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James Miller Guinn.

History of the state of California and biographical record of the San Joaquin Valley, California. An historical story of the state's marvelous growth from its earliest settlement to the present time online

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Online LibraryJames Miller GuinnHistory of the state of California and biographical record of the San Joaquin Valley, California. An historical story of the state's marvelous growth from its earliest settlement to the present time → online text (page 1 of 262)
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HISTORY

OF THE

STATE OF CALIFORNIA

AND

BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD

OF THE

SAN IOAQUIN VALLEY, CALIFORNIA ,



An Historical Story of the State's Marvelous Growth from Its Earliest Settlement
to the Present Time



PROF. J. M. GUINN , A. M.,

Author of A History of Los Angeles and Vicinity, History of Southern California, Secretary and Curator

of the Historical Society of Southern California, Member of the American

Historical Association, Washington, D. C.



Containing Biographies of Well-Known Citizens of the Past and Present.



THE CHAPMAN PUBLISHING CO.

CHICAGO
1905



Copyright, 1902



CHAPMAN PUBLISHING CO.



PREFACE



12C4255



HISTORICAL

THERE are very few states in the Union that have a more varied and a more interesting
history than California ; and there are few if any whose history is so vaguely and so
indefinitely known. This is largely due to the fact that its colonization was effected by
one race and its evolution as a state by another.

In the rapid development of the state by the conquering race, the trials and struggles of
the first colonists have been forgotten. No forefathers' day keeps their memory green, and no
observance celebrates the anniversary of their landing. To many of its people, the history of
California begins with the discovery of gold, and all behind that is regarded of little impor-
tance. The race characteristics of the two peoples who have dominated California differ widely ;
and from this divergence arises the lack of sympathetic unison. Perhaps no better expression for
this difference can be given than is found in popular bywords of each. The " poco tiempo "
(by and by) of the Spaniard is significant of a people who are willing to wait — who would
rather defer till mwuma — to-morrow — than hurry to-day. The " go .ahead " of the American is
indicative of haste, of rush, of a strenuous struggle to overcome obstacles, whatever they may be,
in the present.

In narrating the story of California, I have endeavored to deal justly with the different
eras and episodes of its history ; to state facts ; to tell the truth without favoritism or preju-
dice; to give credit where credit is due and blame where it is deserved. In the preparation of
this history I have tried to make it readable. I have avoided dull details and have omitted
cumbrous statistics.

The subject has been presented by topic, observing so far as possible the chronological order
of the events. In collecting material for this work, I have visited all the large libraries of the
state, have consulted state and county archives, and have scanned thousands of pages of news-
papers and magazines. Where extracts have been made, due credit has been given in the body
of the work. I have received valuable assistance from librarians, from pioneers of the state,
from editors and others. To all who have assisted me, I return my sincere thanks.

J. M. GUINN.



PREFACE.



BIOGRAPHICAL

THE high standing of the San Joaquin Valley is due not alone to ideal climate and rare beauty
of scenery. Other regions boasting an environment as attractive, have nevertheless re-
mained unknown to the great world of commerce and of thought. When we study the
progress made in this section of our country, especially during the past two decades of the nine-
teenth century and the opening years of the twentieth century, we are led to the conclusion that
the present gratifying condition is clue to the enterprise of public-spirited citizens. They have
not only developed commercial possibilities and horticultural resources, but they have also main-
tained a commendable interest in public affairs, and have given to their commonwealth some of
its ablest statesmen. The prosperity of the past has been gratifying; and, with the building of
the canal to connect the Atlantic and the Pacific, with the increasing of railroad facilities, with the
further development of local resources, there is every reason to believe that the twentieth century
will witness the most marvelous growth this region has ever made.

In the compilation of this work and the securing of necessary data, a number of writers
have been engaged for months. They have visited leading citizens and used every endeavor to
produce a work accurate and trustworthy in every detail. Owing to the great care exercised,
and to the fact that every opportunity was given to those represented to secure accuracy in
their biographies, the publishers believe they are giving to their readers a volume containing few
errors of consequence. The biographies of a number of representative citizens will be missed
from the work. In some instances this was caused by their absence from home when our writers
called, and in some instances was caused by a failure on the part of the men themselves to
understand the scope of the work. The publishers, however, have done all within their power
to make this work a representative one.

The value of the data herein presented will grow with the passing years. Posterity will
preserve the volume with care, from the fact that it perpetuates biographical history that other-
wise would be wholly lost. In those now far -distant days will be realized, to a greater extent
than at the present time, the truth of Macaulev's statement, " The history of a country is best told
in the lives of its people." " CHAPMAN PUBLISHING COMPANY.

April, 1905.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.

PACE

Spanish Explorations and Discoveries 33

Romance and Reality— The Seven Cities of Cibola— The Myth of Quivera— El Dorado-
Sandoval's Isle of the Amazons— Mutineers Discover the Peninsula of Lower California
— Origin of the Name California — Cortes's Attempts at Colonization — Discovery of the
Rio Colorado— Coronado's Explorations— Ulloa's Voyage.



CHAPTER II.

Alta or Nueva California 37

Voyage of Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo — Enters the Bay of San Diego in Alta California —
Discovers the Islands of San Salvador and Vitoria — The Bay of Smokes and Fires — The
Santa Barbara Islands — Reaches Cape Mendocino — His Death and Burial on the Island of
San Miguel — Ferrolo Continues the Voyage — Drake, the Sea King of Devon — His Hatred
of the Spaniard — Sails into the South Sea — Plunders the Spanish Settlements of the South
Pacific — Vain Search for the Straits of Anian — Refits His Ships in a California Harbor —
Takes Possession of the Country for the English Queen — Sails Across the Pacific Ocean
to Escape the Vengeance of the Spaniards — Sebastian Rodriguez Cermeiio Attempts a
Survey of the California Coast — Loss of the San Agustin — Sufferings of the Shipwrecked
Mariners — Sebastian Viscaino's Explorations — Makes No New Discoveries — Changes the
Names Given by Cabrillo to the Bays and Islands — Some Boom Literature — Failure of
His Colonization Scheme — His Death.

CHAPTER III.
Colonization of Alta California 43

Jesuit Missions of Lower California — Father Kino or Kuhn's Explorations — Expulsion of
the Jesuits — Spain's Decadence — Her Northwestern Possessions Threatened by the Rus-
sians and English — The Franciscans to Christianize and Colonize Alta California — Galvez
Fits Out Two Expeditions— Their Safe Arrival at San Diego— First Mission Founded—
Portola's Explorations — Fails to Find Monterey Bay — Discovers the Bay of San Fran-
cisco — Return of the Explorers — Portola's Second Expedition — Founding of San Carlos
Mission and the Presidio of Monterey.

■J* :< «S«

CHAPTER IV.



Aborigines of California.



Inferiority of the California Indian — No Great Tribes — Indians of the San Gabriel Valley —
Hugo Reid's Description of Their Government — Religion and Customs — Indians of the
Santa Barbara Channel— Their God Chupu— Northern Indians— Indian Myths and Tra-
ditions.

19



S>0 CONTENTS.

CHAPTER V.

PAGE

Franciscan Missions of Alta California 56

Founding of San Diego de Alcala — San Carlos Barromeo — San Antonio de Padua — San
Gabriel Arcangel — San Luis Obispo — San Francisco de Asis — San Juan Capistrano — Santa
Clara — San Buenaventura — Santa Barbara — La Purisima Concepcion — Santa Cruz — La
Soledad — San Jose — San Juan Bautista — San Miguel — San Fernando del Rey, San Luis
Key, Santa Ynez — San Rafael — San Francisco Solano — Architecture — General Plan of the
Missionary Establishments — Houses of the Neophytes — Their Uncleanliness.

CHAPTER VI.
Presidios of California 66

Presidio in Colonization— Founding of San Diego— General Plan of the Presidio— Found-
ing of Monterey — Rejoicing over the Event — Hard Times at the Presidio — Bear Meat Diet
— Two Hundred Immigrants for the Presidio — Founding of the Presidio of San Francisco
— Anza's Overland Route from Sonora— Quarrel with Rivera— Anza's Return to Sonora—
Founding of Santa Barbara — Disappointment of Father Serra — Quarrel of the Captain with
the Missionaries over Indian Laborers — Soldiers' Dreary Life at the Presidios.

jt jt £t

CHAPTER VII.



Pueblos .



Pueblo Plan of Colonization — Necessity for Agricultural Colonies — Governor Filipe de
N^ve Selects Pueblo Sites — San Jose Founded — Named for the Patron Saint of California
—Area of the Spanish Pueblc— Government Supplies to Colonists— Founding of the
Pueblo of Los Angeles— Names of the Founders— Probable Origin of the Name— Sub-
divisions of Pueblo Lands— Lands Assigned to Colonists— Founding of Branciforte, the
last Spanish Pueblo.

,* Jt &

CHAPTER VIII.



The Passing of Spain's Domination.



Spain's Exclusiveness — The First Foreign Ship in Monterey Bay — Vancouver's Visit —
Government Monopoly of the Fur Trade — American Smugglers — The Memorias — Russian
Aggression — Famine at Sitka — Rezanoff's Visit — A Love Affair and Its Tragic Ending —
Fort Ross — Failure of the Russian Colony Scheme — The War of Mexican Independence —
Sola the Royalist Governor — California Loyalists — The Year of Earthquakes — Bouchard
the Privateer Burns Monterey — The Lima Tallow Ships — Hard Times — No Money and
Little Credit— The Friars Supreme.

& v* ,*

CHAPTER IX.



From Empire to Republic.



Sola Calls for Troops — Cholas Sent Him — Success of the Revolutionists — Plan of Iguala —
The Three Guarantees— The Empire — Downfall of Agustin I. — Rise of the Republic —
Bitter Disappointments of Governor Sola and the Friars — Disloyalty of the Mission
Friars — Refuse to Take the Oath of Allegiance — Arguella, Governor — Advent of Foreign-
ers — Coming of the Hide Droghers — Indian Outbreak.






CONTENTS. 21

CHAPTER X.

P^GE

First Decade of Mexican Rule 87

Echeandia Governor — Make San Diego His Capital — Padres of the Four Southern Mis-
sions Take the Oath of Allegiance to the Republic — Friars of the Northern Missions
Contumacious — Arrest of Padre Sarria — Expulsion of the Spaniards — Clandestine De-
parture of Padres Ripoll and Altimira — Exile of Padre Martinez — The Diputacion —
Queer Legislation — The Mexican Congress Attempts to Make California a Penal Colony —
Liberal Colonization Laws — Captain Jedediah S. Smith, the Pioneer of Overland Travel,
Arrives — Is Arrested — First White Man to Cross the Sierra Nevadas — Coming of the
Fur Trappers — The Pattie Party — Imprisoned by Echeandia — Death of the Elder Pattie —
John Ohio Pattie's Bluster — Peg Leg Smith — Ewing Young — The Solis Revolution — A
Bloodless Battle — Echeandia's Mission Secularization Decree — He Is Hated by the Friars
— Dios y Libertad — The Fitch Romance.



CHAPTER XI.
Revolutions — The Hijar Colonists 93

Victoria, Governor — His Unpopularity — Defeated by the Southern Revolutionists — Abdi-
cates and is Shipped out of the Country — Pio Pico. Governor — Echeandia, Governor of
Abajenos (Lowers) — Zamarano of the Arribanos (Uppers) — Dual Governors and a No
Man's Land — War Clouds — Los Angeles the Political Storm Center — Figueroa Appointed
Gefe Politico — The Dual Governors Surrender — Figueroa the Right Man in the Place —
Hijar's Colonization Scheme — Padres, the Promoter — Hijar to be Gefe Politico — A Fa-
mous Ride— A Cobbler Heads a Revolution — Hijar and Padres Arrested and Deported —
Disastrous End of the Compania Cosmopolitana — Death of Figueroa.



CHAPTER XII.
The Decline and Fall of the Missions 96

Sentiment vs. History — The Friars' Right to the Mission Lands Only That of Occupa-
tion — Governor Borica's Opinion of the Mission System — Title to the Mission Domains —
Viceroy Bucarili's Instructions — Secularization — Decree of the Spanish Cortes in 1S13 —
Mission Land Monopoly — No Land for Settlers — Secularization Plans, Decrees and Regla-
mentos — No Attempt to Educate the Neophytes — Destruction of Mission Property,
Ruthless Slaughter of Cattle — Emancipation in Theory and in Practice — Depravity ot the
"Neophytes— What Did Six Decades of Mission Rule Accomplish?— What Became of the
Mission Estates— The Passing of the Neophytes.



CHAPTER XIII.
The Free and Sovereign State of Alta California .



Castro, Gefe Politico— Nicolas Gutierrez, Comandante and Political Chief— Chico, "Gober-
nador Propritario"— Makes Himself Unpopular— His Hatred of Foreigners— Makes
Trouble Wherever He Goes— Shipped Back to Mexico— Gutierrez Again Political Chief-
Centralism His Nemesis— Revolt of Castro and Alvarado— Gutierrez Besieged— Surrenders
and Leaves the Country — Declaration of California's Independence — El Estado Libre y
Soberano de La Alta California— Alvarado Declared Governor— The Ship of State



CONTENTS.



Launched— Encounters a Storm— The South Opposes California's Independence— Los An-
geles Made a City and the Capital of the Territory by the Mexican Congress— The Capital
Question the Cause of Opposition — War Between the North and South — Battle of San
Buenaventura— Los Angeles Captured— Peace in the Free State— Carlos Carrillo. Gov-
ernor of the South — War Again — Defeat of Carrillo at Las Flores — Peace — Alvarado
Appointed Governor by the Supreme Government — Release of Alvarado's Prisoners of
State— Exit the Free State.



CHAPTER XIV.

Decline and Pall of Mexican Domination 108

Hijos del Pais in Power — The Capital Question — The Foreigners Becoming a Menace —
Graham Affair — Micheltorena Appointed Governor — His Cholo Army — Commodore Jones
Captures Monterey — The Governor and the Commodore Meet at Los Angeles — Extrava-
gant Demands of Micheltorena — Revolt Against Micheltorena and His Army of Chicken
Thieves — Sutter and Graham Join Forces with Micheltorena — The Picoj;. _ Unite with
Alvarado and Castro — Battle of Cahuenga — Micheltorena and His Cholo s Deported — Pico,
Governor — Castro Rebellious — The Old Feud Between the North and the South — Los
Angeles the Capital — Plots and Counter-Plots — Pico Made Governor by President Hcrrera
— Immigration from the United States.



CHAPTER XV.

Municipal Government — Homes and Home Life of the Californians n

The "Muy Ilustre Ayuntamiento," or Municipal Council — Its Unlimited Power, Queer Cus-
toms and Quaint Usages — Blue Laws — How Office Sought the Alan and Caught Him —
Architecture of the Mission Age Not Aesthetic — Dress of the Better Class — Undress of
the Neophyte and the Peon — Fashions That Changed but Once in Fifty Years — Filial
Respect — Honor Thy Father and Mother — Economy in Government — When Men's Pleas-
ures and Vices Paid the Cost of Governing — No Fire Department — No Paid Police — No
Taxes.



CHAPTER XVI.
Territorial Expansion by Conquest 1 19

The Mexican War— More Slave Territory Needed— Hostilities Begun in Texas— Trouble-
Brew ing in California — Fremont at Monterey — Fremont and Castro Quarrel — Fremont
and His Men Depart — Arrival of Lieutenant Gillespie — Follows Fremont — Fremont's Re-
turn — The Bear Flag Revolt— Seizure of Sonoma — A Short-Lived Republic — Commodore
Sloat Seizes California — Castro's Army Retreats Southward — Meets Pico's Advancing
Northward— Retreat to Los Angeles— Stockton and Fremont Invade the South— Pico and
Castro Vainly Attempt to Arouse the People— Pico's Humane Proclamation— Flight of
Pico and Castro — Stockton Captures Los Angeles — Issues a Proclamation — Some His-
torical Myths— The First Newspaper Published in California.



CONTENTS. 23

CHAPTER XVII.

PAGE

Revolt of the Californians 125

Stockton Returns to His Ship and Fremont Leaves for the North — Captain Gillespie,
Comandante, in the South — Attempts Reforms — Californians Rebei — The Americans Be-
sieged on Fort Hill — Juan Flaca's Famous Ride — Battle of Chino — Wilson's Company
Prisoners — Americans Agree to Evacute Los Angeles — Retreat to San Pedro — Cannon
Thrown into the Bay — Flores in Command of the Californians.



CHAPTER XVIII.

Defeat and Retreat of Mervine's Men I2 q,

Mervine, in Command of the Savannah, Arrives at San Pedro — Landing of the Troops—
Mervine and Gillespie Unite Their Forces — On to Los Angeles — Duvall's Log Book — An
Authentic Account of the March, Battle and Retreat— Names of the Killed and Wounded—
Burial of the Dead on Dead Man's Island — Names of the Commanding Officers — Flores
the Last Gefe Politico and Comandante-General — Jealousy of the Hiios del Pais — Hard
Times in the Old Pueblo.

CHAPTER XIX.
Final Conquest of California j^

Affairs in the North— Fremont's Battalion— Battle of Natividad— Bloodless Battle of Santa
Clara— End of the War in the North— Stockton at San Pedro— Carrillo's Strategy— A Re-
markable Battle— Stockton Arrives at San Diego— Building of a Fort— Raid on the
Ranchos— The Flag Episode— General Kearny Arrives at Warner's Pass— Battle of San
Pasqual — Defeat of Kearny — Heavy Loss — Relief Sent Him from San Diego — Preparing
for the Capture of Los Angeles — The March — Battle of Paso de Bartolo — Battle of La
Mesa— Small Losses— American Names of These Battles Misnomers.




Online LibraryJames Miller GuinnHistory of the state of California and biographical record of the San Joaquin Valley, California. An historical story of the state's marvelous growth from its earliest settlement to the present time → online text (page 1 of 262)