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in CEcumeniufl, in the quotation of the text, though the

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348 ROMANS 111. $7.

immediately succeeding explanation shows that ho really
read 'Ii}<roD. The authorities, then, that have 'Itftrovv are
also confirmatory of the genuineness of 'Iijcrow.) There can
be little doubt that the reading of the received text is
correct. It is wisely approved of by Lachmann, Philippi,
and van Hengel. And we certainly like to find the act of
faith led up to its great and glorious Personal Object, — •
Jesus, our Saviour.

Ver. 27, Uov ovp fi Kuvx^ltfi^'i *E$6«Xg/(rS^. A/a TOiov
yofjiiov; TSv 'ipym; Ov^/' aXXa hoi foy^ov x/Wfty^.

Eng. Auth. VerB. Where is boasting then? It is ex-
eluded. By what law t of works / Nay ; hid by the law
of faith.

Bevised Version. Where then is the glorying t Shut out.
Through what kind of a law? Of works? Nay, but
through the law of faith.

§ 1. The Apostle has finished that grand paragraph
(verses 21 — 26) which explains, in esctenso, what it is that
renders the Gospel "the power of God unto salvation."
His explanation had been given, in brief, in chap. i. 17.
But it was befitting to resume it, and expand it in the full
affluence of its details.

The Apostle had evidently felt, in his own spirit, the
intensest interest as he proceeded wiUi the evolution of the
details. Each item, as it turned up, seems to have sent a
thrill through his heart. His ardour grew and glowed. He
could not but admire the divine rtiethod of justification.
Its symmetry, its completeness, its exquisite adaptations,
and the might of the moral influences with which it was
charged, oharmed his soul. He stood arrested and i*apt as
he gazed. At length words came. And he utters forth, in
abrupt and exceedingly condensed bolts of jubilant thought,
some of the corollary-ideas which, in the midst of the con-

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ROMANS IIL rr. 349

sciousness of his ecstasy, he felt rising up with irrepressible
and almost tumultuating energy within his mind (Verses
27 — 31.) Foremost among these are references to the un-
becoming feelings and incorrect notions, as regai-ds the way
, of justification, that were unhappily characteristic of the
great maas of his countrymen. And thus he says: —
" Where then is the glorying ? Shut ovi. By what kvnd
of law? Of the works? Nay, but through the law of

§ 2. Where then is the glorying ? (Uov ovv i) Kaixn(fi^ ;)
Such is the most literal, and doubtless the most correct
rendering of this clause. In our E)iglish Authoi'ized Ver-
sion the article is ignored : — ^' Where is boasting then ? " —
a translation yielding, indeed, a sense that is far from being
repugnant to the Apostle's idea, but that, nevertheless,
sweeps out into a wider circumference of reference than
he intendi^d. Yaughan says that the article has its geneHc
force. But it is not glorying in general to which the
Apostle is referring. It is not glorying in general that
is put under ban. It is some particular glorying, — the
glorying of some particular class of persons. The Apostle
does not specify the pei-sons to whom he refers; but his
mind was fixed on them, and hence the article : — Where
then is the glorying? It is almost, but not altogether,
tantamount to the expression, — Where then is their glory-

The Vulgate reads, "where is then thy glorying?" or as
Wycliffe gives it, " where is therfore thi gloriynge?" — {ubi
est ergo gloriatio tua?) The same reading is found in the
pre-Hieronymian codices d. e. f g. It is hence the reading
of the Latin Fathers. It is found, too, in the Greek Uncials F
and G; but not in the Greek Fathers. It is a mistake to
refer to Theophylact as supporting it, though it is the case
that, in freely explaining the clause, he applies it directly,
and in the second person, to the Jew, (cJicotwc ovv iptor^
rbv 'lowSaTov, irov iariv ii Kaixrimc aow, icae ij lut^yaXotppotrvvri ;
oi Xlyti Si, irov iariv i) ap^Tii ; oiSi yap tTxov aperfjv, aXXtc
Kaixnaiv n6vi\v. The clause oh Xlyti 8?, wov itrriv ij aptrri',

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shows that Theophylact did not read irov lariv ii leaAxnttl^
aov ;) There can be no doubt that the iatroduction of the
pronoun thy into the Latin versions, and of .the kindred
personal pronoun, of thee, in that single Greek text which is
dually represented by F and G is to be accounted for on the
assumption of an effort to exhibit the force and reference of
the definitive expression — '*the glorying." There is no
evidence, however, that the Apostle was sisting, as it were
face to face with himself, a single representative Jew, and
addi*es8ing him. He is rather looking at the mass of his
countrymen collectively, as in verses 2nd and 29th. And
his attitude is that of one who is speaking of them; rather
than to them.

The Five Clergymen and Shepherd supply a different
pronoun. They render the clause, " Where is our boasting
then?" It is not, as we conceive, a felicitous rendering.
The Apostle was not in the mood to transfer to himself, even
in a figure, that particular, and particularly odious, fiuling
of his countrymen in general, which it was his wish to
reprobate, and which seemed to him to be utterly inconsis-
tent with that way of justification which he had just been
exhibiting and expounding. He stands apart, as an inspired
expositor of the Gospel, and, looking upon both Jews and
Gentiles as respectively massed before his mental eye, he does
not seek, for the moment, to realize or identify, or, at all
events, to take into particular account, his own ethnological

If freely substituting a pronoun for the merely definite
article of the original, — as it would be, perhaps, in some
respects, not undesirable to do, — ^we would make our selection
not from the sphere of the first persoUy nor from the sphere
of the second person, but, as already indicated, from the
sphere of t}ie third person, in which we have an English
pronoun akin both etymologicaUy and conventionally, to the
article. We would say, — " where then is their glorying? "
But the fact that both the second and the first persons have
been respectively proposed, is evidence that the definitive-
ness of the expression has been realized, and should not be

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ROMANS JIL f7. 851

It has, indeed, been very generally realized. Luther
inserts the article in his translation, {Wo bleibet nun der
Ruhmf), and has been followed, among German translators,
by Piscator, Felbinger, Beitz, Zinzendorf, Heumann, Bengel,
Michaelis, Stolz, &c. The Dutch translators, old and new,
have likewise inseiied it. So did the French Geneva of
1562, (Ott est done la vantancei It is Calvin's ultimate
translation. His translation of 1556 was, (hi est done la
gloirei) The English Geneva, too, inserted the article, —
where is tlien the rejoicing! So did DiodatL Among
critics, too, Fritzsche gives due prominence to the idea
intended by the article, (ubi est igitur hadenus saepe audita
gloriatiof) So does Meyer, (der Artikel bezeichvste die
bewusste, sckon mehrerwahnte — ). So does Philippi, (der
Artikel ein bekanntes, oft getriebenes und gehortes, oder
ofter schon Jterborgehobenes und zuriickgewiesenes Ruhmen),
Oltramare, too, remarks that the article denotes the notoriety
of the glorying, (Ou est done cette gloriolet L' Article in-
dique qu'U s'agit de quelque chose dont on a conscience, qui
est notoire). These are a fair specimen of the whole body of
good translators and critics.

When duly recognizing the article, an interesting par-
ticularity is imparted to the psychological scene that is
pictorially presented to the mind's eye. We see the Apostle
standing, as it were, on some elevated platform, and looking
round and round inquisitively. He seems to be in quest of
some object with which he has been familiar, indeed too
familiar. But he cannot see it in all that plane of things
that is around him. He exclaims, — not in a disappointed,
but in a glad and jubilant tone, — where then, is the glory-
ing? — tfiat ghrying^juhich is always so obtrusive of itself? —
that glorying which is scarcely ever absent when a Jew is
present? Where, I say, is this glorying?

Fritzsche supposes that the Apostle has no particular
reference to what was characteristic of the Jews, as dis-
tinguished from other religionists. Mussus supposed that
he makes equal reference to Jews and Gentiles (qui inaniter
alter aUeri se invicem preferebanf). Krehl echoes Fritzsche's
opinion, (Die Frage ist nicht an die Juden gerichtet, sondem

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852 ROMANS IIL 27.

ganz aUgemein). And many of the more polemico-theologicai
expositors, such as Calvin, Sclater, Cocceius, Haldane, never
start the question whether or not there is a particular
reference to the Jews. Hodge thinks that there is no such
particular reference. But it is really the case that the
Apostle has had all along, down through the chapter, the
spiritual condition of the Jews in view. He has been
seeking so to lay his subject as to meet their peculiar wants,
and more particularly their peculiar prejudices in favour of
themselves, their religious haughtiness and conceit, — their
glorying in relation to themselves. In the immediately
preceding chapter, moreover, he makes express reference to
their glorying. See verses 17 and 23. And the fact that in
the 29th verse of the present chapter he goes on to ask, — " Is
he the Ood of the Jews only fishe not also of the Gentiles T
— is evidence that it was the Jews, and the self-glorification
of the Jews, that occupied in particular the attention of his

We need not suppose, indeed, that in asking. Where then
is the glorying f he allowed his mind to be utterly oblivious
of corresponding tendencies in others. We may reasonably
suppose, on the contrary, that he gives expression to his
thoughts and feelings regarding the glorying of the Jews,
because he realized that this element of the spirit of Judaism
was too apt to be imported into Gentilism, and would be in
danger of infecting and infesting the Christian church as a
whole. Men everywhere are too prone to haughtiness and
self-glorying, — ^too apt sese jactare. Pride is one of the dis-
figurements of humanity in general. And even from behind
a profession of faith in Christ, and of justification by faith
alone, and of the abnegation of glorying in the matter of
justification, the forbidding lineaments of a supercilious spirit
may lower forth. Paul knew this: and hence, we doubt not,
he had an aim that went far beyond the Jews when he
asked, where tfien is the glorying ?

Nevertheless we cannot doubt that when he said the, he
was thinking of the Jews. Chrysostom was of the same
opinion. So was Origen before him. So were Theodoret,
CEcumenius, and Theophylact, after him ; Ambrosiaster too,

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ROMANS III. rt, 353

and Pelagius; — and almost all who read the clause thus,
whtrt then is thy glorying I So also Erasmus, Grotius,
Bengel: Heumann too, and B<5hme, Riickert, Meyer, de
Wette ; Philippi also, and Oltramare, van Hengel, &a, — and
indeed the great majority of expositors.

^ome have supposed that the word (•cai;xn<y«c) means
here ground of gloryiTig, {materia gloria7idi==KaixnfJta)'
Beausobre et Lenfant, for example, {ou est done le sujet de
se glorijierT) Flatt too, and Brentano ; Beiche also {Kavxr\<ng
ist hier Oegenstand und Gh^und des RuhTnena) ; and Rilliet
(Que devient done la raiaon de s'enorgueiUiri). De
Wette, too, took the same view in his first edition ; — only
gradually laying it aside. But the interpretation is a
manifest mistake, arising from a natural tendency to con-
found the Apostle's rhetorical representation with the
philosophy of things that was underlying it. In that
philosophy the Apostle realized that all legitimate occasion
of glorying was shut out But in the hieroglyph which
he was engaged in painting on the walls of the chamber
of his mind's imagery he refers to the glorying itself
as distinguished from its historical occasion or logical

Some have erred in another direction in their attempt
at reproducing the Apostle's idea They have rendered
his word glory, instead of glorying. So, among the
German translators, Luther, Emser, Ulenberg, Piscator,
Felbinger, Reitz, Heumann, Bengel, Michaelis, Struensee
{der eigne Ruhm), Kistemaker (Selbstruhm), van Ess ; but
not Zinzendorf, (who renders it properly Ruhmen, instead
of Ruhm). De Wette, Matthias, Mehring, are careful to
give the same translation as Zinzendorf; and de Wette
expressly calls attention to the error of the other rendering.

In our English Authorized Version, as in the Bheims,
the word is rendered boasting — ^a far superior translation to
glory. It is also far superior to rejoicing, — the translation
which is found not only in the Eng. Genevu, but also in
Tyndale. Nevertheless we question whether it be equal to
glorying, the translation which is given by Wycliffe, and
which not inaptly represents the Vulgate version, gloriatio.

2 A

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354 ROMANS III. 97,

The advantage of glorying over boasting arises from the
£Ei.ct that it has not got so fixed a twist in raalcum partem.
It more readily adjusts itself to the expression of what is
right and becoming, when such expression is required.

It is often required. There is a befitting, as well as an
unbefitting, glorying. The word that is here employed by
the Apostle is used by him again in chap. xv. 17, "I have
therefore glorying through Jesus Christ in those things
that pertain to God/* So in 2 Cor. L 12, — *' For our ghry-
ing is this, the testimony of our conscience, that in sim-
plicity and godly sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom, but by
the grace of God, we have had our conversation in the
world, and more abundantly to you-ward." In 2 Cor. vii.
4, too, he says — " Great is my boldness of speech toward
you ; great is my glorying of you." He says again in
1 Thess. ii. 19, — " For what is our hope, or joy, or crown
o{ glorying ? Are not even ye, in the presence of our Lord
Jesus Christ at his coming?" Indeed, in almost all the
passages in which the noun for glorying (Kauxi|<nc) is
employed, it is used to denote legUiTnate and befitting
glorying. The kindred noun (Kavxnfio), — ^rather denoting
the pround of glorying than the a^t of glorying, — ^is also
almost always used in bonam partem. And the affiliated
verb is indeterminate in its moral reference. Sometimes it
is employed to denote illegitimate glorying. And at other
times we read of glorying in the Lord (1 Cor. i 31) ;
in Christ Jesus (Phil. iii. 3); in the cross of our Lord Jesus
Christ (Gal. vi. 14) ; in God (Rom. v. 12) ; in tribulations
(Rom. V. 3); in hope of the glory of Ood (Rom. v. 2). It
is the same word that is employed by the Septuagint
translator in that glorious passage about glorying, — Jer.
ix. 23, 24, — " Thus saith the Lord, Let not the wise man
glory in his wisdom ; neither let the mighty man glory in
his might; let not the rich man glory in his riches: but
let him that glorieth glory in this, that he understandeth
and knoweth me, that I am the Lord which exercise
lovingkindness, judgement, and righteousness, in the earth:
for in these things I delight, saith the Lord."

There is, then, a becoming glorying, as well as a glorying

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BOMAN8 III. S7. 855

that is unbecoming. The English word glorying is excel-
Aenily adapted to tarn, as needed, either way, to the left
hand or to the right. As a matter of fact, indeed, glorying^
among men, is a state of mind that is generally found
pointing toward the left rather than toward the right It is
glorying that is, too, glorifying to self, — vain-glorying. It
makes men braggarts either in fact or in spirit. It lies on
one line with overweening aelf-a/pplavM, This is the form
of gloryiiig that is naturally assumed by inordinately sensi-
tive self-consciousness ; — ^by selfishness. But there may also
be the glorying of disinterested admiration. And although
the admiration be not absolutely disinterested, although it
have relation to what has filaments of connection with self,
and is beneficial to self, — ^nevertheless, if self be kept in its
own little place, at the feet of the Infinite One, and if it
occupy its own appropriate attitude while there, not dis-
tending itself as if it were a lord among its fellows, but
bending lowly as a servant of all, — then its gloryiiig is
becoming and good. The word, however, has, as a matter
of fact, a preponderance of association, in human language,
with what is unbeseeming and inordinate. And hence,
when it is employed, in the Bible, to denote what is befitting
and right, there is, as it were, an element of apology accom-
panying its application, — ^there is a consciousness of an eflbrt
to vindicate for the term a sublimer association. It is as if
the Holy Spirit were saying to men, — " H your hearts be
"set on glorying, let it be noble glorying, — glor3dng that
"has true glory in it. See that ye glory only^n really
" glorious objects. Glory, if you please, in the Lord ; glory
" in the cross of Jesus Christ. Glory, too, in whatever gives
" legitimate occasion for advancing the glory of God ; glory
" in your tribulations, glory in your infirmitiea And when
" you glory in what turns round to promote your own gloiy,
" see that, nevertheless, the chief ground of your glorying be
" the glory that accrues to God. Only thus anticipate your
" crown of glorying (1 Thess. ii. 19). Only thus glory in the
" testimony of your purified conscience (2 Cor. i. 12), or in
" any of your acts of self denial (2 Cor. xi. 10)." Men, then,
would require to take heed in glorying. If there be the

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356 ROMANS IlL 27.

smallest relaxation in the moral tension of the soul, when
glorjdng is indulged in, one will be apt to become " a fool
in glorying." (2 Cor. xii. 11.)

Tlie peculiarity of the Apostle's word is now evident
It is a word that had, in general, a bad association connected
with it. That association clings to it in the interrogative
corollary before us, and in some other passages. In these
passages it denotes such glorying as resolves itself into
boasting; and hence the vindication of our Authorized Eng.
Version in the case before us. The only objection to the
J translation is the difficulty of subliming, for other occasions,
^ the word boasting. It is, indeed, sometimes sublimed, as, for
instance, in Ps. xxxiv. 2; xliv. 8. But this exaltation of
the term does not come to it so naturally as to the word
glorying. There is something in the make of the word, as
well as in its conventional associations, that persists in
pointing in malam parteTa, suggesting not only abundance
of noise (conf. the Latin boo and the Greek fioaw), but also
inflation and emptiness. The term seems to have a filament
of connection with the noun boss, — ^the inflated or protu-
berant part of a shield; and most probably it has a link
of relation to the Scotch adjective boss, which means empty.
A boaster is an empty braggaH.
|V We hold, then, by the translation glorying. And when
the Apostle asks, where tlien is the gloryingl we assume that
he is using the term with its current ill-omened association
attached to it. Scb. Schmidt, indeed, supposes that it is used
with its sublimer reference. He thinks that the query is an
occupatio, — the anticipation of an objection, on the part of an
opponent, to the Apostle's doctrine of justification by faith.
Such an opponent would be ready, as S. Schmidt supposes,
to step forward and say to the Apostle, — " If this doctrine of
yours, O Paul, be accepted, where is there scope for glory-
ing? " " There is none," replies the Apostle ; " for what you
count legitimate glorying, I count illegitimate." S. Schmidt
thus comes round, in the upshot, to the generally received
view. But his notion of a formal dialectical colloquy is too
cumbrous and artificial. It has, however, been reproduced
by Taylor. Day, though on other grounds, takes substan-

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tially the same view with Schmidt of the import of the
word. He says, "Note that the Apostle speaks not here of an
unlawful or unjust or causeless boasting, or of boasting only
before men, (for so any man might boast, and so did the
Jews boast): but he speaks of a lawful, just, and well-
grounded boasting, . and a boasting before God, such a
boasting where nothing is to be imputed to the grace and
favour of God, but all to a man's own self," In other words,
Day supposes that when the Apostle asks, where ia the
glorying thenf he is inquiring concerning that glorying that
would have been legitimate if Adam had not sinned, and
that is legitimate in heaven among angels who have never
sinned. He did not note the article the, which ties down the
reference to some sort of boasting that was common enough,
too common, on earth. Neither did he take into account
that there are no moral creatures anywhere who could
attain to any moral excellence apart from "the grace and
favour of God." Even in heaven, the angels, who have
never fallen, will think but little of their own worthiness
when it is placed side by side with the prevenient loving-
kindness of God. Their glorying will be in God,

The Apostle evidently uses the term in its sinister
reference : — Where then is that self-glorifying glorying of
the Jews that has been sounding abroad so loud and so
long, proclaiming how good and godly they are, and how
eminently entitled, considering the great merit of their
circumcision and other ceremonial observanAies, to get to
heaven and eternal glory i Where, says the Apostle, is this
glorying? It is as standing on the platform of the doctrine
of justification that he puts the question. It would be
wrong, however, to say, with Calvin, Hemming, Musculus,
Melville, and Day, that he speaks " after a kind of insulting
manner." The associations of the word insulting lie on
the line of malignity. For the same reason, we would not
say, with Aretius, that he speaks derisively. But we
would not deny that there is a jubilant tone of logical,
Iheological, and ethical triumph in the interrogation. (He is,
says Bullinger, veluti iirivlKiov canens. The "where?" says
Bengel, isparticulavictoriosa. Compare 1 Cor. L 20; xv. 55.)

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358 ROMANS III. er,

^Z, It was shut out, {'E^eKXih&if). This is one of the
cases in which, for all popular purposes, the perfect tense
in English might be advantageously employed to represent
/the aoristic Greek: — It has been shut out The aorist,
however, is more graphic when the scene that was present
to the Apostle's mind is vividly reproduced It might be
conceived of as follows : — ^The Apostle looks about inquisi-
tively on the platform of thought on which he was standing.
But he does not discern the object of which he was in
quest. Then a jubilant flash shoots from his eye ; and he
exclaims, Where is the glorying i He pauses for an answer.
The answer at length comes» — '* It was shut out," that is,
''It is not here, because it vxls shut out." It is in some
such manner that the aonst is to be accounted for. If,
however, the scenic nature of the representation be ignored,
the logical value of the idea will be sufficiently preserved
by translating the verb either in the perfect tense, ''It
has been shut out," or in the present, " It is excluded," (or,
as Tyndale gave it in 1526, " Hitt is excluded ").

The expression implies that the glorying referred to
had, — so far as scenically viewed, — ^tried to intruda It
had, as it were, struggled hard to get a footing. But it
was unsuccessful It was thrust out; and shut out. An
interdict was laid upon it. It was put under ban.

The logical substrate of the representation is obvious : —
There is no legitimate scope for the glorying of the Jew,
(or of any man). One has but to understand the real
nature of that justification which lies at the basis of
J salvation, in order to see that the glorying of the Jew (or of
any man) is an absurdity as well as a sin. It is not the
case that the Jew can find, either in his own worth, or
in the favour of God, any good reason for pride of heart or
superciliousness of spirit He cannot even find a good
reason for great self-complacency.

The majority of the Greek fathers suppose that the

Apostle's expression assumes that there ^as once , to the

^ Jews, an opportunity for glorying, but that now, since the

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