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8th year, Ilan-tsuh put E to death, and made his own son Keaou dwell in Ko.2
6 In his 9th year, Seang dwelt in Chin-kwan.3 In his 15th year, Seang-

t'oo, the prince of Shang, prepared carriages and horses, and removed to Shang-
8 k'ew. In his 20th year, llan-tsuh extinguished the Ilonne of Ko.* In his

26th year, Han-tsuh made his son Keaou lead an army, and extinguish the House of

/Yghcre=^g, chief or leader among the princes.

When the five pa are not all referred to the
dyu. of Cliow, this chief of Keun-woo heads
the list. 3 Shang-k'cw is still the name of a

dis. in the dcp. Kwei-tih. For 'W JK ^^

III. 1 The site of Chin-sin is not well as-
certained. The diet, places it in the dis. of

Wei C'jfik. J^) tlcp, of Lae-chow, Shan-tung.
Others — more correctly, I thmk, — refer it to the
dis. of Kung, dep. of Ho-nan. 2 See on *The
Songs of the Five Sons.'

IV. 1 See on the * Punitive Expedition of
Yin.* 2 There is repeated mention below of

^ W* -^^ ^^^ therefore I take the two
characters here as in the transl. The country
of Keun-woo was the iSr of subsequent times.


some copies


V. 1 /. e. in Shang-k*ew, the chief city of the
Shang family, which now begins to come into
prominence. * 2 Tliis Ko is rcf. to the dis. of

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9 Chin-kwan. In his 2?th year, Keaou attacked Chin-sin. Tliere was a great
battle in Wei, when the boat of the prince of CJiin-mn was overturned, and he was

10 put to death.5 In his 28th year, Han-tsuh made his son Keaou murder the

emperor. The empress Min fled to Yew-jing ; 6 and Pih-mei made his escape, and

fled to Kih.7

Note, The site of Chin-kwan was what was Te-k*ew. The empress Min, who was pregnant,
made her escape by a liole, and returned to her father, the prince o/Jing, Pih-mei fled to the chief
of liih.

11 The heir of the line of Hea, Shaou-k^ang, was bom in the year ping-yin (=b.c.

12 1,914). He fled from. Yew-jing to Yu,9 iu the year yUt-yew ( = B.C. 1,895).

13 Pih-mei led the forces of Chin-sin and Chin-kwan from Kih to attack Tsuh ; and
the heir-son Shaou-k'ang sent Joo-e to attack Ko ; and put Keaou to death, in the
year ked-shin (=B.c. 1,876). His eldest son, Ch'oo, led a force against Ko, and extin-

14 guished it Pih-mei put Han-tsuh to death, and Shaou-k'ang returned from
Lun to the capital of Hea, in the year yih-ke (=B.c. 1,875).

Note, In the year after her flighty the empress Min gave birth to Shaou-k'ang, who became,
when he was grown up, chief herdsman in Jing, and was on the watch against the evil designs of
Keaou. Keaou having sent Tscaou to look for him, Shaou-k^ang fled, before his arrival, to Yu,
where he became chief cook. Sze, the prince of Yu, gave him his two daughters in marriage, and
the city of Lun. There his fields were a le square ; and his followers amounted to 500. He
displayed his virtue, and formed his plans to collect the multitudes of Hea, and raise the hopes of
the old officers. An old servant of Hea, called Pih-mei, issuing from Kih, collected all the people
that were left of the two Chin, to attack Tsuh. Tsuh trusted in Keaou, and felt quite at ease, giv-
ing no thought to his wickedness, and making no preparations. At the same ti/ne, ^liaou-k^ang sent
Joo-e to spy out Kcaou's condition. Now Tsuh had married a daughter of Shun-woo, by whom
he had a son who died early, leaving a widow called Neu-k*e. Keaou obliged one Yu to go to her
house, and pretend that he had something to ask of her. On this Ncu-k^e mended his lower
clothes, and they passed the night in the same house. Joo-e sent a party, took them by surprise,
and cut ofl* the head of Neu-k*e. Keaou, being very strong and swift, made his escape; £ then

Yih (Ji^ ^^) in Lae-chow. Keaou and a

brother are said to have been the sons of Han-
tsuh by the wife of E ; but they must have been
born before K*8 death. See concluding note in
Pt. III. of the Shoo. 3 Chin-kwan is rcf. — but
not certainly — to the dis. of Sliow-kwang, dep.

Ts'ing-chow, Shan-tung. 4 This Ko lay be-
tween the States of Sung and Ch*ing. 5 This
Chin-sin would agree with the dis. of AVei.
Were there two places of the same name?

6 Yew -jing was in the pres. sub. dep. of Tung-
p*ing, dep. of T'ac-ngan, Shan-tung. 7 Kih

wds in the prcs. dis. of P*iug-yuen, dep. Tsc-nau.


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hunted him, and let loose a dog, vhich seized him, so that he fell, when they cut off his head,
with which E returned to Shaou-k*ang. After this the multitudes of Hea put Tsuh to death,
and carried Shaou-k*ang hack to the capital. As soon as the princes heard of it, they raised him
to the throne, to sacrifice to his ancestors along with the sacrifices to Heaven ; and thus the old
possession was not lost.

VI. The emperor Shaou-k^ang.

1 In his Ist year, which was ping-woo (48d of cycle, = B.C. 1,874), when he came to
the throne, the princes came to court to do homage. He entertained the duke of Yu

2 as his guest In his 2d year, the hordes of Fang came to make their submission.

3 In his 3d year, he restored the descendant of pnnce Tseih, the minister of Agri-

Note, Puh-fuh, a descendant of prince Tseih, had lost the office, which was now restored.
6 In his 11th year, he caused Ming, the prince of Shang, to regulate the Ho. In
6 his 18th year, he removed to Yuen.2 In his 21st year, he died.

VII. The emperor Ch'oo.

In his 1st year, which was Jie-sze (6th of cycle, = B.C. 1,851), when he came to
the throne, he dwelt in Yuen. In his 5th year, he removed from Yuen to Laou-

k'ew. In his 8th year, he went on a punitive expedition towards the eastern

sea, as far as San-show, and got a fox with 9 tails. In his 13th year, Ming, the

prince of Shang, died, pursuing his labours on the Ho. In his 17th year, he died.

NoU. The name Ch*oo is written with a difft. character (^). Tlie emperor is also called
Pih-ch*oo. There was a younger brother^ a worthy descendant of Yu, who was therefore rewarded
by the emperor.

Who Mei was is all uncertain. He had been,
say many, an adherent of E. This is very un-
likely. He appears here a strong partizan of
the House of Hea. 9 Yu was in the pres.
dis. of Yu-shing, dep. Kwei-tih.
VI. 1 The descendant of Tseih here intended,

as restored to the ministry of Agriculture, was
probably the famous Kung-lew. 2 Yuen is

ref. to the pres. dis. of Tse-yuen, dep. Hwae-
k*ing, Ho-nan.

VII. I Laou-k*ew is referred to the dis. of
Ch*in-lew, dep. of K'ae-fung.


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VIII. The emperor Fun.

1 His 1st year was mofv-fsze (25th of cycle, = B.C. 1,832), when he came to the

2 throne. In his 2d year, the 9 wild tribes of tlie east came to perform service.

3 In his 16th year, Yung, the baron of Loh, fou^it with Fung-e, the baron of H0.2

5 In his 33d year, he appointed the son of tlie chief of Keun-woo to 8oo.3 In

6 his 36th year, he made a circular enclosure ^/ar a prisan,^ In his 44th year, he

Note. FuD is by some called Fun-fH.

IX. The empehor Mang.

1 In his 1st year, which was j'm-shin (9th of cycle, = B.C. 1,788), when he came to

2 the throne, he we^it with the dai*k-coloured mace to receive the baro7i ^'Ho.l In
his 13th year, on a tour of inspection to the east as far as the sea, he got a large fish.

4 In his 33d year, the prince of Shang removed to Yin.2 In his 58th year, he

Note. Mang is in some editions called the emperor Hwang.

X. The emperor S£kh.

1 His 1st year was mn-wei (8th of cycle, = B.C. 1,729), when he came to the throne.

2 In his 12th year, Tsze-hae, prince of Yin, went as guest to Yew-yih, the chief of

3 which put him to death, and sent away his follotvers. In his 16th year, Wei,
prince of Yin, with the forces of the buron of Ho, attacked Yew-yih, l and killed its
ruler Meen-chin.

vm. 1 "SE is to be taken here in its proi)er \ circular. . ^ .

. I IX. 1 I hare translated ace. to the view of
meaning of * wild tribes of the east/ faP^"!^ Hang Chnn-fung :-]^ JU^^^M

* to wait upon and serve,' — perhaps as ward-

i H "S^ ; but perhaps some service to the Ho is

ers, guards, &c. 2 Fung-e appears in many | me^nt. Tlie mace is that of Yu the Great. 2
writers as a monster or spiritual being. He is I This Yin is ref. to the dis. of Shang-shwiiy, dep.
evidently in the text merely the chief of the j Ch*in-chow.

State Ho, or charged with the care of the Ho. ; x. 1 There is a small dep. in Chih>le, called
3 Soo was in Tse-yuen, above. 4 All Yih-chow, which may correspond to the ancient
pribons, it is said, in the three dynasties, were Yew-yih.


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iVb/«. The prince of of Yin, Tsze-hae, vinited Tew-yih, and was Ruilty of licentious conduct,
so that the ruler of Yew-yih, Meen-chin, slew him, and drove hiafoUowern away. In consequence
of this, Shan|;-keft-we{ of Yin obtained the services of the army of the baron of Ho, attacked and
extinguished the State of Yew-yih, putting Meen-chin to death. For a time Yin had decayed, but
when Shang-keft-wei revived its power, the people avenged the wrong that had been done.

^ In his 2l8t year, he conferred regular dignities on the chiefe of the hordes of
6 K'euen, of the white hordes, the dark hordes, the hordes of Fung, the red hordes,
and the yellow hordes. In his 25th year, he died.

XI. The emperor PuH-KliANO.

1 His 1st year, was he-hae (36th of cycle, = B.C. 1,701), when he came to the

2 throne. In his 6th year, he attacked the country of Kew-yuen.l In his
4 35th year, Yin made an end of the House of P*e.2 In his 59th year, he resigned

the throne to his younger brother K^ung.

XII. The emperor K£uno.

1 His 1st year, was mow-seuh (35th of cycle, = B.C. 1,642), when he came to the

2 throne. In his 10th year, the emperor Puh-kgang died.

Note, In the period of the three dynasties there was only one resignation of the throne, — that
by Pnh-keang. He must have had the virtue of a sage.

3 In his 18th year, he died.

XIII. The emperor Kin.
Note. Also called Yin-keft.

1 In his Ist year, which was ke-wei (56th of cycle, = B.C. 1,621), when he came

2 to the throne, he dwelt on the west of the Ho.i In his 4th year, he made the
music of the West. The chief of Keun-woo removed to Heu.2

XI. 1 Kew-ynens=the * nine pasturages,* pro-
bably a tract of flat country in the pres. Chih-le.

2 The territory of P'e was in the pres. dis.
of Ho-tsin, dep. Keang Chow, Shan-se. It is

the 1st step of the kind, taken by Shang, to the
imperial sway.

XIII. 1 That is, he lived in Shen-se. 'The
western Ho* denotes the country west of K*e-
chow. 2 Heu corresponded, probably, to

observed that the extinction of this State was the pres. Heu Chow, Ho-nan.


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iVbfc. The surname of the founder of Keun-woo was Ke, and his name Tan. He had heen in Tested
with Wei, and when Uea was decaj'ing, the chief of the House was Head of the princes, and removed
to old Heu.

5 In his 8th year, there was an inauspicious portent in tlie sky; — ten suns appeared
together. In that year the emperor died.

XIV. The emperor K*ung-kea.

1 In his 1st year, which was ylh-sze (mistake for he-izCy 6th of cycle,=B.c. 1^611),
when he came to the throne, he dwelt on the west of the Ho. He displaced the

2 chief of Ch*e-wei, and appointed Lew-luy to feed the dragons.l In his 3d year,

3 the king hunted on mount Foo.2 In his 5th year, he made the music of the East
^ In his 7th year, Lew Luy removed to Loo-yang.8

Note, The king was superstitious, and acted in a disorderly and licentious way. The princes
became like him, and the goTt. of Hea began to go to decay. He was hunting on mount Foo of
Tung-yang, when in a great wind the sky was all overcast. Tlie emperor lost his way, and went
into the family of a peasant, whose wife had just been confined. Some said, *The emperor has
come to see you ; — ^it is a good day. Tliis child will have great good fortune.* Some said, *Not so.
This child will be unfortunate.* — When K*ung-kca heard this, he said, * Let it be the child of me,
the emperor ; then who can harm it ? * Accordingly he took the child with him ; but when it was
grown up, it was killed by a hatchet, on which he made the song of * Break the Hatchet ; ' — what
is called *The music of the East.*

^ A female dragon of those which Lew Luy had the keeping of died, when he privately made
pickle of it, and set it before the emperor, who enjoyed it ; and ordered Luy to look for the missing
dragon. Luy was afraid, and removed to Loo-yang, where his descendants became the Fan family.

g In his 9th year, he died. The prince of Yin returned to Shang-k*ew.

XV. The emperor Hagu.

Note, Also called Kaou.

xiT. 1 The State of Ch*e-wei is ref. to a
place in the dep. of Ta-ming, Chih-le. It is
nard to say what is meant by feeding the
dragons, though there are many legends about

it. 2 It is strange how the title of ' king * is
here employed for * emperor.* 3 Or * to the

south of mount Loo ;' — in the pres. dls. of Loo-
san, dep. Joochow, Ho-nan.


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His 1st year was hang-shin (17th of cycle,=B.c. 1,600), when he came to the
throne. He restored die representative of the House of Ch'e-wei to his State.

Note. In the decay of the Hea, chiefs of Keun-woo and Ch^-wei succeeded one another as Head
of the princes.

2 In his 8d year he died.

XVI. The emperor Far.
Note. Also called the emperor King ; and Fft-hwuy.

1 In his 1st year, which was yih-yew (22d of cycle, = B.C. 1,695), when he came to
the throne, various wild tribes came and made their submission at the king's gate. I
He again repaired the walls. There was a meeting on the upper pool, when the wild

2 people came in, and performed their dances. In his 7th year, he died. Mount
T'ae shook.

XVII. The emperor Kwei.
Note. Called also EeS.

1 In his 1st year, which was jtn-«Am (29th of cycle, = B.C. 1,588), when he came to

2 the throne, he dwelt in Chin-sin, In his 3d year, he built the K4ng palace,
and pulled down the Yung tower.2 The K'euen hordes penetrated as far as A^*e, with

3 the standard of revolt.8 In his 6th year, the hordes of K'e-chung* came to

4 make their submission. In his 10th year, the five planets went out of their
courses. In the night, stars fell like rain, llie earth shook. The E and Loh became

6 dry. In his 11m year, he assembled the princes in Jing, when the chief of Yew-min

6 fled home, on which the emperor extinguished Yew-min.5 In his 13th year, he
removed to the south of the Ho.6 He made for the first time men-drawn carriages.7

7 In his 14th year, Peen led the imperial forces, and smote Min-san.8

XV. 1 3E P^ should probably be ^ P^,
' the gate of gems,'— one of the gates of the

palace, so called.

XVI. 1 The meaning of 3ff 'ffi ^ ]Wl. is

very much debated. See Uftng Ch4n-fung,
in he.

XVII. 1 This, no doubt, was in the dis.of Kung,
dep. Ho-nan. 2 For conjectures on the
meaning of the names here , see Hfing, in loc.

3 Hftng thinks this par. belongs to the reign
of king Muh or king E of Chow. 4 The

country of K*e-chung, (|IBl=* Sj) o' * the people
who walked on their toes,' without the heel
touching the ground, is placed beyond the
Moving sands. 6 See on the time of Shaou-

k*ang. The Min Jamiiy occupied the State of
Jing. 6. Some city is intended ; but com-

mentators are not agreed which. 7 These


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Nott. Some copies read San-mi n, or litli-people. Kwei ordered Peen to attack San-min, whoso
prince presented Ke€ with two ladies, called Yuen and Yen. The emperor loved them, tho' they
had no children ; and had their names cut on the jjems Teaou and Hwa. That on the T*eaou was
Yuen ; on the Hwa, Yen. He also sent awaj his first wife Me-he to Ld, placing her in tlie Yaou
tower of the King paUce.

8 In his 15th year, Le, prince of Shan^, removed to Poh.^

Nott, This was the 1st year of T*ang the Successful.

10 In his loth year, Shang made E Yin come to court. In his 20th year, E Yin,

11 returning: to Shang:, met witli Joo Kew and Joo Fang at the north gate. In his
21st year, the forces of Shang went on a punitive expedition against the prince of L6,
and subdued him. They then went against King, 10 which made submission. In

12 his 22d year, Le, prince of Shang, came to court, when the emperor ordered him to be

13 imprisoned in the tower of Hea.ll In his 23d year, he set Le at liberty, when the

14 princes went and offered their submission to Shang. In his 26th year, Shang ex-

15 tinguished Wun.l2 In his 28th year, the chief of Keun-woo attacked Shang.
Shang assembled the princes in King-pohl3 and proceeded against Wei, which its forces
took. ITiey then proceeded against Koo. The Grand recorder Chung Koo left the court

16 and fled to Shang. In his 29th year, the forces of Shang took Koo. 15 ITiree suns
appeared together. The prince of Pe, Chiang, left the court and fled to Shang. In the
winter, in the 10th month, they chisselled through mountains, and tunnelled hills, to

17 open a communication with the Ho. 16 In his 30th year, there was a fell of mount
K'eu.i7 The emperor put to death his great officer Kwan Lung-ftmg. llie forces of
Shang marched to punish Keun-woo. In the winter, there was a fire in Ling-suy.l8

18 In his 31st year, Shang proceeded by way of Urh against the capital of Hea; and
overcame Keun-woo. Amid great thunder and rain a battle was fought in Ming-

carriages are said to have been made for Me-he,
Ke€*s wife. 8 The comm. identify this

Min-san with a Mung-san (^ jjj) ;— perhaps
corresp. to Mung-san, dep. Ya-chow, in Sze-
cliHien. 9 This was the < southern Pd.'

10 King ; — known afterwards as Ts*oo.


11 This was a State prison;— near Chin-sin.

12 The pres. dis. of Wun, dep. Hwac-k4ng.

13 This is said to have been the *• northern
PC' 14 Probablj==Ch*e-wei. 15 Sup-
posed to have been in pres. dis. of Wun-ching,
dep. Ts*aou-chow, Shan-tung. 16 This
should not hare been done in the winter.

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t'eaou, when the army of Hea was defeated. Keeh fled away to San-tsung,l9 against

M'hich the army of Shang proceedecL A battle was fought at Ching,20 and Keeh was

taken in Ts^aou-mun. He was then banished away to Nan-ch'aou.

Note, From Yu to Ke€ were 17 reigns. Calculating reigns and iDterregnums, the dynasty lasted
471 years.

17 K*eu is better known as mount Chin (j^ 19 San4sung is ref. to the dis. of Ting-t*aou,
ijj). 18 See the comment of Sun Che- ^^P- Ts»aouH;how. 20 In the sub. dep. of

—A „f. Tung-p'ing, T'ae-ngan.

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The Dynasty of Shang.

I. T'ano the Successful, of Shang or Yin.

Note, His name was Le. T^ng, indeed^ had 7 names, and conducted 9 punitive expeditions.
When he returned from confining Ke^ in Nan-ch^aou, the princes, having 8 interpreters, came to
him, to the number of 1,800. The chief of the * Wonderful Arms' also came in his chariot. They
all wished him, Teen-yih Le, to assume the imperial dignity, to which, after declining thrice, he

In ancient times, the empress of Kaou-sin, called Keen-teih, at the remal equinox, when the
dark swallow made its appearance, had followed her husband to the suburbs to pray for a son,
and was bathing with her sister in the Water of Heuen-k'ew, when a dark swallow dropt from
her mouth a beautifully variegated egg. The two sisters strove to cover it with baskets which
they had ; but Keen-teih succeeded in getting it. She swallowed it, became pregnant, and by-and-
by her chest .opened, and she gave birth to Se^. When he grew up, he was minister of Instruc-
tion to Yaou, who conferred on him the principality of Shang because of his services to the people.

After 13 generations, Se^'s descendant, Choo-kwei, was bom, whose wife was called Foo-too.
She saw a white vapour go through the moon ; was moved to pregnancy ; and on the day Yih
bore T*ang, who was therefore styled T*een-yili. The lower part of his face was broad, and it
tapered above ; — it was white and whiskered. His body was one-sided, and his voice was loud.
He was 9 cubits high, and his arms had four joints. He became T^ang the Successful.

T*ang lived in P6, and cultivated his virtue. When E Chi was about to comply with T'ang's
invitation, he dreamed that he passed by the sun and moon in a boat.

T*ang came east to LQ, to see the altar of Yaou. He dropped a gem in the water, and stood at
some distance. Lo ! yellow fishes leaped up in pairs ; a black bird followed him, and stood on the
altar, where it changed into a black gem. There was also a black tortoise, with red lines forming
characters, which said that KeQ of Hea was unprincipled, and that T^ang should supersede him. At
the same time, the spirit of T*aou-wuh was seen on mount P*ei. Another spirit, dragging a white
wolf, with a hook in his moutli, entered the court of Shang. The virtue of metal waxed powerful;


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silver overflowed from the hillg. When T*anjr was about to pat KeS away, in reverence of the
command of Heaven, he dreamed that he went to the sky, and licked it. After this he became
possessor of the empire. The people of Shaug afterwards changed the title of the dynasty into

In his 18th year, which was kwei-hae (60th of cycle, = B.C. 1,567), when he came
to the throne, he dwelt in Poh.2 He roofed over, for the first time, the altar to the
spirits of the land dedicated by the House of Hea.3 In his 10th year, there was

a great drought. The people of Te-k&ing came and made their submission.*
In his 20th year, there was a great drought. Keeh of Hea died at mount T'ing, when
it was forbidden to play on stringed instruments, to sing and to dance. In his

6 21st year, there was the great drought. He cast metal money 5 In his 22d and

7 23d years, the drought continued. In his 24th year, the drought still continuing,

8 the king prayed in the mulberry forest, and it rained.^ In his 26th year, he
made the music of Ta-hoo.7 He went for the first time on a tour of inspection, and

9 fixed the rules for ofFerings. In his 27th year, he removed the nine vases to the
lO capital of Shang. In his 29th year, he died.

II. Wak-pino.

Online LibraryJames LeggeThe Chinese classics → online text (page 14 of 61)