James Orr.

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their attempted irmptlon Into aud cooquesl of Southern Gsul, in which they were
repulsed by Ccesar witli frightful slunghter. ITie story of this expedition Is circnm-
stoutiallv narrated by the Koman cominander. They collected tiiree months* pro-
visions, burned their twelve cities, 400 villages, and all isolated dwellings, and made
a general rendezvous bv Lake Leman in the spring of 68 a. c. Ciesnr nastened to
Geneva, destroyed the bridge, raised two legions in Cisalpine Gaul, and when the
Uelvctiuns sent delegates to demand a passage, delayed them nntil he had built a
wall along the Rhone, 16 feet high and al)ont 19 Roman miles in length, flanked with
redoubts. Having vainly attempted to pass this barrier, the H. took another
route, but were followed and defeated with n terrible slanghter at Bibracte (modem
Antun, in Bunrnndy), and the remnant obliged to retnm to their own country,
where they became subject to the Romans. Of 868,000 who left their homes, includ-
ing 99,000 flghting-men, only 110.000 returned. In the commotions which followed
the death of Nero, the Helvetians met with another terrible catastrophe. Remain-
ing faithful to Galiwi, they were fallen upon by Cacina, a general of Vltelllus, whjo
Save them to the rapacity of his legions. They were massacred by thousands, mnl-
tndes were sold to slavery, and their towns pillaged and burned, their capital
destroyed, and their governor executed. From this time they scarcely appear as
a distinct people.

HELVE'TIUS, Claude- Ad rien, sprung from a family of Swiss origin, as the
name Helvetius implies, was born tit Paris in 1716, aud received a careful edacution.
Intended for a financial career, he was sent, after the conclusion of his studies, to
bis uncle, D'Arniancourt, JHneteur dt« FrrmeSf at Caen, to obtain a practical kno^vl-
edge of the subject, and at the age of twenty-three was appointed to the lucrative
offlce of Fermier-OtnircU ; but the oppressive nature of the duties which it involved
was not at all to the liking of H., who was of a very humane and easy disposiiior,
and he quickly resigned ft for the situation of chamberlain to the queen's house-
hold. He now led, like every other courtier of his time, a life of mere gallantry,
which looks odious enough at thin distance of time ; but happilv he ?oou grew tired
of it^and after marrying In 1T51 the beautiful and accomplisned daughter of Comte
de Ligneville, he withdrew to a small estate at Vor^, where he spent tlie most of his
life in the ednc:itIou of his famllv, the improvement of his peasantry, and literary
lab rs. In 1T58 nppeared his cele'brated worls, ** De rEspril," In which he endeavors
to prove feeling {sermbiliU) to be the eotirce of all intellectual activity, and that the
ffrand lever of ail human conduct is self-satisfaction. But he admits, at the same
time, that self-satisfaction assumed different forms; e. g., the self-satisfaction of a
good man consists in tiie subordination of private to more general interests— first, to
tne circle amonsr which he lives ; then to the community ; and finally to the world
at large. The philosophy of the book is, of course, materialistic. It was denounced
by the doctors of the Sorbonne, and ccmdemned by the parliament of Parin to be
publicly burned. H. was much disgusted, and in 1764 left France to visit Em^land
and Germany, where Frederick IL received him with distinction. He died at Paris,
26th December 1771, leaving behind him a woric, **Do I'Homme, de ses Facuh68, et
de son Education," which was published by Prince Galyzin (2 vols. London, 1772).
Among the editions of his collected works, two deserve special notice, both pub-
llshetl at Paris In 1795, the one in five and the other in thirteen volumes. His wife,
who survived him many vears, resided at Autenil, near Paris, where she was visited
by the most distingnished personages, and is often mentioned in the memoirs of that
brilliant period.

HEMAN8, Felicia Dorotliea, an English poetess, was bora at Liverpool, «6th
September 1794. At an eariy age she manifested a taste for poetry, in y^ hich she
was encouraged by her mother. Her fir^t volume was published in 1808, when she
was only 14 years of age, and contained a few pieces written about four years earlier ;

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ber second, cntitltd "The Dumestic AffecHons," appeared !n 1S12. In the Mine
^ear she married Captaiu HemaDs of the 4th Regiment, whose health had suffered
lu the retreat ou Coranuo, and afterwards iu the Walcheren expedition, and who
foand it necessary a few years after to remove to Italy. After that period they
never met Although five sons were boru of this marria^, it was not nuderstood
to have been happy. Mrs H. spent the rest of her life iu North Wales, Lancashire,
and latterly at Dublin, where si ic died, 26th April 1S35. Her principal worlcs are
— " The Ve8|>er8 of Palermo," a tragedy (1828) ; " The Siege of Valencia, tlie Last
Coustautuie, and other Poems" (1823); "The Forest Sanctuary" (182T); '*The
Songs of the Affections " (1830) ; and *' Ilymus for Cliildhood, National Lyrics nud
Songs for Music," and ♦* Scenes and Hymns of Life." A volume of *' Poetical Re-
mains" was published after her death, and subsequently a complete edition of her
works, with a memoir by her sister, was issued by Messrs Blackwood.

Mrs H., without great daring or force, is sweet, natural, and pleaslnc But she
was too fluent, and wrote much and iiastily ; her lyrics are her oest productions;
her more ambitious poems, especially her tragedies, being, in fact, quite insipid.
Still, she was a woman of true eeuins, and one or two oc her little pieces, "Ttie
Graves of a Household," **The Treasures of the Deep," "The Homes of England,"
and some others, are perfect iu pathos and sentiment, and will live as long as the
English language.


HEMICRA'NIA (Gr. A«nf, one-half, and ^ronton, the skull: Pr. m^f^rcrfne ; Eng.
fntgrivM)^ a variety of Headache (q. v.). distinguished by its affecting only one side
at a time, and also frequently by its lutermRtent character ; whence it baa been
termed, not very accurately. Brow-ague.

HEMIDE'SMUS, a genus of plants of the natural order Aselepiadaeefr, Tlie
root of U. Indietta is used iu medicine, chiefly iu India, and is known as Indian sar-
saparilla. It is In some cases a good substitute for sarsaparilla, and appears to
derive its properties from a crystaliisable and volatile principle called Hemidesmin
or Uemidcminc Acid. The plant is a climbing shrub, with leathery leaves and axil-
lary umbi^Is of flowers. It is common iu almost all parts of India.

HEMIO'PIA (Gr. Aemt, one-half, and op«, the eye), vision limited to one-half of
an object— a peculiar and rare form of disease, very imperfectly understood.

HEMIPLE'GIA (Gr. hemi, one-half, and plisnH, I strike), Parolysis (q. v.) lim-
ited to one side of ttie face and body, and usually depending upon disease of the
brain. Opposed iq signification to Paraplegia (q. v.).

HE'MIPODB (HemipodivM)^ a genus of galliuaceous birds, nearly allied to quails,
but distinguished by a more slender beak, and by the want of a hind-toe. They
are the smallest of ^oiHinaceous birds, and inhabit cultivated grounds and sterile
sandy plains in warm conntrlen. One species, the Andalusian H. {H. taehydromtut),
is found iu Spain, Italy, Sicily, Africa, and Australia. Its whole length is about
six inches.

HEMI'PTERA (Gr. half-winged), an order of insects, with four wines, a mouth
formed for sucking, undergoing imperfect metamorphoses, and having the first pair
of wings either of a firm membranous substance without scales, or leathery at their
base, and membranous at their tips. Those with the first pair of wings of the
former character are the order Ilomoptera (q. v.) of many entomologists; ihe latter
are the U&miptera proper, the section or snhKorder Heter<mtera of Cuvicr and others.
The wings of the U. proper in general partly overlap each other, and are borixontnl
or slightly inclined wnen at rest. Some kinds are winglejMi, which, however, other-
wise exhibit the characters of this order. Some of the H. feed on vegctnbie, and
some on animal juices. The principal changes which they undergo in their me-
tamorphoses are Increase of size and development of wings. Tht-y are active in all
staees. Some of them are aquatic. They are most abundant in tropical countries,
and some of the tropical kinds are very splendid. Examples of this order are bugs,
water-bugs, boat-flies, and water scorpions.

HEMISPHERE, the half of a sphere, when it is bisected by a plane possijig
through its centre.

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Keicher relate* ine

aiid sometimes to conviilHionH or violfut d**nrinin

singular lUBtAiice of deli ri am ' ' "' — " *"

take; they became raving

into the water. For three j^u^b i>j^^ "^

"li^ilay be ndinluWcrecl internally in the form of P<^y*''^Sr„\?^rti'Dl^^^^
orextrac^ while exttmully It may be applied as a soothing rtppucu

.ion« or viok-ut diTirin.n. K«^'^Vf h.ml^k rbot by rx^\

IS mad. and fnncyinc thut Ihov ,^®rr^,*LaiBy and. ^^
ree years they were afflicted with partial pai jr

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Hemlock 1^99

Hemsterhnto ^^^

painfal piles, &c, in the form of oiutment or ponltfce. The conia being volatile,
often esc{ipes from the powdered leaves aud from tlio extract, and of the three pre-
pnnitions named, the tinctnre is the best. The muic\^% coniiy or Preserved Juice qf
JfevUoek, prepared by Bentiey and other pharmaceatical chemists, is more certain in
its Hction than any of the pharmacopceial praparations.

In cases of poisoning by H., the evacnatioii of the stomach is the first thing to
be attended to. Amons the ancient Oreeks, poisoning by H. was a common mode
of d«ith for condemned criminals, and thns it was that Socrates died ; bnt whether
it was the jnice of the Common H, or the Water H., that was used, Is nnlcnowu. —
Water H. or Cowbanb {Cieuta viro»a)t is also an ambelliferous plant, of a genns
having much vanlted nral>eis, a 6-toothed calyx, aud almost globose fruit, each car-
|>e] with five broad flattened ribs autl evident single vittce. Water II. grows in
diiches, the margins of ponds, and wet groands in Europe aud the north of Asia.
It is more common in Scotland than in England. It has a large fleshy white root,
covered extemallv witn fibres ; an erect, much branched stem, 2—6 feet high ; tri-
pinuate leaves, with linear-lanceolate regularly and sharply seiTated ieafletn, no
general Involucre or only a single small leaflet, partial involucres of many short nar-
row leaflets, and white flowers. It Is a virulent narcotic acrid poison. Serious ac-
cidents have occurred from eating the root Another species, C. maetUata. is
common in North America, growing in marshy places. It has a spotted stem, like
that of the true II.,the name of which it very generally receives in North America.
The leaves are tri-temate, the leaflets teruate. It is a very poisonous plants aud i.s
tl»e cause of many deaths. — Ctruto, in Latin, seems to have been the name of the
same plant called Conei&n by the Greeks, but it is not known whctlier this or the
previous plant was so denominated.


HEMP {Can'nabM), a eenus of plants of the natural order Cannabinacea (q, v.),
having the male aud female flowers on different plants ; the male flowers wUli 5-par-
titc calyx aud 6 stamens; the female flowers with a spathe-like calyx of one leaf,
rolled around the ovary and partially split alon? one side, aud two threadlike stig-
mas. There Is only one known species (C. sativa), vaiylng considerably, however,
from soil, climate, aud cultivation. It is an annual plant, a native of the warmer
parts of Asia, but has been cultivated in Europe from the earliest historic times, and
Is now naturalised in many parts of Europe and America. Like flax. It wonderfully
adapts itself to dlver.-ities of climate, and is cultivated equally m)der the burning
sun of the tropics, aud in the northern parts of Russia. It Is, however, readily in-
jured by frost, particularly when young ; and in many countries where it is cultivated.
It succeeds only because their summer Is sufflcient for its whole life. H. varies
very ranch in height, according to the soil and climate, being sometimes only three
or four feet, aud sometimes fltteen or twenty feet, or even more. Notwithstanding
the uettle-like coarseness of its leaves, it is an elegant plant, and Is sometimes sown
on this account in shrubberies and large flower-borders. The stem is erect, more
or less branched ; the leaves are 5— 9-fin>rered. The flowers are yellowish green,
small, and numerous; the male flowers in axillary racemes on the upper parts of
the plant ; the female flowera In short axillai*y, and rather crowded spikeji. The
female planta are higher and stronger than the male, for which reason the female
plants are popularly known In Qermany a^ Mastelhop/eit, and the male as Femelhop-
fen^ the names being derived from the Latin mas and femella^ and periietnating an
error which probably is as old as tlie time of the Romans. The stem of H. is h(wlow
or only filled with a soft pith. This pitli is surrounded by a tender, brittle substance,
consistiuj^ chiefly of cellular tlss^ne. with some woody fibre, which Is called the r«rf,
boon, or Shove of hemp. Over this is the thin bark, composed chiefly of fibres ex-
tending in a parallel direction alons? the stalk, with an outer membrane or cuticle.

H. is cultivated for its fibre in almost all conntrien of Europe, and in many other
temperate parts of the world ; moat extensively In Poland, and in the centre and
south of European Russia, which are the chief hemp-exporting countries. French
H. is much esteemed in the market, as is also that of England aud Ireland, of which,
however, the quantity is comparatively Inconsiderable. Boioffnese U. and Rhenish
H. are varieties remarkable for their height ; and a fibre of very fine quality, eight
or nine feet long, is known iu commerce by the name of Italian Garden Hemp, In

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Britain, tlie cnltlTatlon of H. i8 almost confined to Lincolnehire, Holderneea, aiid a
few other district* of Eugland, of which the moist alluvial soil is particularly suited
to it, luculllvatingH., itls vefynecessury tohave thesoil rich, and to sow tlie
seed at such a season, that the pfanta shall grow rapidly at first, as they thus form
long fibrei>. A crop of short scrubby H. ip almost worthless. The finer kinds of II.
are used for making cloth ; the coarser^ for sail-cloth and ropes. H. sown thin pro-
duces a coarser fibre than H. sown thick. Soincthing also depends on the time of
pulling, for the crop Is pulled by the h:ind. When a rarbcr fine fibre is wanted,
Hud the seed is not regarded, the wliole crop is pulled at once, soon after fiowering ;
otherwise, it is usual to pull the male plants as soon as thev have shed their pollen,
and to leave the fema1« plants to ripen their seed, in which case the fibre of the

female plants is much coarser. The treatment of H., by retting^ Ac, is similar to
that of Flax <q. v.). The fibre of H. Is Renemlly nsed for coarser purposes than
that of flax, piirticularly for sailcloth, pack-sheet*, ropes, and the caulking of ships.

The seea of H. is produced in groat abundance. It is commonly sold as food for
cage-birds; and birds are so fonn of it, that not only the ripening fields, but the
newly sown fields, must be carefully gnarded against their dcpredatioffs. A fixed
oil, oil ^f hemp«eed, is obtained from it by expression, which is at first CTeenlsh yel-
low and afterwards yellow, and has an acrid odor, but a mild taste. This oil is used
in Russia for burning in lamps, although the %vick is apt to get clogged; also for
makioe paints, varnish, and a kind of soft soap.

H. is cultivated in warm countries, not so much for its fibre as for a resinous
secretion, which has narcotic or intoxicatine qualities. See Hashish.

H. is also used as a therapeutic asent under the name of Indian H., or Bhamo.
In thin country, it is administered m the form of resinous extract or of tincture ;
and it is usually prescribed (like opium) for its hypnotic, anodyne, and anti-
spasmodic properties. Although less cerrain in its action than opium, it possesses
these advantages over that drug— that it does not constipate the bowels, create nau-
sea, or check the secretions, and that it is less likely to occasion headache.

The name Hemp (Ger. Han/) is probably derived, along with the Greek and Lnliu
Cannabis^ from an oriental name, of which one form is the Arabic Kinnub. The
name H. is often extended with some distinctive prefix to many of the fibres used
for ropes and coarse fabric?, a practice which produces not a little confusion. Thus
the fibre of Apocunum canTiabtnum (see ApooYNACBiB) is Canadian H. as well as
the plant itself ; Bowstrino II. (q. v.) is the fibre of the species of Sanseviera; Sunn
' v.)is often called Sunn H.; it is also known as Bengal H., Bombay H.. Madras

and Brown H.; Jubbulpore H. is the pixxliice of another species of Crotalaria
<q. v.); the fibre of Hibisctm cannabmus (see Hibiscus) is called Brown H. and
IJBCKANEB IL at Bombay; Manilla U. or Abaca (q. v.) is the fibre of a Mima.

HEMS, Homs, or Hums (Lat Emesa)^ a city of Syria, is situated about a mile
east of the right bank of the Orontes, in lat. about ^° 44' n., long. 86^ 4S' e. It is
65 miles nortn-east of Baalbek and 110 miles west-north-west of Tadmor (Palmyni).
It is clean, compactly built, and surrounded by old walls; and although there are
now no ancient buildings remaining, the antiquity of the city is attest^ by unmer-
OQS fraffments of columns, by several Greek inscriptions, and the foundations of
ancient oaths with specimens of mosaic pavement. In ancient times, it was chiefly
celebrated for its splendid temple of the Sun, one of the priests of which, Elagaba-
Ins or Heliogabalus, was raised to the imperial throne of Rome. Under the walls
of H., Zeuobia was defeated by the Emperor Aurelian In 272 a.d. In 636, the city
was taken by the Saracens, when its old* Semitic name H. was revived ; and in 1099
the Crusaders rode through its opened gates. Since then, H. has experienced many
vicissitudes of fortune, all of which, however, it has survived, and Is now the seat
of a flourishing trade, and of several manufactures. Pop. between 20,000 and

HEMP PALM (ChanuBrops excelsa; see Cham^bropb), n palm of China and
Japan, the fibre of the leaves of which is much employed in these countries for
making cordage. Hats are also made of ita leaves, and even cloaks and other gar-
ments for wet weather.

HEMSTERHUI8, Tiberius, a celebrated Dutch philologist, was bom at Gronin-
gen, 9tb January 1685. He became professor of Greek and of history at Leyden in


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iJS^' 524

1740, where he died 7tli April 1766. One of the Greatest Greek sctaolon of Ub time,
II. niay be enld to have created a new pchool of Greek philology, to which belong
hhi distiugnished pupils Hahnken aud Valkcnaer. Ills oditioriH of the "Ouonuwti-
con " of Pollux (1700), of the ** Sek-ct Dialogues " of Lnclaii (170S and 1732), and of
the " Plntus " of AriBtophanes (1744, by Schafcr 1811), are his principal HUirary work&
A beautiful picture of his life IsgivtMi in Knhnken^s ** £lo<;lun) Ilcnisierhusii " (L^yd.
176d and 1789), republishod in Liudemaun's "ViUc duumvlrornm T Uetusterimsil
et D. Rtihukcnil" (Leip. 1822). From H.'sMSS.. ** AnealotaUein^tcrliUBittUtt" (1825)
have beeu edited by Guel, and *• Onitions et Epistolae " (1839) by Friedemanu.

HE'NBANE (£f^o8C2^'am}t(f), a genus of plants of tlie natural order Solanace^,
having a fivc-tootlicd calyx, an irregular f unuel-sha|icd corolla, and a capsule open-
ing by a Hd, aud enclosed in the hardened calyx. The species are mostly anunal aud
biennial herbaceous plants, and natives of the countnee near the Mediterraueaa
Sea. The only species found ih Britain is the Comjion II. (//. niger)^ which is not
uncommon in waste places, and in the neighliorhood of towns and villages, partic-
ularly in calcareous soils, and on the sandy shores of Scotland. It is an auuoal or
biennial plant, somewhat bushy, about two feet high ; with largesiuuatedorsliarply-
lobcd leaves without Icafglalks, and large dingy-yellow flowers, with brownish-red
or purple vchis. The whole plant is covered with unctuous hairs, and has a
nauseous smell, which gives warning of its strong narcotic poisonous quaJitr.
Casi's of ])oisoniug by H. are, liowcver, not rare; but are more frcqacnliy
owing to the proceedings of quacks, thau to any mistake of the plant for an

The seeds contain In largest ouantity the peculiar alkaloid ou whicli the proper-
tics of the plant chiefly denend. H^o«ej^amia or H^CM(Cj^am«n£, which crystallises ih
stellated acicular crystals ot a silky lustre. The symptoms of poisoning by U. aro
similar to those produced by other narcotic poisons^ and the proper treatmcut is the
same as in ca^es of poisoning by opium. In medicme, II. is employed both exter- ■
nally and inteniaJly. The leaves are the part commonly used : they are {gathered and
quickly dried when the plaut is in full flower. Fomentations of II. arc applied to
painful glandular swellings, parts affected with neuralgia, &c, and aro often found
to afford relief. An extract of U. is sometimes employed instead of beliadonun to
dilate the pupil of the eye. Tincture and extract of II. are often administered iu
cases of annoying cough, spasmodic asthma, aud other diseases requiring pedativea
and autiHoadmodics. U. is also employed to calm meutid irritation, and to induce
sleep. For many car'cs, it lias one great advantage over laudanum, in not prodQcing
constipatior^ The smoke from the burning seeds of II. is sometimes iutrodticed into
a carious lc»)th, to relieve toothache.

The otiur species of H. pos»sess simil »r properties. The dried stalks ot H. €tllmi
are used by smoking in Greece to allay toothache.

HEXGST AND nOUSA. See Anglo-Saxons.

IIENGS TENBEltG, Ernst Wiihelm, a celebrated modem German theoloj^ian,
was born 'iOtli October 181)2. at FrOndenberg, in Westphalia, where his father was
cleivvman. Prepai*ed by liis father for the university, he devoted himself at Donn
chiefly to oriental and philosophical studies, whilst at the same time lie took an en-
thusiasiic imrt in the Jhtrscltenacha/ttn, ITiough sympathising thus in his
early years with liberal and rationalistic movements in Germany, soon after going
to Basel, in 1823, he came under the influence of the missionary institution tlicre,
and, belore he had begun the professional study of theology, was drawn into Uie
theological teudency which ho afterwards ^represented. Going to Berlin, in 1324,
as theological Privat^ioceiUy lie put himself at the head of a rising orthodox party,
and, with most conscientious devoteduess. made the scientific defence of their
principlen the aim of his lal)ors in the university, aud ilirongh the press. Though
known as a theological author only by two little treatises — •' Ueber d. Verhaltniss
d. innern Wortcs zum anssern (1825), and *' Uelwr Mysticismus, Pietisnius nud Sep-
aratisinus" (1826)— hu was made, iu 1S26 exirnordinary, in 1828 ordinary professor:
and in 1829, doctor of theoloj^y. niroufih tlio pross, his influence was exerted
chieflyaseditorof the **Evauge'lischeKircl>Mizt'ii ling,*' which was begun in lS27,aud
still combats rationalism even in its inil'U'Mt fornm. noeking to restore the ortlio-
doxy aud church-discipline of tbe 16th aud 17tu centuries. With the same view

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were written all his principal works ; his *' Christologie d. A. T." <8 Bde. 1829—
1836 ; 2lo Anfl. 1854—1857); " BeitrSgc «nr Elnloltung ins A. T." (8 Bd©. 1881— 18M):
"Commcntar filler d. Psiilmeu" (4 Bde. 1842—1845): 2te Anfl. 1860); »« Die Geschlclite
Biloams n. Seiner WelssHonng" (1842); "Das Hohelied Saloraonls aasgelofrt*' (1858);"
and others are devoted to the defence of the old inicrpretatlon and criticiBm of the
^^crlptu^e8 ogaiost tlie rcsnlls of modern biblical science in Germany. IL's iufla-
enc« in ecclesin»ticnl matters also, which waf* very grent daring the reign of the
late king of Prussia, was employed In tlie canying out of the high Lutheran dog-

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 101 of 196)