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UNIVERSITY OF CA RIVERSIDE, LIBRARY



3 1210 01972 9225




THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

RIVERSIDE



UNJVEn^'TY OF CALIFORNIA



BOHN'S STANDARD LIBRARY.



HUNG A R Y

ANP

ITS li EVOLUTIONS



GEORGE BELL & SONS

LONDON : YORK ST., COVENT GARDEN
NEW YORK : 66 FIFTH AVENUE, AND
BOMBAY: 53 ESPLANADE ROAD
CAMBRIDGE : DEIGHTON BELL & CO.



HUNGAEY

in
AND ITS UEY0LIJTI0N8



EARLIEST PERIOD TO THE NINETEENTH CENTUf^



MEMOIE OF LOUIS KOSSUTH.



E. 0. S.



LONDON

GEORGE BELL AND SONS

1896






^Reprinted fnna Sltnottjiie phtte*.'^



2605.':



PREFACE.



"Above all, 1 hope that it w-ill be a point of honour among us all, that
we shall never desert those who have acted unsuccessfully upon
Whig principles, while we continue to profess an admiration of those
who succeeded in the same principles, in the year 1688. — Memoirs
and Corretpondence of C. J. Pox, voL L p. 146.
/

The chief object of this work is to give a true and correct

relation of the life and character of Louis Ko.>»suth, and
especially to point out the principles by whidi he was
guided before and after the Eevolution of 1848. The intro-
ductory History is therefore little more than a compendium
of such events as contributed to form the character of the
>■♦ Hungarian people, and conduced to the development of
^hose laws and institutions by which Hungary claims to be
Considered an independent /lation, , cafz^A•i of .eel^-govem-

ment.

-n ^ .

:>J ■.:.'"

Anonymous publica*;ioi\s, defamatory of t-ie '?ae?e of

■^Hungary, as well as of the characte'* of Iiouis Kossuth, have

been more or less credited in Englai-d during the last five

□ years. The late Governor of Hungary has been represented

h4 as a Demagogue or Eed Republican ; though accusations of

opposite tendencies have like'wise been laid to his charge.

While each separate statement (like even'thing false) has



r-^



D



been drop^jed wlien refuted, the impression left on many whose
judgment and opinion deserve respect, has been derogatory
to Kossuth. EngHshmen, happy in the enjoyment of con-
stitutional freedom, have listened to calumnies ingeniously
devised to court the despotic powers of Europe, and which,
at the expense of truth, have injured the unfortunate ; but
the author of this narrative trusts it will be read in that
spirit of justice and fairness which has ever been the boast
and pride of the English nation : it does not presume to
plead the cause of Kossuth, but only to communicate facts,
some of which have hitherto been unknown in this country,
while others have been misstated. As actions can only be
fairly judged, when their motives are understood, those who
would form a just estimate of the character of Kossutli
must never lose sight of the main feature which distinguishes
him, like the first William of Oi'ange, Algernon Sydney, and
George Washington, from most other great Statesmen, viz.;
that he never stooped to expediency to obtain his object,
however excellent, nor sacrificed one iota of the great prin-
ciple of right, even io' eisti-.b^ish right : for this cause he has
had to contend against philanthropists as well as against
Jyraats, wti^e ntriving to promote the moral before the
material welfare of the people.

Though some of the chief incidents related (more par-
ticularly those connected with the Eevolution) are com-
piled from books already published, many new facts have been
brought together and chronologically arranged, so as to
form a connected whole. Eor the anecdotes relating to the



PREFACE. Vll

early life of Kossuth, and to the affairs of Hungary pre-
ceding the Eevolution, the author is chiefly indebted to
the kindness of an Hungarian Grentlemau, himself an eye-
witness of much that is here recorded, though he took
no active part in. the political events of the period. It is
impossible for the historian of such recent events wholly to
escape the charge of having derived information more from
one source than another, but with the desire to be impartial,
books, as well as people, of various shades of opinion, have
been consulted.

Tlie following books have been referred to by the author —

Ludwig Kossuth, von J. E. Horn.
Sieben und Neunzigtes Heft der Gegenwort — Eine Encyklopadische

Dai'stellung der neuesten Zeit Geschichte fiii- aJJe Stunde.
Ludwig Kossuth und Ungarns neueste Geschichte, von Arthur

Frey.
Mein Leben und Wirken in Ungam in den Jahren, 1848 und 1849,

von Arthur Gbrgey.
A refutation of some of the Principal Statements in Gorgey's Life

and Actions in Hungary, in the years 1848 and 1849, with critical

Remarks on hLs character as a Mihtary Leader, by Geoi'ge Kmety,

late General in the Hungarian Army of Independence.
Austria in 1848-49, by W. H. Stiles.

Illustrated History of Hungaiy, Edward Laurence Godkin.
Revolution of Vienna, Auerbach.
Life of Kossuth, Headley.
Aus Ungam, Schlesinger.
War in Hiingary, General Klapka.

Travels in Hungary and Transylvania, John Paget, Esq.
History of Hungary, Fessler.
Crimes of the House of Hapsburgh against its own Liege Subjects,

F. W. Newman.
Speeches of Kossuth in England and America, collected by F. W

Newman.

I 2



Ill PREFACE.

Kossuth in New England, a Full Account of the Hungarian

Governor's visit to Massachusetts
Kossuth in England.
Kossuth and the Times.

White, Red, and Black, by Francis and Theresa Pulszky.
Memoirs of a Hungarian Lady.

Democratic Review, 1853, vol. 2, Stiles, Heningsen, Gorgey.
Westminster Review, October, 1853. The Progress of Russia.
The Parliamentary Blue Books, 1849, 1850.
The Eclectic Review, January, 1853.
The Village Notary, by J. E. Eotvos
Hungary in 1851, with an Experience of the Austrian Police, by

Charles Loring Brace.

&c., &c.



CONTENTS



CHAPTER I. A.D. 376—880.

Emigration of the Huns into Europe — Various races which succeeded
«ne another in Pannonia - - - - . Page 1

CHAPTER II. A.D. 880—1000.
Settlement of the Magyars . - -.- 5

CHAPTER III. A.D. 1000—1114.

Kings of the house of Arpad — Stephen I., Peter, Andrew I., Bela I.,
Solomon, Geisa I., Ladislaus I., Coloman — The Crusades - 10

CHAPTER IV. A.D. 1114—1301.

Continuation of the kings of the house of Arpdd — Stephen II., Bela II.,
Geisa II., Stephen III., Bela III., Emerick, Ladislaus II., Andrew II.,
Bela IV., Stephen IV., Ladislaus III., Andrew III.— The Crusades —
The Golden Bull— Invasion of the Tartars - - - 31

CHAPTER V. A.D. 1301—1457.

Kings of the houses of Anjou, Luxembourg, and Austria — Charles —
Louis the Great — Mary — Sigismund— Elizabeth — Albert — Ladislaus
— Invasions of the Turks — John Hunyady - - - 59

CHAPTER VL a.d. 1457—1526.
Matthias Corvinus — Ulasdislaus II. — Louis IL - - - 89

CHAPTER VIL a.d. 1526—1576.

Kings of the house of Hapsburg — Ferdinand I. — Maximilian — Princes
of Transylvania — John Sigismund Zapoyla — Stephen Bathory - 99

CHAPTER VIII. A.D. 1576—1657.

Continuation of Kings of the house of Hapsburg — Rudolph I., Mat-
thias IL, Ferdinand IL, Ferdinand III. — Princes of Transylvania —



X CONTEyxS.

Batthory, Betblen Gabor, Rakoczy — The Reformation in Hun-
gary - - - - - - - - 111

CHAPTER IX. A.D. 1657—1740.

Further continuation of Kintjs of the house of Hajwburg — Leopold I. —
Josepli I. — Charles III — Princes of TnuisyWauia — George Rdkoczy —
Francis lldkoczy I. — Michael Apatfy — Francis Rdkoczy II. - 128

CHAPTER X. A.C. 1740—1832.

Kings of the house of Hapsburg Lorraine — Maria Theresa — Joseph II
— Leopold II. — Fraucia I. — Ferdinand V. • • . 143



MEMOIR OF KOSSUTH.

CHAPTER I.
Hungary in the Nineteenth Century .... 161

CHAPTER IL A.D. 1802—1832.

Birth, parentage, and education of Louis Kossuth — Anecdotes of his
boyhood — He studies law — Commences practice under his father —
Completes his legal education at Pesth — Graduates as an advocate —
Returns to Ujhdly — Assists as a "NobUis" at the Comitate' (County
Meetings) — Is appointed lawyer to the Cotintess Sz.'lpary — His
passion for the chase — The Polish Revolution of 1&30 — The cholera —
Revolt of the peasantry — Kossuth addresses the people — He estab-
lishes Cholera Hospitals — Jealousy of his influence — Gambling —
Becomes delegate for the Countess Szdpary at the Diet of 1S32 — His
mother's parting admonition — He abjures all gaaies of hazard - 172

CHAPTER III. JEt. 30—34. Diet of 1832—1836.

Kossuth a delegate — Diet of 1790^Deputatio Regnicolaris — Grievances
— Baron Wesselenyi Mikliis — Reform party of 1S32 — Conservatives — •
Privileged and unprivileged classes — Condition of the peasantry —
Urbarium of Maria Theresa — Proposed reform of the Commercial
Code — Proposed reform of the frbarium— Rejected by the Magnates
thirteen times — Xagy Pal — The Poet Kcilcsey — Francis Deak, leader
of the Reform Pai-ty — Klauzal-Beothy — Baldgh — Wesselenyi joins
the Reform Party in the Hungarian Diet — Prosecution of Wesselenyi
and Balogb by the Austrian Government — Kossuth speaks on the
occasion — He establishes a paper to report the transactions of the
Diet — Employs a lithographic press — His press stopped — Writes the
reports — Employs messengers for their conveyance— Close of the



CONTENTS. XI

Diet — Beneficial efiecta on the country of the Journal of Kos-
suth ........ l»l

CHAPTER IV. ^r. 34—39. a.d. 1836—1841.

Austrian policy hostile to the coustitutional liberty of Hungary — Form
of Hungarian Government — Viceregal Council — Hungarian State
Chancery — Deposition of the Chancellor, Count Adam Reviczky ;
replaced by Count Fi 'elis PalfFy — The Presburg Casino — Arrest of
several of the Members by order of the Austrian Government — The
Comitats of Hungary protest against this illegal act — Want of com-
bined action in the Comitate — Kossuth commences another written
newspaper ; its reception throughout the country — Treats of the
Impeachment of Wesselenyi, &c. — Embarrassment of the Austrian
Government — Kossuth ordered to stop his work — He defends his
right as a Hungarian "Nobilis" — The Vice Ispany and the Comitiit
support him — Is arrested by order of the Austrian Government —
His Impiisonment for two years — Is brought to trial in 1839 —
Conduct of the Ju



Online LibraryJames M. UtterbackHungary and its revolutions from the earliest period to the nineteenth century. With a memoir of Louis Kossuth → online text (page 1 of 49)