James Orr.

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betook himself with his family toKngland, but reinrned to Brunswick in 1184, where
he lived quietly. On the depart nre of Frederick for Palestine in 1188, H. was again
necessitated to withdraw to England, but returned in 1189, and after :i year's jilt-
ing, a peace was concluded between him and bis enemies, by which a portion of his
former territories was restored to hlna. He died at Brunswick in 1195. If. was r
bravo and generous prince, ot indefatigable activity, but obstinate and pansioaate.
What rais^ him above the princes of nis time was his efforts to advance the com-
merce, industry, and comfort of his people, and to foster literature ai;d scienoe.
Compare BOttlger's ** Heiurich der LOwc Herzog der Sachseu nud Baieru " (HaunoT.
1819).

nEXRY, Matthew, an eminent Nonconformist divine, the second son of Philip
Henry, one of the 2000 raiuisiers who left the Church of En^flaud on the passing
of tlie " Act of Uniformity," was bom at Broad Oak Farmhouse, in Flintshire, Oc-
tober 18. IMS. Ilaviug qualified himself for the ministry, he began to preach in
June 16S6, and in 1687 was settled as pastor of n congregation of dissenters at
Chester, wliere he continued for 25 years. In May 1T12, no removed to a charge at
Hackney, near London, having refused two previous invitations from the same
congreiralion. He died of apop'exy, June 22, 1T14, while on his return from a Tisit
to Ills old friends at Chester. He was twice married, and had a large family by his
second wife. His principal work Is an "Exposition of the Old and New Tes»a-
meuL," in 5 vols. lolio, 1710, which was commenced in Novenilier 1704, and has
been often reprinted. He lived to finish only the Acts of tlie Apostles. The re-
mainder was completed by various ministers, whose names are given In some of
the edition^. His first publication, entitled ** A Discourse concerning the Nnture
of Schism," 84 pages duodecimo, appeared anonymously in 1689. He was also tiie
author of a biographical sketch of bis father, 1695 ; ** A Scripture Catechism,**
1702, 8vo; ** Communicant's Companion," 1704 8vo; "Discourses against Vice
and Immorality," 1105; '-A Method of Prayer," 1710. 8vo; •'Family Uyrane;"
numerous sermons ; and some religious tracts. His miscellaueous worka were re-
published at London in 1830, 8vo.

HENRY, Patrick, an eminent American orator, was bom In Hanover conntr,
Virginia, In 1786. His father was a native of Scotland, and a noplicw of Itobertson,
the celebrated historian. In early life, H. was passionately addicted to angling and
hunting, and seemed too Indolent to apply himself to any regular occupation. Ho
managed, however, to pick up a good deal of general information, and he seemed to
possess by intuition a profound knowledge of nn man nature In all its various plmses.
Having failed successively in ** store-ki^ping " and In farming, lie at fength waa
induct to try the profession of law. For a few years this seemed to promise no
better success than his former occupations had done, but having been employed iu
1755 to plead the cause of the people against an unpopular tax, his peculiar talent
seemed suddenly to develop Itself ; his eloquence, untangbt except by the inspira-
tion of native genius, thrilled the audience, and held it in rapt attention more than
two hours. From that moment to the present day he has been nniwrsally regarded
as the greatest of American orators. He was a x«'alous patriot In the war of the
revolution, and was one of the most prominent and influential meml>ers of the Vir-
ginia legislature, when that state was deliberating whether or not to join Massachu-
setts In forcibly resisting the arbitrary policy of the horoe-eovemment H. wa« a
delegate to the first general Congress, which met at PhiUideiphla In September 1774,



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^*-*- Hepatitii

and bis yoice wm the flrat to break tbe tilence of that assemblj. Hie eloquence on
tbttt occasion Is said to have astonished all his hearers. lu 1776, he was elected
governor of Vii^lnia, and \ras afterwards twice re-elected. In 17»6, Washtogton
appointed liini secretary of state. He died in 1799.

HENRY, Robert, D. D,, a Scotch historian and divine, was born at St Ninians,
in Stirlingshire, Febnmry 18, 1718. He studied at the nniversiiy of Edinburgh ; and
from nt^tiU his death in 1790, was one of the luinif'ters of the £i>tablisbed Church
in that city. His ** History of Great Britain on a New Plan "—the first vohnne of
which w:is published in 1771, and the sixth in 179S, after his death— its a respectable
performance*, and the *' new plan " on which it proiesses tu be written— viz., tliat of
embracing the sccial aspects of successive periods, and thns tracing tlie progress of
civitipation in Great Britain— was unquestionably an improvement on anything that
had been done before ; but the woric has no pretensions to critical acumen or even
strict accuracy, and consequently is uOw of little value.

HENRY, William, F.R.S., au eminent chemist, was bora in 1774 in Manchester,
and died in 18S6 at Peudlebnry near that city. After studying medicine in the
Manchester Infirmary, under tbe guidance of Drs Percival an<i Ferrlar, H. attended
tbe lectures of Black, Gregory, &c., in Edinburgh in tbe session 1796—1790. After
an interval of several years, in which he was chiefiy engaged In superintending a
chemical bnHiuess which had been established by his father, he returned to Edin-
buivh in 1805, and received the decree of Doctor of Medicine from that nniversity in
1807. From that time till shoitly before his death, he devoted himself to the allied
sabjects of chemistry and medicine. He was the author of nine papers in the
'* Philosopical Transactions" (chiefly on llie chemistry of tbe gases) ; and his ** Ele-
ments of Experimental Chemistry," in two volumes, which was publislied In 1799,
reached an eleventh edition in 1889, an almost nnparalleled success for a purely
scientific work. H., like Dr Wol.'aston, made tbe results of science, obtained by the
most original and difficult researches, the foundation of a splendid forhuie, and few
persons have contributed more effectually by t he application of tbelr discoveries to
tbe promotion of the arts and manufactures. The Memoirs of the Manchester
8ocieiy aie chiefly indebted to bini and to Dalton for th^r high scientific character.

IIE'PAR (Or. hepar^ the liver) Is the name given by the older chemists to various
coni[>ound8 of sulphur, from their brown, liver-like color; of these, Hepar f^ul-
phteris, which is In reality a mixture of tersulphlde of potasslnm and some oxysulls
of potash, is the best known. Hepatic, belonging to the liver; as, hepatic artery,
vein, dnct, &c.— Hepatica. Tin's term has lK»en ^ven by writci-s on materia medica
to nuxlichies which effect the liver and its appendages. The hopatica niaybceni-

Eloyed (1) to modify the secretion of bile ; («) to remove pain of the liver' or gull-
ladder, or palu and spasm of the gall-ducts ; or (3) to relieve enlargements and other
affections of the liver.

HEPA'TIC^. or Liverworts, a natural order of cryptogamous plants, inclndcd
among mosses bv the older botanists. They have generally a leafy stem ; more
rarely ihey are expanded Into a leaf-like form. The reproductive organs are of tw o
kinds, an^/i^ridia and pM^i//ic//a, as in mosses; the spore-cases (capsules, matured
pistillidin) have no operculum ; open when ripe bv 4—8 valves, more rarely by t<Htli ;
and generally contain, along with the snores, spiral filaments called e/a/ers. Each
elater consists of two sniralfibres, wbicli, whilst the ppore case Is unbroken, remain
colled up tojfcther within an oval cell; hut when, by tbe breaking of the mature
spore-case, the outer pressure is removed, their elasticity bursts their cells, and as
they suddenly extt'nd tiiemselves, tliey aid in the dispersion of the spores. The H.
are found in situations generally aimdar to those of mosses; and are widely distri-
buted over the glol)e; but tl>e greater number l)eloog to warm climates, where they
often grow on the bark, and even on the leaver of ti-ees. Some botanists divide IL
into three orders, Jan^ermanniacecey JUareliatitiaoeaf, and Ricdacece,

HEPATITIS (Gr. Uepar, the liver), Inflnmmntlon of the liver. Hepatitis Is a
rnredlMeasein temperate latitudes, and In tropical climates is often so acute and
so rnpidly fatal as to admit but little of medical treatment. It Is Indicated by pain
in ibtj right nlde and shoulder, tenderness on pressure in the right hjpochcndrinm
(see Abdomem), with enlargement of the liver as detected by tbe hand ani by per^



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cQwion, often VomltiDgt always fever* with more or lera loes of appetite and a fool
too^e. Not nufreqaenlly there is Janndice (q. v.). The disease aoineUraos ends
in aosoeeaes, which may reqniro to be opened externally. The treatment is corn*



plicated, and cannot be ventured ojpon without profewioual aaaistauce. The other
"■ ) treated of ' ' '^



I may I
)tbe vc
diaeaaea of the liver will be treated of under Liver, DiasASBa or.

HBPH^'STUS. See Vuixjan.

HE'PTAGON, a plane figure of wotn aides and mven anglea : when the sides and
aueles are equal, the figure is a regular heptagon. Geometers have hitherto failed
to discover a method of inscribing the lie|)tagoii in. or of clrcnmscribing it about a
circle, and the problem la l>clleved by many tu be, like **the trisectiou of an angle,"
impossible of solution by the ancient geometry.

HB'PTAKCHY, The, ia the name given to seven kingdoms, said to have been
eatabliBhed by the Saxons In England. See Anglo-Saxons. The common idea is,
that tliese seven kingdoms were contemporaneous ; but all that can be »ufel^ as-
serted is, that Enelund, In the time of the Saxons, was peopled by various tnbea,
of whicli the leading occupation was war ; and that sometimes one was conquered,
sometimes another. At no time was there a counterpoise of power among seven of
them, BO that they could be said to have a separate, much leas an independent ex-
istence. Still seven names do survive (some authorities adding an eighth). The king
of the ono that had the fortune to be most powerfni for tlie time bi'infft was styled
Bretwalda or ruler of Britain, but in most instances tlie power of tbis suupoi^ed
ruler beyond the limits of his own terriiory must have l>een very small. Under Eg-
bert, Wessex rone to be supreme, and virtually swallowed up the others. The
following is a brief account of the seven kingdoms commonly said to have formed
the HepUrchy :

1. &ent, after the battle of Oreccanford, In which 4000 Britons were slain, was
abandoned by the Britons, and became the kingdom of their conquerors, a band of
Jutes, who had come in 446 a.d. to serve Vortigem. king of the Picis, as merce-
naries, under t.'ie leadersliipof Uengist and Horna, who w«;re little other than pirates.
HengiMt became king of Kent, and his son Eric or Ae»c- succeeded liim, and from
him nis descendants, the kings of Kent, were called Aesclngoa. In 796. Kent was
conquered by Ceuwulf, kiug of Mercia * and aliout 828 both were conquered bv Eg-
bert, king of Wessex, who appointed iui* son Bthelwnlt king of Kent, which here*
after, though sepurate in name, was really subordinate to \vessex.

a. Sussex, purtittlly conquered about 477, and wholly, before 481, by Ella the
Saxun, who was the first brctwalda of Britain. Sussex submitted to Ej^bert of Wes-
sex in 828, and his son Atli^Utane governed it under hi u.

S. Wes:}ex, tiiongh fluctuating in extent, as all the kingdoms did, included Sur-
rey, Hants, the Isle of Wight, Berks, Wilt 8, Dorset, Somerset Devon, and part of
Cornwall, It was founded about 494, by Cerdlc and Cynric hi* son, *• Ealdorraeii "
or leaders of the '* old Saxons." King Egbert, who retnrned from a flight to Gaul in
800, and ruled from that year till his ileath in 886, was, as a conqueror, tlie most
successful of all these Saxon kinsra Wlien he died, his dominions were divided l)e-
tween ids sons, Etlielwulf and Athelstnre, the former taking Wessex Proper, and
the latter Kent, Essex, Sussex, .ind Surrey. Another Athelstane, who succeeded in
926 to Mercia and Wessex, conquered Exeter, and assumed Norfliunibrla, exacted
tribute from the Welsh, and some formal submission from the Britons of the west,
as well as the Banes and Scots. He appears occasionally to liave held witcnnge-
nidtes or Saxon parliaments of subordinate chiefs {'mbregu/i)^ and at one of tliese,
Constantine, king of Scotland, appeared as a mibreg^Utis. But Athelstane and liis
succesfHirs, as well as his predecessor, Alfred the Great, belong to the history of
England, as indeed do all the Saxon states and kings after Egbert.

4. Essex, which comprised also Middlesex, if evi-r independent, was so about
(^ A.D. ; but early in the 7th c. it became subject to Mercia, and fell with It to Wes-
sex in 883. Thia state and Sussex and Wessex were fonnded by the old Saxons;
the remaining three by the Angles who came from iloUteiu, and gave tlieir name to
England.

8. Northumbria consisted of Bemlciaand Deira, which were at first separate and
independent states. The former comprised Northumberland and all Scotland
soutQ of the Forth, and was founded by Ida about 660. The latter comprised Cam-



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beiiand, Dnrham, York, and Lancaster, and was fonoded bv Blla the Ansle abont
Hie same date. TheM two were united about 066, and as Northumbria, tbey sub-
mitted to Egbert in 8».

6. Eai^ Angiia, comprising Norfolk, Suffolk, and Cambridge, was founded about
671 by Ufftt, and from liim its kings were named UtDugas. In 883, It wus conquered
by the Dane^. and was only rcsto^ to Saxon rule by Atlielstano In 925.

7. Merda Included the counties in the centre of the kingdom, and is said to have
been founded by Cridaor Creoda in 665. Three-quarters of a century later, it was
conquered for a time by Northnmbrifl, but it recovered fts independence, and re-
tained it uniU Egbert subdned it. Canute tlie Dane imd it and Nortbumbria ceded
to him in 1015, jnst before Edmflnd Ironside's detitli allowed him to became king
of England, and Ihe Danes to obtain the ascendency over the Saxons for which they
had been Itrivlns, at intervals, for Are g(*nerationf>. Compare Palgrave's '< Rise and
Progress of tlie English Commonwealth " (Syols. Loud. 1&8}.

HEIiA. See Juno.

UERACLEI'A, an nncicnt city of Magna Gneda, situated on the right bank of
the Acris (the modem Agri). about three miles above tlie mouth of that river in the
Gulf of Tarenlnm. It was founded about 48S b. o., and although tmder thcBomans
it iiecame a prosperous, important, and refined city, it never acquired any hiMorical
prondneoce. When it fell into decay, is not known, but at the present day little
more remains to mark its site than heaps of rubbish. In the nelghborliood, ocsidea
a larue number of coins, ranking anK>ng the very finest relics of antiquity, there
liave been discovered certain bronxe tables, known as the Tabulm Heraeieenae$, con-
taining a copy of the ** Lex Julia Munlcipalis" (46 b. c), and forming one of the
priucl|>al auUiorities for a knowledge of the municipal law of ancient Italy, lliis
iuecriptiOD has been published by Maratori, Savigny, and others.

HERACLEIDiB. This term means, iu its widest sense, all ** the descendants
of Heracles'* (Hercules), of whatever time, and in whatever district of Greece, but
is spccialiy applied to those adventurers who. foundinjg their claims on tlisfr sup-
posed descent from the great hero (to wliom Zeus had iMX)mIsed a portion of the
laud), joined the Dorians in the conquest of the Peloponnesus. There were five dif-
ferent czpMlltions, the last and greatest occurring eighty years after tlie Trojan war.
The leaders of this Isst were Temenus, Crespbontes, and Aristodemus, sous of
AHstoroiiclms. They defeated Tisamenus, son of Orestes, and grandson of Aga-
memnon, and thus gained possession of Argos, Sparta, and Myceute. Tbo other
parta of the country quickly submitted to them, and they then proceeded to divide
tlie spoil. Argos fell to Temenus ; Lacedtemoii to Procles and wirystheus, the sons
of Aristodemus; and Messenta to Crespbontes. This story of the retuni of the
Heracltdie touches on tlie histork;nl period, and tliougfa there is much of fable and
ti^adition, yet there seems to be also a hirge substratum of truth in the records.— See
M filler's " Dorians," Thiri wall's and GroCe^s »' Greece."

HERACLBrTUS, a Greek plillosopber, was bom at Epbesus, In Asia Minor, and
flourished about 600 b. o. He is said to bsTC travelled much, and to have been very
sorrowfally impressed with the weaknesse!< of his fellow-creatures, whence, accord-
ing to old traditions, he obtained the ni( kiiame of the ^weeping plillosopber,'* in
contrast to Democritus, ^'the laughing philosopher.'' He died at the age or 50.
The resnlt of H.'s researches atiq meditations was a work on the nature of things,



said to have been entitled '* Peri FhyseAs," (On Nature). Such fragments of it as re-
main were collected and elucidated by Bchleiennacher in Wolf and Buttmann*s
** Museum defbAlterthumswhMensehaften" (vol. i. part 8, Beriin, 1806). From tliese,
It appears that he considered fire to be the first principle of all phetiumcna, and the
original substance out of which they have all been evolved. H. was neither
a very original nor a very cohlmut thinker, and bis speculations deserve little al-
t^tion.

HEBA'CLIITS, a Byzantine emperor (910— Ml), of splendid bat fitful genius,
was descended from a fine of brave ancestors, and was born in (}appadoeia alK>ut
6T6 A.D. His father, also named Heraclius, was exarch or governor-general of
Africa. Regarding H.*s youth we know almost nothing : but when upwards o€
thirty, be took part in a couspUacy (which proved successful) against the emperor



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I



Pbocas, wbose horrible cmoUlcs bad made blm nntveTsally detested. la ftO«^^ at
the beau of a fleet, appeared at Coustautluoplo : the dtixuoa ro«e iit rcbelliou, Pbo-
cas was behcadedt aud H. Balated emperor in his atead. His fellow-coDsplnttors
were richly rewarded. The couditioD of the BysaDtioe empire at this time was dc-
plorabia IhicUons within and ttie barborfaua witluHit had almost reduced it torcin,
BO that yeara elapsed before H.'CoaId pat forth auy vigorous efforts for its reor^aui-
aatiou. Uis moBt powerful enemies iu the iiorth were iho Avari, who, iu 419L piou-
dered the country to the very gates of Cuustauthiople, nearly ca^ared fi. hiiuself,
and are said to have carried wTih them to their homes beyond the IHuiube 250,000
prisoners. The whole western empire had by this lime been seized by the SUtcsv
Lombards, Visigoths, and other tribes ; bat by far tlic most alarming couqacsts were
those made in the East by the Persian king, Cliosroos II. In 615. Sarbar, Uie Per*
sian general, stormed and plundered Jerusalem.' The same fate befell iHexaudria
in the following year, after which all Egypt yielded to tlie victorioos 8«rbar, who
penetrated as tar as Abvssinna. By stopping the export of corn from Egypt to
ConstantiDOplc. he likewise caused a severe famine in the latter city. In the same
year (616). tho Persians besieged aud captured Chalcedoo. opposite OonataDttnople.
H. at first tried to negotiate with his enemies, but flushed with their triumphs, tbcj
refused, aud e\eu put his ambassadors to death. Probably, the emperor, who wa«
now laying his plans for taking a magniflceut revenge on the Pilaus, was not
grcatlv displeased at their refusuL Having, after a whole year of laboriou*
discipline, organised an army composed of Greeks and barbarians, ha, in CsH^
shipped his U-oojis at the Bosporus, and sailed for Cillcia. Havini? lauded, he
encamped iu the plain of Isaua, completely routed a Persian army despatchod
against him, and forced his way throi^h the paaaos of the Taurus and Anti-Taoras,
h]to tho province of Pontus, where his soldiers wintered. In CM, he crossed Ar-
mcnia^ouqucred several of tho Perso-Caucasian coautries, and reached tho CTaspian
Sea. llcre he formed an alliance with the khan of the Kha&ii's, who ruled over the
sterile regions north of the Caucasus, as far as tho river Ural. By the assistance of
these and otiier barbarians, he attacked Media, and carried his anns as far south as
Ispahan. Before going into winter-quarters, he again utterly defeated the main
body of the Persians, commanded by Uhosrovs himself. In <t2&, H. descended from
the Caucasus into Mesopotamhi, and thence proceeded Into Cillcia, where a sangnin-
ary engagement took place between him aud Barbar; the Persians were routed with
immense slaughter, aud Sarbar fled to Persia. During the next two years (6ae~
6SS>, thoglorr of U. culminated. He carried the war into the heart of the Persian
empire, and In December 627, cut to nieces the forces of Rhaaates, tho Persian
general, near the junction of the Little Zab and the Tigris. An immense booty fell
loto the hands of the victors. A few days after, II. took Artemita or Itestagerd, the
favorite residence of Chosrote, and here the Arabic hlstonans exhaust hypCTbol^in
attempting to state the enormous treasure which the Bymutine emperor captured.
OhosroGs fled Into the interior of Persia, aud wassoon afterwards selaed, Imprwoned,
and starved to death by orders of his son and successor SIroes, who was glad to con-
clude A peace with K., by which tho Pereiaus gave up all their former cooqoests.
The fame of H. now spread over the whole worid, and ambassadors came to him
from the remotest kinsdoms of the East and West ; but a new aud terrible enemy
suddenly arose in the Bouth. The Arabs filled with tho ardor oC a new and fierce
faitli, bad just aet out on their career of sanguinary proselytisni. The war bognn
during the life of the Prophet himself, was continued by his sncoessorB. Abubekr
aud Omar. H. no longer commanded the Bysantine forces himself, bat wasted his



, Syria, _
hands of the califs. H. died in Ml.

UE'KALD (derivation nncertain), an ofllcer whose duty consists In ttie regnla-
tionof armorial bearings, the marshalling of processions, and the snperhitendenoe
of public ceremonies. In the middle ages, heralds were highly bonored, and enjoyed
important privileges ; their functions also Included the bearing of mcteages. whether
of oonrtesy or deOancc, between royal or knightly i^ersonngcs ; the snperinteudio£
and registering of trials by battle, touraaments. jousts, and all chlvalric exercises j
the ccunputation of the slain after battle ; and the recording of the vi^iant acts ox



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545



H«raldrf

the fmlllDgorninrivIiigcombataiito. Theofllceof beraM to probably Mold m the
oH^D of coat-annor. The priDcipal lienldic officere are deeijfu^ kii>g»-of-arnui,
or K.lufcs-at-aruiP, aud the uovituttes or learners are styled poreaivautA. Heralds
were oriKiually created Willi much ceremony ; they are uow iippoiuted by the Karl
HjirsluU ill Eogloud, and by the Lyou King-of-Arm» in Scotland. There are now in
£iiKlAud three Icinga-of-arms, named br their offices Garter, Clareucienz, and Nor-
roy ; eix herald#-^mcr»et, Chester, Windsor. Kichniond, Lancaster, and York;
aud four puxsoivants. Rouge i>ragou, Portcnllie, ttlue Mantle, and Konee Croix.
There have been at different periods other lionUdJB, whose titlt-s are now laid aside ;
beraJds extraordinary have aire soineMmes been created, as Kdinouson, by the title
of Mowbray, in 1764. In ScotXnud, tlio principal heraldic officer is Lyon KiiiK-of-
arms; and there were till lateiy six heralds— liuowdoun, Albany, Rose, Kotheaay,
liarchiuout, and Hay; and six pursaivanta — Unicom, Carrick, Kiutyre, Ormond,
BinKwall. and Bute. By 80 Vict. c. 17, the penuaneut nmuber of heralds and par-
saWants in Scotland is reduced to three or each. Ireland baa one king-oC-arnis,
Ulster; two heralds, Cork and Dublin; and two pursaivanta, of whom iho senior
bears the title of Atblone, and the oilier is called the pursuivant o( Bt Patrick.

The official costume of a herald consists of an embroidered satin tabard or snr-
coat of the royal arms, and a collar of SS. See Kjng-at-arms, Pursuivant, Hsb-

AI.De' COLUEOX.

IIS'RALDRY iff properly the knowledge of the whole mnltlfarioos duties devolving
on a herald (see Ukbald) ; in the more restricted sense, io which we shall here
consider it. It is tbe science of armorial bearings. After occnpyinx for ages tl»e
atteution of the learned, and- forming an imporiant branch of a princely education,



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