James Macknight.

A new literal translation from the original Greek, of all the apostolical epistles [microform] : with a commentary and notes, philological, critical, explanatory, and practical : to which is added, a history of the life of the Apostle Paul online

. (page 9 of 50)
Online LibraryJames MacknightA new literal translation from the original Greek, of all the apostolical epistles [microform] : with a commentary and notes, philological, critical, explanatory, and practical : to which is added, a history of the life of the Apostle Paul → online text (page 9 of 50)
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ness, with which ye were formerly
corrupted, neither with the leaven ^
malice and wickednessy but with the
uncorrufited qualities of sincerity in
your love to God and man, and truth
in your worship.

the commemoration of the delivertnce of the first-born from death, in the
feast of the passover, prcfig^ured the feast of the supper, which our Lord
instituted itk commemoration of his own death as our passover. This,
therefore, is the feast which the apostle in ver. 8. exhorted the Corinthians
to keep, with the unleavened qualities of sincerity and truth.

Ver. 8.— 1. Therefore let «# keep the feast, From 1 Cor. xri. 8. we learn
that when ttus epistle was written, the Jewish passover was at hand. If so,
this verse makes it probable, that the disciples of Christ beg^ very early to
celebrate the Lord's supper, with peculiar solemnity, annually on the day on
which he suffered, which was the day of the Jewish passover, called in mo-
dem language Easter.

% Not HJoUh old leaven. In ver. 7. leanen signifies vticM persoru. Here
it denotes tolcjMj^acitVff, such as, gluttony, drunkenness, whoredom, fraud,
tec called old leaveitf because the Corinthians in their heathen state had
heen much addicted to these practices.

3. Neither viith the leaven, kaksac km «'«yir(ieip, of malice and wickedness.
Malice is ill will in the mind ; but vtickedness is ill will expressed by actions,
sspedally siich as afe accompanied with treachery. Hence the devil is
>tyled, Wfw^tti The nsicM «ie.— As the apostle mentions sincerity and truth
in the subie^pient clsiuc, it it probable that by the leaven of malice and wcJt»

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Cbaf. V.

9 I wrotfc unto you in
•n epistle, not to company
with fornicators.

10 Yet not altogether
with the fondcatfMrs of thb
world)Or with the cdvetous,
or extortioners, or with
idolaters; for then must
ye needs go out of the

1 1 But now I have writ-
ten unto you, not to keep
company, if any man that
is called a brother, be a
fornicator, or covetous, or
an idolater, or a railer, or
a druiduird, or an extor-
tioner, with such an one,
no not to eat

12 For what have I to
do to judge them also that
arc without? do not ye
judge them that are within ?

9 l&ypa^ot vfuv ev Tfi
enigo^y fiti crwavofoyviKT-
3at eofvoig.

10 Ecu ot; navtog Toc^
isofvoig tov MOCffiov irovToVy
f! rtH^ is^wBxrais, fj opno-

o^eiXere opa ex tov xoafiov

1 1 Hw is c^po^a VfltV

Te$) a^X^ cvoiia^oiievogy if

XoXarpiK, 17 Xociopog, n l^
^vaog^ 97 ap0oi£* t^ Toeotir^
(ifjSe awiO^tv.

12 Te yap (lot xcu rovg e^
xptvEiv; ovx'^ T0V5 '«To v(iei£
xpcvsre ;

ednett, he meant all those bad dispositions and actions, wluch hypocrites
cover by putting on a shew of piety.

4. Unieavffied qual'uif oftincerity and truth. The apostle g^ves the epithet
q{ unleavened to nneerity and truths in allunon to the emblematical meaning
of the unleavened bread which the Israelites were to eat during the feast of
the passover ; for thereby they were taught to celebrate that feast with pious
^ and virtuous dispositions.— A{VfCM( being an adjective, we may supply as its
substantive, either Aprottt or «'^fli^/t4«ici.

Ver. 10. — 1. With extortioners. The word m^vA^ttt signifies those who
take away their neighbours' goods, either by force or by fraud, and who in-
jure them by any kind of violence.

Ver. 11. — 1. If any one called a brother, be a fornicator, kc The words
Mty vi( a/ix^^ ffo^cefofcty^ if ir9^v0*, according to Oecumenius and Others,
may be translated, If any brother be reputed a Jbtmicator, &c. For •va/Mt^f
/uiy^, signifies named, or famoue. See ver. 1. note 2.

2. Or a covetout person. nxfo?i»TN^ This word is rightiy translated a
covetous person, because literally it signifies^ one who wishes to have more of
a thing than he ought to have : one who is greedy of money, or of sensual
pleasure. Hence the expression Ephes. iv. 19. To vwrk all undemne^t, ty

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CttAF. V.

1 coBnmiiAKs.

9 (Myfrn^^) I have writ* 9 By requiring you to clovise out
ten to you in (tii, 71.) thu the old leaven, ver. 7. I have vir-
epistle, not to a99odate tually ordered you in thU eptaile^ ?u4

to be JamiMar with fieraons addicted
to whoredom*

10 J7otiw^, that ye may not mis-
understand me, my meaning is, notj
fiMTiicators of this world, that ye should seclude yourselves
and with the covetous, wholly from the company of heathen

fomicatora^ and covetotts fieraona^ and
extortioner9j and ukdatrra^ ainee im
that case ye muat renoumce all worldly

with fornicators.

10 (Km, 305.) However^
not untveraaUy with the

and vrith extortioners,
and with idcrfaters, ainee
then, indeedy^je muat go
out of the world.

1 1 But now, / write to
you, not to aaaociate with

btiaineaa whatever*

1 1 But nowy more particularly, /

order you not to aaaBdmte with Mm^ if
MiMy if any one called ^ a any one called a Christian brother^ be
brother be a fornicator, or a known fornicator j or a cavetoua fter*

aony or an occasional idolater j or a re*
viler y or a drunkardy or an extortionerf
with auch a fieraon not even to eatf
either in hb own house, or in the
house of any other person, and £ur
less at the Lord's table ; that he may
be ashamed of his evil practices.

12 This, and my order to excom*
municate the incestuous person,
does not relate to heathens : For what
right have I to ptmiah them alaoj who
are without the church ? I have no
authority over them. &ve not ye
a right to judge and excommunicate
them who are within the church ?

^•«vt(ifli fvith co^toutnutf that u) vsitb greedinett. See the note on that

3. With auch a perton, not even to eat. Were we to obsenre this rule with
strictneM, now that all the worid around us are become Christians, we
fihoQld be ofafiged to go out of the world. Nevertheless, as Wall observes,
* The main tense of it ts an everlasting rale ; that a conscientious Christiaa
should choose, as far as he can, the company, mtercourse and familiarity of
good men, and such as fear God, and avoid as far as his necessary afiiurs
wiU permit, the conversaUon and fellowship of such as St Paul here describes.
This is a thing (what decay soever of public discipline there be) in each
Ptrtictthtr Christian's power.' See 2 Cor. vi. 14. ftote.

a eovetaua peraon^* or an
idolater, or a revHery or a
drunkard, or an extortion-
er, with such a fieraon not
even to eat '

13 (Ti ya^ futy sup.
Vfooifiui ;) for what have I
To DO tx> judge them also
who are vrithout ? do not
ye judge them who are

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13 But them that are 13 Tovg ie sfo 6 ^6og

without, God judgcdi. jtptvffc. Kat e^dpeire rov no-
Therefore put away from y^pQ^ ^^ {^^qi; avTcyp.
among yourselves that
wicked person.

Ver.l3.— 1. £ut themvfho art wtJkout, God judgetb. The apostle wrote
this and the preceding verse, to shew the Corinthians, the reason why, after
commanding them to pass so severe a sentence on the man, he said nothing



View and Illustration of the Exhortations contained in this Chapter.
1 HE Corinthians since their conversion, had sued each other,
as formerly, in the heathen courts of judicature about worldly
matters, often of small importance. This practice was the more
blameable, as the Christians, who in the first age were not dis«
tinguished from the Jews, might as Jews, according to the laws
of the empiie, have held courts of judicature of their own, for
determining most of the controversies about worldly matters
which arose among themselves. Wherefore, by declining the
decisions of their brethren, and by bringing their causes into the
heathen courts, they shewed that they had a mean opinion of the
knowledge and integrity of their brethren. Besides, the fre-
quency of their suits, led the heathens, before whom they were
brought, to think the Christians not only litigious, but disposed
to injure one another. These things, of which the apostle was
informed, bringing great dishonour on the Chnstian name, he
rebuked the Corinthians severely, for daring to go to law with
one another before the heathens, and not before the saints, ver.
1. — Know ye not, said he, that the Christian inspired teachers,
whom he called aaints^ judge the wortdj that is, declare the laws
by which the world at present is ruled, and is to be judged at
last ? And if the world is judged by you, are ye unworthy to judge
the smallest matters ? ver. 2.— -Do ye not know, that we foretell
the judgment and punishment of evil angels ? Being thus super-
naturally endowed, why may we not judge in things pertaining
to this life ? ver. 3.— -V^hen tlierefore ye have set up secular
seats of judgment, as ye ought to do, place thereon as judges,
such of the spiritual men among you, as on account of the infe-
riority of their gifts, are least esteemed in the churchy ver. 4.-^

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13 But them vho are 13 But ihe %mbeHeving Jevft and
without, God judgeth. * Gentiles vfho are out qf the churchy it
(JUh 308.) Therefore, put belongs to God to judge and puni^.
away from aipong your- Therefore^ put avay from among
selves, the wicked person, yourselves^ by excommunication, the

wicked person of whom I have been


to them concerning the woman who was guilty with him. The discipline
of the ehnrch, was not to be exercised on persons out of it. Hence it ap-
pears that tint wooum was a heathen.

I speak it to your shame, that in your opinion, there is not so
much as one wise man among you, who is fit to judge between
his brethren ; but brother carrieth his brother into the heathen
courts, as if he expected more justice from heathens than from
Christians, ver. 5, 6 — Now it is utterly wrong in you, to have
any law suits at all in the heathen courts. Ye had much better
suffer yourselves to be injured and defrauded, in small matters,
than go to law before unbelievers, since the seeking redress in
diat manner will be attended with more trouble and loss, than if
ye bare the injury patiently, ver. 7. — Next^ because the other
parties, by suffering themselves to be sued in the heathen courts,
had shewn a disposition to defraud their brethren, the apostle
denounced the judgment of God ag^nst all unrighteous persons
whatever : and mentioned particularly, fornicators, idolaters,
adulterers, pathics, sodomites, thieves, and others, solemnly de-
claring that they shall for ever be excluded from the kingdom
of God, ver. 8, 9, 10. — And such, said he, were some of you
before your conversion to Christianity, ver. 1 1.

The false teacher, it seems, with a view to gain the favour of
the Greeks, had taught that luxury and fornication were allowed
under the gospel ; and had supported that doctrine by the com-
mon arguments wiA which sensualists in all ages and countries
defend their debauched manners. Wherefore, to prevent the
unthinking from being seduced by these arguments, the apostle,
with great propriety, confuted them in his epistle to the Corin-
thians, because, of all the Greeks, the inhabitants of Corinth
were the most debauched ; and because, such of them as were
Christians, had not yet acquired a just sense of the obligations
to purity, Iwd on them by the gospel. It is true, the apostle,

VOL. II. 11

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m^ View. I OOBINTHIANS. Csaf. VI

tccording to his inMin«r,hath not stated these arguments ei^pli-
citly. Nevertheless, from the things which he hath written in
confutation of them) we learn that they were of the following im-
port 1. That meats and drinks being made for the use of men)
and men's belly being made for the enjoyment of meats and
drinkS) the pleasures of the table, in their highest perfection,
must be lawful. 2. That the body was made for venereal plea-
sures. 3. That the pleasures of the table and of the bed, may
be enjoyed without injury to others. And 4. That by implant-*
ing in us strong natural inclinadons to these pleasures, God had^
shewn it to be his will that we should enjoy them.-— To the
argument, concerning the luxuries of the table, the apostle
replied, that although all meats and drinks are made for men's
use, and are in themselves lawful, the luxurious use of them, in
some circumstances, may not be expedient Many kinds of nice
meats and drinks, even when used in moderation, may be preju-
dicial to one's health ; and may not be suitable to his income and
station. Besides too great attention to tlie pleasures of the table,
always creates habits troublesome both to the luxurious them-
selves, and to the persons with whom they are connected, ver.
12. — ^To the argument, that the belly is made for eating and
drinking, the apostle answered, that both the belly, and the meats
by which it is gi*atified, are to be destroyed: they are toliave no
place in the future life of the body. From which it follows, that
to place our happiness in enjoyments, which ai*e confined to the
present short state of our existence, while we neglect pleasures
which may be enjoyed through eternity, is extremely foolish,
ver. 13— To the argument whereby the licentious justify the
unrestrained enjoyment of women, namely that the body was
made for fornication, the apostle answered, by flatly denying the
position. The body was not made for fornication, but for the
service of the Lord Christ, who will raise it up at the last day
fitly formed for his own service, ver. 14 — ^To the argument, that
the lusts of the flesh may be gratified without injury to others.

Old Translation. Greek Text.

CHAP. VI. 1 Dare 1 To^^fiCf, tig V(iQV^ Ttpoy-

anyofyou, having a mat- (la €X(^ npog TOV iTepoy,

Ver. 21. — 1. Having a matter againtt anciber. Locke thinks this a re-
proof of the faction, who, to screen the incestuous person fit)ni the censure
of the church, carried the matter into a heathen court of judicature. But

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Ckap. VI. 1 CORINTHIANS. View. 13

the apostle replied, first, that great injury is done to Christ, when
the members of our body, which are his members, are made the
members of an harlot, in such a manner as to be employed in
fulfilling her vicious inclinations, ver. 15.— Secondly, ^y forni-
cation, a man injures his own soul. For he becomes one person
with his whore ; he acquires the same vicious inclinations, and
the same vicious manners with her : Nay he makes himself her
slave, ver. 1 6 — Whereas he who is joined to the Lord, is one
8/iirit. He acquires the dispositions and manners of Christ, and
is directed by him, ver. 17.— In the third place, he who commits
fornication, sins against his own body, as well as against his soul.
He wastes its strength, and introduces into it painful diseasesy
which often occasion its death, ver. 18. — ^Lastly, by gluttony^
drunkenness, and fornication, great injury is done to the Spirit of
God, whose temple our body is; nay injury even to God himself,
to whom we belong, not only by the right of creation, but by the
right of redemption. We should therefore glorify God in our
body, and in our spirit, which are his, by making that holy and
honourable use of our body, which he hath prescribed, ver. 1 9, 20.
Here it may be proper to take notice, that the apostle hath not
given a separate answer to the fourth argument, by which immo-
derate sensual indulgences are oft-times defended : namely, the
argument taken from the strong passions and appetites which God
hath implanted in our nature towards sensual pleasures. But the
confutation of that argument is implied, in what he hath said con-
cerning the injury done by fomicaUon to the body. For if in the
constitution of things, God hath ccmnected diseases and death
with immoderate sensual gratifications, he hath in the clearest
manner shewn it to be his will, that we should abstain from them.
And therefore, although by implanting in us bclinations to sen-
sual pleasures, he hath declared it to be his will that we should
enjoy them, yet by connecting diseases and death with the im-
moderate use of these pleasures, he hath no less clearly declared,
that he wills us to enjoy them only in moderation.

New Translatioh. Commbntart.

CHAP. VI. 1 Dare any CHAP. VI. 1 Dare any qf you

of you, having a matter having a matter of complaint against

against another, ^ be judged another brother, be so regardless of

his crime being ptmishable by the laws of the Greeks^ (chip. v. 1.) I do not
nm why either the fiither who was injured, or the ikctioDy sbouU have been
eomiemned for hrii^af the matter before the civil DMgist^

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ter against another, go to xpivscT^cu eTU TQV a^tXGi^j XM

law before the unjust, and Q^yf, £xSv TcrP ayujr ;
not before the saints ?

2 Do ye not know that 2 Ovx ov^tBy &tv 6l ay^
the saints shall judge the ot tOV xoOflov xpivOtHSt^ X(U
world ? and if the world ^ ^ ^y {j^y xftvstcu 6 xocfuogy
shall be judged by you,are aro^tot ege xpirnpix^ eXa-
ye unwortliy to judge the

smallest ^natters ? ^^ '

3 Know ye not that we 3 Ovx otSaTf, oTt ayyf-
shall judge angels ? how ^vg xpivoviiev \ (intv ye ^ir
much more things that cy^ixa'

pertain to this life ?

it was a more efiectaal method of redressing the evil, than by the ordinaiy
censures of the church.

2. B^ the unrigbteoiu. The heath^ens are called ttnrigbteoui, in the same
sense that Christians are called taints, or boly» See Ess. iv. 48. — For as the
latter were called sainti, not on account of the real sanctity of their manners,
but on account of their professed faith, so the fofmer were called tmrighteoWf
on account of their idolatry and unbelief, ver. 6. although many of them
were remarkable for their regard to justice, and to all the duties of morality.

Ver. 2. — 1. Do ye not know. Because this question is repeated six time»
in this chapter, Locke thinks it was intended as a reproof to the Corinthians^
who, notwithstanding they boasted of the knowledge they had received from
the false teacher, were extremely ignorant in reli^ous matters.

2. That the taintt. This name, though common to all who believed in the
true God, (see Ess. iv. 48.) is sometimes appropriated to the tpirUual men
ill the Christian church, who were inspired with the knowledge of the gos-
pel. Col. i. 26.

3. yudge the world. See Ess. iv. 3. Here St Paul told the Corinthians,
that agreeably to Christ's promise to the apostles, Matth. xix. 28. they were
at that time actually ^'Mfljfin^, or ruling the world by the laws of the gospel,
which they preached to the workl. Hence Christ told his apostles, John xii.
31. Now is the judgment of this world. — But Bengelius says, x^iyvo-i is the
future tense, and signifies shall judge / and that the apostle had in his eye,
the state of the world under Constantine, when the Christians got possession
of civil power. This interpretation is mentioned by Whitby likewise. Never*
theless, the subsequent clause. If the world, x^uvtai, is judged by you, shews,
I think, that the apostie spake of the time then present. — Others, because
the judgment of angels is spoken of in the next verse, interpret this of the
last judgment ; and by the saints judging the world, they understand the
saints affording matter for condemning the wicked. But this sense has no
relation to the apostie's argument. — With respect to the idea, which many
entertain, of the saints being Christ's assessors when he judges the worli^
I observe, that it is repugnant to all the accomits given of the general judg*

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Chap. Vt 1 COBINTHIAKS. 85

by the unrighteouij* and the honour of your religion'; as to

not by the saints ? be judged by the heathens^ and not by

the saint 8 ?

2 Do ye not know * 2 Do ye not know that the inspired
that the saints* judge the teachers among yowy judge the world
world ? * and if the world by' the laws of the gospel, which
it judged (ff) by you, are they promulgate? Jnd if the world
ye imworthy qf the least is thus judged by youj are yey who
seats qf judicature ? * are so well enlightened, unworthy

to Jill the least seats of judicature f

3 Do ye not know that 3 Do ye not knowy that we declare
we judge angels ?* (jam the judgment qf the evil angelsy
yt Cufrtxm) why not then whereby we are strongly impressed
things fiertaimng to this with a sense of the justice of God ?
life ? (see v. 4. note 1.) Why may we not then determine

things fiertaining to this Ufe ?

ment ; and particularly to our Lord's own account of that great event,
Matth. zzv. where the righteous are represented as all standing before bis
tribunal, along with the wicked, and as receiving their sentence at the same
time with them. Besides, for what purpose are tlie saints to be Christ's as-
sessors at the judgment ? Is it to give him council ? or only to assent to the
sentence he will pass on the wicked ? Surely not the former : and for the
latter, why should their assent be necessary, more than the assent of the
holy angels ? To found a doctrine of this magnitude, merely on two obscure
passages of scripture, which can easily admit of a different and better inter-
pretation, seems not a little rash.

4. Are ye wmortby of the least ttaU cfjvdicature 7 K{it«(m»ip tx«t;^is-»».
See James ii. 6. where the word x^itv^mi, is translated^'i/c^fmenf teau. It
is used in the same sense often by the LXX, and by the best Greek authors,
as Wetstein hath shewn. To understand the propriety of the apostle's
rebuke, the reader should know, that the Jews in the provinces, were al-
lowed by the Romans, to hold courts of judicature for determining, accord-
ing to their own jurisprudence, such controversies about secular aifairs as
arose among themselves ; because tiieir laws and customs being different
from those of all other nations, the heathen jurisprudence could not be used
in regulating their afiairs. See Joseph. Ant lib. ziv. p. 487. Genev. Edit.
The same privilege, 1 doubt not, was er\joyed by the Christians. For as
there were many Jews among them, and as they agreed with the Jews in
abstaining from the worship of the heathen gods, tiiey were in the first age
considered as Jews, and enjoyed their immunities.

Ver. 3. — 1. That V3e judge angeU ? This, many commentators under-
stand of the power which some of the first Christians possessed of casting
out devils, and of the efficacy of the preaching of the gospel, in destroying
the usurped dominion of evil angels over the children of disobedience.
And it must be acknowledged, that the phrase, 7' W^^n^/i^ of this vorld, hath

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4 If then yc have judg-
nents of things pertaining
to this life, set them to
judge who are least es-
teemed in the church.

5 1 speak to your shame^
Is it so, that there is not a
wise man amongst you ?
no not one that shall be
able to judge t>etween his
brethren ?

6 But brother goeth to
law with brother, and that
before the unbelievers.

7 Now therefore there is
utterly a fault among you,
because ye go to law one
with another ; why do ye
not rather take wrong?
why do ye not rather suffer
yourselves to be defraud-
ed ?

8 Nay, you do wrong
and defraud, and that your

9 Know ye not that the
unrighteous shall not in-
herit the kingdom of God?
Be not deceived ; neither
fornicators, nor idolators.

4 BuntiXa flBV OW XpiTlf*

pea €av ^x^h ''^^^S c^ovSw^y-
[levovg ev ^ sxx^rfiiq, rovtovg

5 IIpoj evrpoxsyiv vfiiv Xc-
yG>* ovtcdg ovx egtv ev vfuv

&a)eprai ai^a (leaov rov aSeX-
^ov avtov;

6 AXXa aSeX^og (lera
aJ^sX^v xptverouy xm "tovro

7 KSyj (lev OW oXQg rttryj-
(la ev vfivv cgiVj ore xptfiara
ex^te [isy iavTQV. Auiri
ovx^ lidXXov a^LXiuo^a; Start

AAJla vfisig
anogspentej xm



9 H ovx otiarcj ori aSi-
xov ^aac^iav ©eov ov xXripO'

« nOfVOij OVTB BlJ^^joTuCWfOiy

that signification, John xii. 31. But such a sense oi judging, is foreign to
the apostle's argument.

Ver. 4. — 1. Secular eeat$ ^judicature. So Ctotrtxtt. xftrn^t<i literally signi-
Hcs. See ver. 2. note 4. — Secular seatt of judicature, are those where ques-
tions relating to the affairs of this life are judged. Thus Luke xxi. 34.
lAt^tfjtvAi fitcn-tiLAt, signifies t&e caret of this life.

2. T%ote tobo are least esteemed in the church. Whitby translates the
verse in the following manner : If ye use the heathen secular judgment seats,
je constitute those vsho are despised in the church, ycur judges. But the trans-
lation I haie given, is more literal, and more agreeable to the apostle't

Online LibraryJames MacknightA new literal translation from the original Greek, of all the apostolical epistles [microform] : with a commentary and notes, philological, critical, explanatory, and practical : to which is added, a history of the life of the Apostle Paul → online text (page 9 of 50)