James Legge.

The Chinese classics online

. (page 29 of 61)
Online LibraryJames LeggeThe Chinese classics → online text (page 29 of 61)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


told the minister of Music {^^ JF ) taught
* the poems, ceremonies, and music of the for-
mer kings,' and was resorted to by the eldest
and other sons of the king, the eldest sons of
all the feudal princes, the eldest sons (by their
proper wives) of the nobles and officers, and by

the promising youth of the kingdom.' S , how-
ever, denotes descendants generally; and there
was at an early time another reading of pT for

S , leaving the -7* quite unqualified. In

pjf^ J^, * that to which the mind moves,' and
hence it is translated by * will,* * aim,' * purpose.'
It denotes thought, but thought earnest and
ardent, which seeks display and development.
Shun's definition of poetry is not nmch amiss.
^ is, lit., * water flowing on long and

unbroken.* Ch*ing explains it here by -^, * to
prolong.' Singing is the poetic language *in
linked sweetness long drawn out.* ^L A^

^* # 5RI ^ -fl!j w 'to rely on,' -to
be according to,* * to keep close to.' Its force
is well bronght out in the * Daily Explana-
tion:' — *This singing gives rise to the distinc-
tion of notes into high and low, treble and
bass, — the five notes of music, indeedjWhich
all come out in connection with the prolonged



structed, starting ft>om 81 as a basis, by making
perfect fifths ascending (3:2), and perfect
fourths descending (8:4). Thus from 81 is
obtained 54 ; 54 gives, by the second proportion,
72 ; 72 again gives 48 ; and 48 gives 64. Carry-
ing on this process, increasing or decreasing
each time, as the case requires, the following
set of twelve is obtained : - 81, 75§, 72, 674,
64, 59f, 56f, 54, 50§, 48, 44§, l2f. (The
fractions are not very accurate.) -Twelve
tubes of these several lengths constituted
what I have called * the standard tubes, '
whose various application has been pointed
out above. As regards the theory of music,
could we be sure that the details which have
been given, had really been wrought out in
Shun*s time, we could not refuse them our
meed of admiration. The progress of the Chi-
nese in music has not corresponded to such
beginnings. A theoretical difficulty and a prac-
tical one have hindered them. They have found
it impossible in theory for A to hold the same
proportion to D as D to g; and in practice
they have found that while their calculatons
might be applied to stringed instruments, the



Digitized by



Google



Bk. L Ch. v. 25.



THE CANON OF SHUN.



49







[K'wei said, "Oh! I smite the stone; I smite the stone. The various
animals lead on one another to dance.'*].
25 The emperor said, " Lung, 1 abominate slanderous speakers, and
destroyers of right ways, who agitate and alarm my people. I ap-
point you to be the minister of Communication. Early and late give
forth my orders and report to me, seeing that every thing is true."

the more natural intexpretation, — to take the
claosei as coordinate. j^j^na.^^, as in

Can. of Yaou, p. 12, but does it mean *all the
people,' or 'all those in office'? Ch*ing re-
stricts it to * ministers' (^ |^); we may

take it more generally. jjfjh "^ is the

name of the office, which may be translated —
* Communicator of words.' It is perhaps easier
to describe the office, than to translate the

terms, or those of the sentence below — HJ

^j^'^- Gan-kwC says :-*|^^ was
the officer of the throat and toneue. Hearing
the words of those below, he brought them before
the sovereign ; receiving the words of the sove-
reign, he proclaimed them to those below : — ^in

either case there was required fidelity ' (^^ ^

Here at the end of Shunts appointment of min-
isters, Woo Ch*ing has the following note: —
'Shun gave nine commissions, of which four were
new appointments: — those of Yu, Suy, Yih, and
the baron £. On occasion of their wish to decline
the appointments, he confirmed five ministers in
their old offices: — ^Tseili, See, Kaou-yaou, K*wei,
and Lung. Some have thought, from the words
" I appoint*' standing before the designation of
these two last, that they likewise were new
men. But this is wrong. When the emperor
asks advice and then appoints, and the desig-
nate makes obeisance and wishes to decline, the
appointment is new. When he appoints with-
out asking advice, and the designate does not
make obeisance nor wish to decline, there is
only a confirmation. Can we suppose that
K*wei and Lung would not have made obei-
sance, on first receiving their appointments?

The commentator Wang Yen (^ 4^) has

observed : —"The General Begulator was the
head of all the ministers, and therefore Yu first
received his appointment. The nourishment of
the people is the beginning of royal government,
and therefore the minister of agriculture was
next appointed. When people are well off;
instruction may be given them ; hence there
followed the apix^tment of Sc^ Punishment



tube g must be made considerably less than half
the length of the tube G in order to sound the
octave to it. Their division of the tubes into 6
iSt and 6 5 , moreover, has complicated the
subject, andrtirown around it the perplexity of
their reasonings about the ym and yang prin-
ciples. A # 5£ f^'-"*^ p- ^^•

jj^ ^ JjJj[ ^,-K)n tills the 'Daily Expla-
nation' says: — *The instruments thus in har-
mony being pUyed at the sacrifices to Heaven
and in the ancestral temple, the spirits are all
harmonious ; being played in the court, men are
all harmonious : — what then must be t he p ower

of music in teaching our youth !' ^g Q ,

•^•^,— see Bk. IV. 9. There can be no

doubt the reply of K*wei is out of place here, —
appears here in fact fh)m some displacement of
the ancient tablets.

P. 25. Appointment of Lung to he minister of
ConmunictUion. We are in ignorance of Lung

just as we are of K^eL SD**^^^> *^ ^^
test.' In the * Historical Records* we have in-
stead of it •& j^^f ' to fear and suspect.'

^A §^ — * slanderous speeches.' The Taouist

Chwang defines ^9 as * the liking to speak of

the erU of other.' (j^ <;^ j^). ^-

j^, * to subvert.' *to make an end of;'^^ f^



(3d tone) — * to subvert the conduct.* The
question arises, — Is the conduct subverted that
of the individuals themselves ? or that of others,
so that this clause is an appendix to the former,
a description of the object of the slander? Gan-
kw5 and Ma Yung take the Utter view, and
are followed by the modem interpreters (the

* Daily Explanation' expands~j|^ j^ ^

keep out of view the actions of good and supe-
rior men'). ChHng takes the former view and

explains the two phrases ^A 1^ and 1^ ty
by a reference to the words of Ana. XII, xx.
6. — * assuming the appearance of virtue, wliile
opposing it in conduct.' This J4>pears to me

VOL. Ill,



Digitized by



Google



50



THE SHOO KING.



PABTtt



o ^ ji I* ^ ^M =-'^o

26 The emperor said, "Ah! you, twenty and two men, be reverent,
and so shall you aid me in performing the service of Heaven."

27 Every three years there was an examination of merits, and after
three examinations the undeserving were degraded, and the deserving
promoted. By this arrangement the duties of all the departments
were fully discharged. The people of San-meaou were discriminated
and separated.

Ch'ing 18 obliged to leaTe them out altogether,
and says the 22 were the 12 presidents of pro-
vinces, with Yu, Suy, Yih, Pih-e, K*wei, Lung,
Shoo-t8*eaBg, Pih-yu, Choo-hoo, and Heung-
pe; and Wang Ming-shing argues, in his ^^

3^f that this view should not be changed I
Gan-kw6 and Ma Yung leave out Tseih, Se5,
and Kaou-yaou, and say the 22 men were Yu,
Suy, Yih, Pih-e, K*wei, Lung, the 12 presidents
of provinces, and the four ministers called UO

■ j^ . This view is followed by Keang Shing.

asinpir. Sze-maTs'eenhas^^^^

p. 27. Institvtum of examinations ; andfiirtJier
discipline of the Meaouites, QBH Imf Vg^ Bh >

^«- SSI ^ P ^' 1^' '»»>* ^••'^'=*«

idle and undeserving; BB is the opposite of

8- :^ ^& H '^'-ili (re'dp'^V 8d

tone), * to separate.* Keang Shing would read
it pek, contending, that the original character

was two /^, one over the other, the old form

of B|j. In what year the Meaou were thus
dealt with we cannot tell. Wang Suh thinks
that after the discipline of them mentioned p.
12, those who were left in their original seat
again proved insubordinate, and another separa^
tion and banishment of them had to be made.

Ch. VI. Sdmmabt of Shuk's life ; and death.
There is no dispute about the first clause ; all
allow that Shun, when he was thirty, was call-
ed to employment by Yaou, and the testing
of him began. The reading of ^ -^



is intended to help instruction ; hence followed
the appointment of Kaou-yaou. Workers make
implements and utensils for the benefit of the
people ; — this is the conclusion of government ;
hence Suy was appointed, and so far as men are
concerned, the organization of the government
was pretty well complete. Shun then proc^eeded
to care for the grass and trees, for birds and
beasts, appointing Suy. This done, the time
came for the cultivation and development of
ceremonial observances and music. These two
things are the grand consummation of govern-
ment, by which service is done to Heaven, to
earth, and to spirits, and all things are brought
to harmony and order; hence there were the
appointments of E and K'wei :— of E first and
then of K^wei, because music must be a sequel
to the ceremonial observances. With music
the work of government might be supposed to
be ended, but notwithstanding the abundance
of able ministers, let slanderous dividers once
go abroad, and the men of worth and ability
would be made restless, and what had been done
would come to nought. On this account the
appointment of Lung was made last of all. The
design of this was the same with that of Shun*s
concluding charge to the pastors of the twelve
provinces, that they should make it hard for the
artful; and with Confucius' concluding lesson on
the administration of a country — to keep far from
specious talkers'^* (Ana. XV. xx. 6).

P. 26. General address to all his principal min-
■Uter.. ^ Zl -h # n A -Who

were these 22 men? There ought to be but
one answer to the question, — that which we
find in Ts^ae Ch*in. They were the chief of
the four Mountains, the twelve presidents of
the provinces, and the nine ministers, whose
appointments or confirmations have been related.
The old interpreters, thinking that the D[D &
were four individuals, mistook the meaning.



Digitized by



Google



Bk, I. Ch. VI. 28.



THE CANON OF SHUN.



51



o






28 VI. In the thirtieth year of his life Shun was called to employ-
ment. Thirty years he was on the throne with Yaou. Fifty years
after, he went on high and died.



A* ^ toT U much disputed. Ch*ing read '^^

*4-', making Shun's life to have amounted alto-
gether to 100 yean. And there wa» a reading
of ^ -4- for ^^ -^. Wang Ming-shing

and Twun Ynh-tsae adduce many proofs of it.
But on p. 13 we saw that the 28 years there
could only be understood of the years during
which Shun acted as Yaou*s vicegerent. Adding
to them the three years of his testing, p. 8, we
should have 81 years; but one of those three
may naturally be considered the year in which
he was called from his obscurity. \Ve shall

thus have the "^^ -4^ of the text. As to the

50 years on the throne, these must include
the two years Tthree, including the year in
which Taou died; of mourning for Yaou, when
opportunity was given for tlie accession of
Yaou*s son. Altogether then, Shuu was on the
throne, with universal recognition, 48 years,
his life extended over 110 years; and he died
B.O. 2202. Gan-kw5, not deducting the two
years after Yaou*s death, makes Shun*s age 112.

^)^~)j 7^ ^»""^ ^*^® translated this
clause after Ts'ae Ch*in, who relies chiefly on
the usage of the ' Bamboo Annals,' where ^^
is used of the death of the emperors, anda
j|m . The Hhr after it is a difficulty, and so is



^^^ SL ^B' '^' *^® i^^^9 on high should be
mentioned after the death, and not before it.
Gan-kwd, to avoid these difficulties, takes Hb* in

the sense of region, and says fi. *h[ ra jj

h||K ^ij^ ^0. *he went up the way towards the
southern region, on a tour of inspection, and
died.* Maou K*e-ling argues for this view ; but
it is inadmissible as an explanation of the text
of this paragraph. He builds principally on
the account of Shun*s life and death in the
* Historical Records.' It is there said : — * When
Shun was 20, he waa heard of for his filial j)iety ;
at 30, he was promoted by Yaou; at 50 he
undertook the administration of affairs for
Yaou, and when he was 58, Yaou died. At 61,
he took his place, and occupied the imperial
throne 89 years, after which, being on a tour
of inspection in the s outh, he died in the wil-
derness of Ts'ang-woo {^jsr i^\ and was buried

at Kew-e (^/JT |^) of Reang-nan, in LmgUng.'
Ling-ling is the name of a district in the pres.
dep. of Yung-chow (5S{ JJ4) in Ho-nan, where
they still show, or pretend to show, the grave
of Shun. Mencius (IV. Pt. II. i.) gives another
name to the place of his death.



Digitized by



Google



THE BOOKS OF YU.

BOOK n. THE COUNSELS OF THE OBEAT TU.



o









1 I. 'On examining into antiquity, we find that the great Yu was
called W&n-ming. Having arranged and divided the empire^ all to the
four seaa, in reverent response to the inquiries of the former emperor,



TiTLB OP THE Book.— ^ ^ ^, *The

Counsels of the great Tu.* The Books of the
Shoo have been arranged in six classes, accord-
ing to the nature of their subject-matter. Of
those classes the 'Counsels' form the second,
containing the wise remarks and suggestions of
high officers on the subject of government. In

one of the Writings ascribed to K'ung Foo (^\j

A^), Confucius is made to say — *In the Counsels
of the great Yu, I see the loyalty and diligence,
the service and merits of Yu ' (^ ^ -^, ^

— ' f^ # M> il-^^' 'P**"''^' ^"* '^
is implied that the plans are the result of delibe-
ration. Heu Shin defines it 'plans of delibera-
tion ;' and his expounder adds: — *The thoughtful
consideration of a subject, and the description
of a plan in consequence, is what is indicated
by gM.' Yu, it has been seen in the prev.

Book, was the son of K'wftn, the chief of Tsung.
According to Sze-ma Ts'een, K*wftn was a son
of the emp. Chuen-heuh, so that Yu was the
great-great-grandson of Hwang-te. He is here
called * the Groat,* * because of the greatness of
his merit* (Gan-kw6), — the services he render-
ed on occasion of the great inundations which
devastated the empire.



Into the question which is agitated about the
Gbnuin ENB8S of the Book I do not here enter ;
the reader is referred to what has been said on the
subject in the proleg,, and to the remarks that
will be found on particular passages in the an-
notations. The * Counsels of Yu* were a portion
of the Shoo edited by Confucius. The preface,
and many references to it in other books, suf-
ficiently prove this. It was not among the
portions recovered and taught by Fuh-shang,
but it was among those recovered by K'ung
Gan-kw6. Jn the words of Ts'ae Chin:— * The
modem text wants it ; the ancient text has it '

Contents. The Book may be divided into
three chapters: — the first, embracing 8 parr.,
and containing various counsels of Yu and Yih
on principles and methods of good govt. ; the
second, parr. 9-19, occupied with Shun*s resign-
ing the administration of the govt, to Yu, and
cont. many sage observations and maxims ; the
third, parr. 20, 21, describing Yu*s measures
against the people of Meaou. The style differs
from that of the Canons. It is sententious as
befits the subject : and we observe in it a ten-
dency to fail into rhythm.

Ch. I. Yu ; HIS COUNSELS AND THOSE OF YlH

ON oovbbnment; compliments between the

BMPEROB AND THOSE MINISTERS. P. 1. THb

achievement of Yw, and occasion of deiivering his



Digitized by



Google



Bk.1I. On. 1. 2, 3.



THE COUNSELS OF THE GREAT VU.



53




>*^fe -dt^ r-t



o 7^ E 0^



7i ^ f^. # w

^.m#c:fc^ E.





.lt^^'^^,^ii,iitjff.



2 he said, "If the sovereign can realize the difficulty of his soye-
reignship, and the minister can realize the difficulty of his min-
istry, government will be well ordered, and the people will sedulously

3 seek to be virtuous." The emperor said, " Yes; let this really be the
case, and good words will nowhere lie hidden; no men of virtue and
talents will be neglected away from court ; and the myriad States
will all enjoy repose. But to ascertain the views of all; to give up
one's own opinion and follow that of others; to refrain from oppress-
inc^ the helpless; and not to neglect the straitened and poor: — ^it



aJt ^, Gan-kw6, followed by Ts'ae Ch*in,
takes "^ '^ u two nouns, the subject of the
Terb Sjy, — 'his accomplished yirtue and the
lessons of his teaching were spread abroad to
the four seas,' according to what is said in the
last par. of the * Tribute of Yu.* The conimen.
Soo Shih (^^), or SooTung-po, moreover,
asks to what ^ ^ g^ *^ can be referred,
if A^ ^. be taken as thejiame of Yu. The
first words of the 'Tribute of Yu* enable us
to answer the question,— ^ ^ Jl' *^^
diyided the land.' To the same effect, in the
She-king, Pt. IV., in the 4th of the Praise-songs
of Shang, we haye ^ ^"|^ it >^' ^^^^
S^ is explained by '/§, *to regulate.' The
meaning therefore may yery well be as I hare
given it in the transhition. ^ jf^,— see

Bk.I.p.l8. |ft(-^)^T'^'~*^*^

reverently received — ^took it up — ^frora the em-
peror.' Wang K'ang-t*ang(^-^^, Ming
dyn.) says: — *The emp. with his love of ques-
tioning and delight in excellence addressed his
inquines to his minister, who reverently re-
sponded to his sovereign, laying oa him what
was difficult and setting forth what was excel-
lent.'

F. 2. Good govt deptnds on Bovertign and
mniittr not shrinking from the difficuities of their



position, Comp. Con. Ana^, Xn. xv, J§«"
*the sovereign,' * ruler.' ^^, 'active,'

'ert,' here as a verb, «= * to follow earnestly.'
It is better to take the char, thus, than to
interpret, — *will quickly be virtuous,' though
earnest endeavours will speedily attain their
object.

P. 3. Shunts response to Yu^s sentiment, and

disclaimer of such merit in himseff, ^»«-" ^9
'truly.' ^-jS^;|^#»*nowhere.' 'Good
words willnowhere lie hidden,' !>., all capable
of giving lessons of good will find their way
to notice. |R, 'the wilds,' 'the fields,'-*
away from court. 'The myriad Stat^ will
enjoy Vepose,' being ruled and directed by the

wise and good. ^ S ^ >^'"~*®® ^^^'^
n. Pt. I. viU. 8. >f^ ^ ^ o** ^

E^. It is argued that the text is forged from
these passages. I cannot but draw the opposite
conclusion. In the chapter of Mencius, especi-
ally, he is evidently quoting ftpom various
books, in no case specifying thei/jiames or
sections ; the 2d par^— ^ ^ $ WM'J ^
— is taken fh>m the Counsels of Kaou-yaou, p.
1 ;— shall we say that Book of the Shoo is also
forged ? ^^f^ ^.-<^e emperor

is Yaou; B$ -= J^ ; Ying-tft paraphrases:—



Digitized by



Google



54



THE SHOO KINO.



PART n.






4 was only the emperor Yaou who could attain to this." Yih said,
"Oh! your virtue, O emperor, is vast and incessant. It is sagely,
spiritual, awe-inspiring, and adorned with all accomplishments.
Great Heaven regarded you with its favouring decree, and suddenly
you obtained all within the four seas, and became sovereign of the
empire."

5 Yu said, '^Accordance with the right is good fortune; the fol-
lowing of evil is bad: — the shadow and the echo." Yih said,

6 "Alas! be cautious! Admonish yourself to caution, when there



was only Yaou in these matters who could act
thus.'

P. 4. Yih repudiates Shun*8 disclaimer, and
celebrates his virtue, I can by no means agree

with Gan-kw(J and Ch*in, that the *J^* in ^
it& refers to Taou. ChHn observes, indeed,

that to take *S^ as some do, as referring to

Shun himself, would make the whole plain, and
is in harmony with the style of * The Counsels,'

^S^ in the mouth of Shun being Taou, but ^f^

in the mouth of Shun's ministers being Shun.
He decides against it, however, because in the
simple honesty of those early times Yih would
not have praised Shun so to his face ! But this
is no more than what Kaou-yaou does in this

same Book, p 12. ^gjL — see on Can. of

Yaou, p. 8. Choo He here says that ^ji mean-
ing the capital, the place where superior men
assemble, when used as an exclamation, it con-
Teys the idea of admiration (see the ^^ 1^)*

j||, *to revolve,' here — ^j^]^
J& , * to move without ceasing.' y^ ^B

TJr f $»— 8®« Men. Vn. Pt. n. xxv. 7, S.
jTjr ^ TJf ^•~'*" *^® ^^ ^^C^ always
takes precedence in China of the military (^^)»
it is thought necessary to note here that Uie
terms are inverted from the necessity of
the rhythm (note in the ^ "tt). ^, <to
look round to,' — with the idea of kindly regard.

^^ is taken by. Qan-kwO as »» |^, of



which I can't make sense. Ch4n explains it by
^, * entirely.' * the whole of.' The meaning
which I have foil, seems more natural ; and the
rise of Shun might very well be thus described.

the end), we find a portion of th is par. quoted
from 'the Books of Hea.'— ^ ^ Q, ^

Wang Ming-shing argues that the par. of the
text was made from this, the maker inserting

7^ ^^ before Jh JpA, to complete the rhythm
and flow of the whole passage. But is it not
more natural to suppose that Leu quotes the
Classic incorrectly?

P. 5. The certain connection between the right
and happiness, between the wrong and misery,

^e= MS, 'to follow,' <to accord with,' as in
Bk. n. p. 17. ^, *to advance,' * to go for-
ward,' and here opposed to ^, 'going back
wards,' * rebelliousness,' aHhe right way.'

lli^ ^^^ff ^"'^^ °^^ iXi^^Wt'^ ^^ emphatic
way of representing the truth of the two prec.
statements ; so, to say ' is good fortune,* rather
than Meads to good fortune' is not only a literal
rendering, but is necessary to give exactly Yu's
sentiment. *,We are not to look,* says Ch*in King

( 1^ j^, Sung dyn.) ' for good fortune or bad,
beyond the complacency or displacency of the
mind.' Yu's object by this remark was to
deepen the impression of his previous observa-
tion.
p. 6. Exhortation founded on Yti's woposition,
PJ,— see Can. of Yaou, p. 10. -^



Digitized by



Google



BK.n-CH.I.6,7.



THE COUNSELS OF THE GREAT YU



55



seems to be no reason for anxiety. Do not fail in due attention
to the laws and ordinances. Do not find your enjoyment in
indulgent ease. Do not go to excess in pleasure. In your em-
ployment of men of worth, let none come between you and them.
Put away evil without hesitation. Do not try to carry out
doubtful plans. Study that all your purposes may be with the
light of reason. Do not go against what is right to get the praise
of the people. Do not oppose the people to follow your own desires.
Attend to these things without idleness or omission, and from the four
quarters the barbarous tribes will come and acknowledge your sove-
reignty."

Yu said, "Oh! think of these things^ O emperor. Virtue is seen
in the goodness of the government, and the government is tested



(Cboo He says the original read, was ]^) '^R

^te ^£> — *l>e reverently cautious where

there is no calculating/ no forecasting, ix^ no

occasion for anxiety. J^ J^, — not only

* the laws of State and ordinances of ROTt.,' but
all the rules for the regulation of conduct, be it
even in eating and drinking (see a note in the

M #)• *^' '^ ^ beyond,'-«like

water orerflowing and not returning.' B|>,

— ' in employing men of worth, to let mean men

come between you and them is called @^ ' (-^S

#). W V^> fi RB,-'yo«r hundred

movements of mind, — let them be bright.* It
is observed by She Lan (Q^ £9, Sung dyn.):

— *The movements of the sages are accordant
with reason. Whithersoever their spirits and
mental exercises carry them, these are brightly
intelligent and great ; hence it is said ^ J^

outside the provinces did not come regularly
to court, but eyety chieftain of a tribe came
once, on his taking the rule, to acknowledge the



imperial supremacy ; this was called yB^ ^ .
So it was in the Chow dyn. See a note by Ch4n
Sze-k*ae in the ^ ^.

In a pass, in the ^ ^, the clauses ^^

the Shoo in an inverted order ; — a proof, it is
said, that the pres. * Counsels * is a forged com-
pilation. But such arguments have no force.



Online LibraryJames LeggeThe Chinese classics → online text (page 29 of 61)