
Twenty-third Regiment,
Twenty-fourth Regiment,
Twenty-fifth Regiment,
Twenty-sixth Regiment,
Twenty-seventli Regiment,
Twenty-eighth Regiment,
Twenty-ninth Regiment,
Thirtieth Regiment, .
Thirty-first Regiment,
Thirty-second Regiment,
Tliirty-third Regiment,
Thirty-fourth Regiment,
Thirty-fifth Regiment,
Thirty-sixth Regiment,
Thirty-seventh Regiment
Thirty-eighth Regiment,
Thirty-ninth Regiment,
Fortieth Regiment, .
Forty-first Regiment,
Forty-second Regiment,
Forty-third Regiment,
Forty-fourth Regiment,
Forty-fifth Regiment,
Forty-sixth Regiment,



vii

xiii

1

9!)
113
i;jO

142
148
l.JT
lf)8
181
189
190
207
219
235
249
251
204
274
281
293
311
327
346
359
371
382
393
401
419
435
452
400
479
490
507
525
542
503
576
589
00;;
013
617
024
029
034
037



Forty-seventh Regiment,
Forty-eighth Regiment,
Forty-ninth Regiment,
Fiftieth Regiment,
Fifty-first Regiment,
Fifty-second Regiment,
Fifty-third Regiment,
Fifty-fourth Regiment,
Fifty-fifth Regiment,.
Fifty-sixth Regiment,
Fifty-seventh Regiment,
Fifty-eighth Regiment,
Fifty-ninth Regiment,
Sixtieth Regiment,
Sixty-first Regiment,
Sixty-second Regiment,
First Heavy Artillery,
Second Heavy Artillery,
Third Heavy Artillery,
Fourth Heavy Artillery,
First Battalion Heavy Artillery
First Cavalry,
Second Cavalry, .
Third Cavalry, .
Foiuth Cavalry,
Fifth Cavalry, .
Frontier Cavalry,
First Light Rattery,
Second Light Battery,
Third Light Battery,
Fourth Light Battery,
Fifth Light Battery,
Sixth Light Battery,
Seventh Light Battery,
Eighth Light Battery,
Ninth Light Battery,
Tenth Light Battery,
Eleventh Light Battery,
Twelfth Light Battery,
Thirteenth Light Battery,
Fourteenth Light Battery,
Fifteenth Light Battery, .
Sixteenth Light Battery, .
Third Battalion of Rifles,
Antlrew Sharpsliooters,
Second Sharpshooters,
Unattached Companies, .
Statistical TaMe,
General OflScers,



SKETCHES OF GENERAL OFFICERS.



Henry T.. Abbot.








875


William S. Abeit,








876


( hark's tYancis Adams. .


r..






876


Thomas J. ('. Amory,








P77


John F. Anderson, .








877


Georj^e L. Andrews,








878


Nathaniel P. Banks.








879


John IJ. Barnard.








882


James Barnes. .








883


William F. Bartlett, .








885


James L. Bates,








887


William I'.laisdell, .








887


iSamiu'l Breek. .








8-8


Henry S. Briirtci?,








890


Horaeo Brooks,








891


Sidney Bui'li;ink.








892


Benjamin F, Bntler,








893


Snniner Carrnth,








897


Sanuiel E. Chamberlain.








898


Thomas E. t'hickering,








899


Robert E. Clary.








90()


William Co.!,'swell. .








901


C^yrns B. C'omstock. .








901


Darius N. Couch,








903


Robert Cowdin.








900


Charles H. Crane, M. D.,








900


Georjre 11. Crosman.








907


Ca.spar Crowninsliield,








908


James A. Cunningham.








909


Arthur |{. Curtis,








910


(freely S. Curtis.








910


Nelson H. Davis.








911


Charles Devcns. Jr.,








912


Arthur F. Devereux,








91.5


Charles A. R. Dimon,








916


Alonzo G. Draper, .








917


William F. Draper, .








918


Nathan A. M. Dudley,








919


Thomas H. Dunham, Jr..








921


William Dwifrht,








922


Joseph CushiuK Edmands








923


Oliver Edwai'ds,








924


Hem-v L. Kustis,








92,5


Charles Eventt,








920


William (). Fiske,








926


Jones Frankle. .








927


Arthur A. (ioodell, .








928


William Gates. .








929


Oliver P. Goodintr, .








930


George H. Gordon, .








931


Patrick R. (Uiiney. .








932


Edward N. Hallowell.








933


Alfred S. Hartweil, .








934


(ieortre P. JIawkes, .








9:5.5


Josejih Hayes. .








935


Guy V. Henry. .








930


Edward W. Hincks. .








937


Joseph Hooker.








939


Timothy Insraham. .








942


Horatio Jenkins. Jr.,








942


Thomas D. Johns,








9I(



Edward F. Jones.
Eras:iuis Darwin Keves
John W. Kimball. '.
William S. Kiny-.
Ralph \V. Kii-khani. .
Frederick W. l,an


Edward W. Hincks,


9.-J7


Joseph Hooker, .


940


Horatio Jenkins, Jr., .


94:1


Erasmus D. Koyes,


94.-)


Ealph W. Kirkhara,


94S


Frederick W, Lander,


949


William H. Lawrence,


951


Horace C. Lee,


9.52


William S. Lincoln,


9.55


Luke Lyman,


9.59


Albert Ordway, .


903


Francis A. Osboni,


9(U


Josiah Pickett, .


9(iS


George L. Prescott,


971


Samuel M. Quincy,


972


Horace Binney Saruent,


977


Rufus Saxton,


978


Augustus B. R. Spiagne,


981


Luther Stephenson. Jr..


983


Hazard Stevens, .


984


Isaac I. Stevens, .


985


Thomas G. Stevenson,


988


Edwin V. Sumner,


991


William S. Tilton,


994


Zealous B. Tower,


995


Adin B. Underwood, .


998


Francis A. Walker,


99!)


George H. Ward,


1001


Amic'l W. Whipple,


1007


Edward A. Wild,


1009





A«c ^^ ..■:^



Hon. IIenky L. Da-wtis.



INTRODUCTION



This work has not been undertaken to feed the pride of Massa-
chusetts, nor has any desire crept into it to assert for her soldiers
any claim for distinction that shall disparage others. It is under-
taken in full recognition of the fact that in the great struggle in
which all had a common stake the citizen soldier lost sight of State
lines and distinctions in a broader and higher patriotism. It is an
endeavor to discharge for Massachusetts a debt which all of the
States true to the Union owe to the valor and sacrifice of their citi-
zen soldiery, that, as far as possible, the life they lived and the
death they faced that the nation might live may be preserved in
all their interesting detail and thrilling incident as a tender memory
and an inspiring example. It has fallen to able and brilliant men
of literary reputation to write the history of the war and of the
causes out of which it sprung, and many valuable books have been
written in our own and other States which have put in permanent
form for posterity the statistics of the several States in the war, and
many and just tributes to individual heroism have illumined the
pages of those who have written of its wonderful campaigns and
awful battlefields. But few, if any, who, like the author of this
book, lived during that terrible period all the phases and met all the
experiences of a soldier's life, save that extreme one he saw so
many comrades meet, have undertaken to bring out for others to
read the manner of life a soldier lived, its different sides and shades,
its sunshine^thc little there was in it — and the trials and hazards
that waited on all its footsteps.

In a marked degree the soldiers of Massachusetts were drawn
from every walk in life. Xot only did the sons of toil leave the
plow and the workshop for the camp, but all clasises of her people



viii INTEOD UCTION.

in less arduous and exacting pursuits in life, from all the profes-
sions and all the institutions of learning, from the student's cloister
and the scholar's retreat, put off the garb of their calling and took
their place in the ranks of the soldier. Every Massachusetts regi-
ment contained well nigh a complement of artizans skilled in all
the handiwork that the exigencies of war might ever require. All
varied pursuits and professions had their representatives in each of
our regiments, able, while fighting as common soldiers, to put also
the training of their lives, if need be, to the service of their country.
This great variety in the character and home habits among the
Massachusetts soldiers added greatly to the interesting features of
the lives they lived, as well as to the efficiency and value of the
service they rendered. The material furnished by this phase of a
soldier's life, so abundant in the regiments and camp life of the
Massachusetts soldiers, cannot fail to add interest and attraction,
almost amounting to romance, when the whole story of their expe-
riences and work comes to be told. It will be seen how many
times the success of large undertakings, of battles, and even of
campaigns, was made certain by, if it did not often hinge upon, the
training in civil life and genius in exigency brought into camp as a
part of their outfit from that almost infinite variety of pursuit which
our soldiers left behind when they answered the call of their coun-
try. No Massachusetts regiment was without men in the ranks
competent to man and run an engine on a sudden emergency, or
repair its machinery if need be, to build a bridge if wanted, black-
smiths if they were the need, telegraph operators if the peril of the
instant required such service. It seemed as if Massachusetts had
sent into the war men educated and trained on purpose to meet, as
far as ])reparation could fit them, the unforeseen chances and casual-
ties of war. What it fell to those men to do, in critical moments,
in averting disaster or insuring success is no small part of the ser-
vice our Commonwealth rendered the country.

Iliit in a l)roader sense, and by a higher standard, did Massachu-
setts win imp(Tishal)l(' distinction in the war. She furnished no



INTRODUCTION. ix

battleiicld for the clash of arms and the spilling of blood, but that
great battle of ideas which preceded the war and which the war
alone could compose was waged first and fiercest and longest where
those that preceded the Revolution were waged. They had a com-
mon birthplace, and Faneuil Hall was the cradle of them all. The
lineage and even the lineaments of the fathers who agitated, and
debated, and threw overboard the tea, could easily l)e traced in the
sons who defied the fugitive slave law and set at liberty Anthony
Burns. And when out of the conflict of those ideas came the clash
of arms and the shedding of blood, it was but the continuity in
Baltimore of the fight on Lexington Green, and the baptizing anew
of our own 19th of April with the blood of ^Massachusetts martyrs.
Massachusetts had a Governor in 1861 and during this later war
aglow with the same fire and consecrated to the same cause which
animated her first war g'overnors — wearing fitly the mantle of John
Hancock and Samuel Adams. He had his field glass upon the
manoeuvres of the enemies of their country, even before they were
discovered at the seat of government, and he brought her Legislat-
ui'e up to the work of preparation for the outburst of a long-gath-
ering storm, the sure approach of which seemed revealed more
clearly to his vision than to that of any others in authority.

Thus it came to pass that our Commonwealth began earlier than
any of her sister States the outfitting of soldiers — even before the
call for volunteers had been issued by the President — and was in
readiness to respond at a day's notice. She sent out also in the
person of her great anti-slavery ])rophet and senator, Charles Sum-
ner, the avant courier proclaiming to the world the ideas which
dominated the war and setting up the flagstaff along the line of
march farther in front than was revealed to the ordinary vision,
but up to and even beyond which the forces controlling the conflict
impelled the armies and government of the rei)ublic. She furnished
also the chairman of the military committee of the Senate during
the entire war, whose devotion to the arduous duties devolving upon
that committee was felt as that of no other man in every army



X INTRODUCTION.

corps, through all its complicated organization, from the outfit of
commander to the tent life of the soldiers in the ranks, in giving
efficiency, in inspiring courage, and in securing all possible comfort
and care to those braving all and suffering all to which a soldier is
exposed in war. Not less useful and essential in achieving success,
if less conspicuous, was the service Massachusetts rendered through
her delegation in the House of Representatives during the war. It
has been recently said by one outside of her borders and not sym-
pathizing with her during the great struggle for the Union, that
during the period from 1855 to 1875, which covers the conflict out
of which the war arose, the war itself, and the period of recon-
struction : —

" Whether it was for weal or for woe, whether it was wisely or
unwisely done, men may differ and historians may dispute, — but as
a matter of fact Massachusetts led America and led her with an
audacity and an aggressiveness, with a skill and an eloquence, with
a power and force that have never been surpassed in all the tide of
time in the leadership of a great people."*

In chronicling the part which the Massachusetts soldier bore in
the brunt and flagrant ordeal of war itself, how much more than all
else she contributed will one find to relate of patient endurance, of
costly sacrifice, of heroic death, and sublime martyrdom in the
ranks of her soldiery and among those who commanded and led
them. A quarter of a century and more has elapsed since the
storv of the achievements of our soldiers on distant battlefields was
brought back to sorrowing homes among us, told too often on coffin
lids, and too frequently for peace or composure in crippled and
mangled and wasted sons and brothers coming back to die. And
even yet grief and horror, mingling with the pride their valor en-
kindles, so disturb us that it is difficult to hold a steady pen when
attempting to recount for those who are to come after these our
heroes the sacrifice and martyrdom wliich crowned their lives.
Those who had any share in the tragic incidents of the war must



*Mr. Breckinridge of Ky., II. of R., Jauuary I'Jtli, IS88.



INTRODUCTION. xi

have passed away from among men before tlic historian will arise
whose })en will record or describe those great historical events with
the cool indifference of judicial impartiality, but neither history
nor patriotism will withhold the debt which is due and the tribute
which belongs to the brave soldier till after he shall have passed
beyond the knowledge of either. And it is well that it should be
so. Contemporaries and participants alone can tell the thrilling
and immortal story ; and the intensity of feeling, the buiuing
patriotism and the self-abnegation which, like inspiration, lifted the
soldier into a higher atmosphere and awakened in him a new life,
can be portrayed in their true colors only by those whose whole
being was pervaded and illumined by the light of experience. A
single battlefield reproduced in any a])proach to reality would even
now tax the credulity of all whose eyes had never looked upon the
scene itself. The historian of Massachusetts in the war will have
more than a hundred of these to describe, and will arise from his
task sorrowing that his colors are so pale and that his best effort
falls so far short of what his own eyes have seen. Nothing but
miraculous power can bring back to the minds and hearts of the
citizens of to-day, much less to those of future generations, a re-
alization of the marvelous and awe-inspiring scenes through which
the Massachusetts soldiers marched from Baltimore to Appomat-
tox. And yet a failure to attempt this ^\''ork or to stop in it short
of the limit to human endeavor is a dereliction of duty which our
Commonwealth cannot afford to condone. There is in it a wealth
of patriotic sacrifice, of sublime heroism, and glorious example, of
which she cannot disinherit her children. She must take care that
it is transmitted to them, like refined gold, in its original luster, so
stamped and so kept that its true lesson and real worth will be
recognized of them all, whatever shadow may in the future obscure
the path of duty and* however formidable the difficulties that may
beset their footsteps.

HENRY L. DAWES.



\




Ja.IIKs L. I^OWKX.



PREFACE.



This book is written from a Massachusetts stand-point. It
does not, therefore, attempt to present a general history of the
great Civil War, and the author has taken it for granted that
the reader will be so far acquainted with the prominent feat-
ures of that war that he will trace and duly appreciate the
relation of what is here recorded to the great whole. His
attempt has been in so far as practicable to record in a con-
cise yet comprehensive way the part taken by the Common-
wealth — by its government in meeting the demands upon it
as an integral part of the Nation ; by its statesmen in the halls
of Congress and elsewhere; by its military sons in the various
fields to which they were called; by its philanthropists in their
noble efforts to meet and solve the humanitarian problems
which were the outgrowth of the war; and by its sanitary and
benevolent associations, which in the best spirit of Christian
kindness did so much, so tenderly and so faithfully, to ame-
liorate the horrors of warfare.

The attempt to cover in a single volume so great a field
has necessitated much research, patient investigation and care-
ful verification, with most rigorous condensation. No attempt
has been made to build up suppositions as to what might have
been under other conditions; it has seemed sufficient to state
what was done and the immediate effects of the doing. The
basis of the work has naturally been the official records of
the Commonwealth, published and unpublished; but these have



xiv PREFACE.

been supplemented by the records of the Nation, by all avail-
able authentic publications, and by valuable contributions of
information from participants and others. To the hundreds
from whom he has received assistance, direct or indirect, the
author can only in this general way express his sincere ap-
preciation and tender his thanks.

Few words of explanation are felt to be necessary regarding
the plan of the work. In the sketches of organizations, the
purpose has been to give the original roster of officers, with
some of the more important subsequent changes; to follow the
regiment or company in all its Avanderings; to give as ac-
curately as possible its losses in every conflict in which it
took part, and to notice the death of every commissioned offi-
cer from the state. In casual references to general officers,
the simple title of "General" has commonly been used, as it
was deemed sufficiently explicit; while in other grades officers
have usually been designated by their actual commissioned
and mustered rank. There were many brevets, as well as com-
plimentary commissions under which the recipient was not mus-
tered into the national service, important to the individual
and honorably won, but not coming within the scope of this
chronicle. In the Statistical Table following these sketches the
author has indulged in some modifications which he believes
Avill make them more accurate and valuable for purposes of
comparison, though much more elaborate compilations would be
necessary to insure exactness and entire justice. The member-
ship column is intended to give approximately the number of
individuals (re-enlistments not counted) who served with the
organization. Assigned recruits and otliers who never reported
for duty are not counted ; yet it has been necessary to include
in some of the regiments and companies large numbers who
only served for a short time. In such cases the student
should bear in mind lliat couiparisons and percentages must
at the best be misleading.



PREFACE. XV

The sketches of General Officers will be found interesting
and valuable, and great effort has been made to have them
entirely accurate. Their aim, in harmony with that of other
portions of .the book, is simply to present the story of what
the several individuals did and were during the period of the
war. In a few cases, a brief reference to the earlier life of
the officer has seemed necessary in connection with his part
in the rebellion. In addition to those officers entering the
service with the volunteer organizations from the state, it has
been deemed just to include those sons of Massachusetts serv-
ing in the regular army, as well as those not residents or
natives of the state who were commissioned by Governor An-
drew and subsequently rose to higher i-ank.

Finally, the volume is sent out, not with a vain-glorious
purpose to exalt our own by any depreciation of the part borne
by other Commonwealths. The simple narration of wiiat Mas-
sachusetts was and did must fill the breast of every patriot
with a renewed faith in humanity ; a thankful heart for the
devotion and the courage which won so glorious a name; a
pang of tender sorrow at the sacrifices required. The writer
has risen from his task, more than ever proud to be a citizen
©f the state which wrought so magnificent a work during those
crucial times ; which gave so many strong arms and wise heads
and faithful hearts to the demands of the hour. To have
shared never so humbly in that grand uprising and outpour-
ing of a world's best exhibition of heroism and consecration
is honor indeed ; in this imperfect record of the deeds of a
great and honored Commonwealth, it is hoped that there may
be incentive for constant and increasing devotion to all which
makes for the uplifting and progress of our common human-
ity — the best and truest patriotism.

JAMES L. BO WEN.



Online LibraryJames L. (James Lorenzo) BowenMassachusetts in the war, 1861-1865 → online text (page 1 of 101)