James Orr.

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rial Jove, was, next to the lion, the most favorite cognisance of royal per-
sonages, and was adopted by the German emperors, who claimed to be fcacces^ors
of the Csesars of Komc. The imperial eagle had at first but one head; ihe men-
siraalty of a second head seems to have risen from a dimidiation of two eu^es, to
represent the eimteni and western empire (see Marshai.lino or Abms). The »igle
of heraldry Is most generally dtspto^sd, 1. c.. its wings are expanded ; sometimes iris
preying, or standing devouring its prey. The alerion, the congnlzancc of tbe duchy
of Lorraine, and the family of Montmorency, was originally but a synonym for the
eagle assumed (M. Plancho suggests) as an anagram for the word Loraine. but
modern lieralds have degraded it Into a nondescript creature wiihont-beak or clawa.
•TUemnrtUt was originally a martin, a species of swallow, wliich has also in coarse
of lime been deprived by heralds of its legs and beak. The pelican, the swan, the
cock, the falcon, tlie raven, the parrot or poplniay, and the peacock, are all of tolerably
frequent occurrence. The pelican lias generally lier wings indorwd. or placed beck to
back, and is deplcle<l pecking her breast. Wlicn in her nest feeding her young, «d»e
U called a pelican in her piety. A peacock lK>riie affronts >\ith his tail expancfed. fa
said to be tn hiapride. Birds of prey are armrd of the color of wliich their beak
and talons are represented. Snch as have no talons are be<ikcd and m^mbered. The
cock is said to be armedj created, and ieltoped, the latter term refcniiig to his comb
and gi lis. Birds having the power of flight are, iji respect to thehr attitude, cloae^ rising,
or volanL

Fishes and reptiles occur as charges : the former are said to be naiant. If drawn
in a horizontal, and hawriant, if drawn in a perpendicular position ; aud the rfof-
phin^ In reality straight, is conventionally borne embowed or Iwnt. The escallop
shell is of frequent occurrence, and said to be the badge of a pilgrim. Sometimes
the conventional heraldic form of an animal differs from Its true form, as in the case
of the antelope of heraldry, which has the head of a stag, a nniconi's tail, a task
issuing from the tip of the nose, a row of tufts down the back of the neck, and
similar tufts on the tail, chest, and thighs. Of *' animals phantasUcalV* we have
among others the gryphon, wyvcrn. dragon, unicorn, basilisk, harpy. We have the
human body bi whole or part,f<a naked man, a savage or wild man of the woods,
also arms, legs, hearts. Moors' heads, Saracens' heads, and that strange bei^
aldic freak, the three legs conjoined, carried In the cscutchoon of the island of 1' "



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Heraldrjr



Of plants, we have rof«, trtfoiU, einqtu/a{l§^ leaves, ffarbs (I. e., shenTW of corn),
treei, often eradicated or fruetuated of some other color, and abore all, tbe cclcbrnlea
^eur-de-lUj Dsed as a bodge by Loiila VII. of France before heraldry had an exis-
tence. When a plant, anfraal, or oiber charge is bUusoned pntper, what is meant is
that It ie of itA nataral color.

The heareuly bodleii, the ann, moon, and stars, are also pressed Into the service
of heraldry, ai9 are things Inanimate ana artificial withont number, particularly snch
as were familiar to the warriors and pilgrims of tlie twelfth and thirteenth centu-
ries. Helmets, buckles, slilelds, hatches, horseshoe*, swords, arrows, bsitterlnK-
rams, pilgrims' staves, mallets (or spur-rowels), and water- bougets, or bags, m
which in cmsadiiig times water was carried long distances across the desert, olfo
the clarioD or war-trump, generally and erroueonslv called a r««t Even the let-
ters of the alphabet have been nsed as chaises.

Charges may be placed either simply on the field or on one of the ordinaries ; in
some instances, one of the ordinaries Is placed over a charge, in which cose the
charge is said to !>e debntwed by tbe ordinary. Three chargea of one kind are placed
two above and one below, unless blazoned tn/ese or in paU. In the fourteenth and
fifteenth centuries, tbe slraplicUy of early heraldry b^au to be departed from by
accumulating a varictv of charges on one shield, and in later times we have some-
times a charge njcelvfng another charge like an ordinary. The growing complexity
of bbields arose from augmentations granted to distinguish tlie younger branches
of afamllv, or charges assumed from tlic maternal coat by the descendants oi an
heiress. In the end of the last, and beginning of the present century, a practice
prevailed for a time of Introducing into armorial bearings matter-of-fact landscapes,
Pppresentations of sea-fights, and of medals and decorations worn by the bearer,
MttiogaU heraldic conventionalities at defiance, and dealing in details no}^^**^*!
iWe on the mlontest inspection. 8ucb charges are f nqueulln the arms of the ncrot-»
of the old war ; as, for example, in the augmentation granted to Sir ^'exanaer
Camobell. Baru, in addition to his paternal arms— via., " a chief argent charg««;^'\C
a Tock proper, subscribed Qitfraltar, between two medals ; that on the dcxierreHi
anting the silver medal presented to Sir A. Campbell by the sapremo RO^^^™" Vi.e
of India, for his services at the storming of SerinjrapBtAm, in l^W ; that on i ^ ^
WDlster representing the gold medal presented to him tor his services in tliC «»" .
Takvera," The grants proceeding from the present kings of arms are Tnorc
formable to the usages of heraldry, and do not stand In need of such Icwgtneneu
plauatlons to make them InUlligible. . . ,u^ii from

Tbe arms of the different members of a family have been dlstlnguisnca ^^^
one another, sometimes bv the use of a bonlure or otlter d\fference ; *"^-t« cf
limes, espf-cially by English heralds, by the use of certain Hgures called tm» ^^^
f^enep, the tefte/, eraicent, mullet, martUt, annulet, fleur-de-lis, to <^c»^8"%® Vcntlon
est, second, third, fourth, fifth, or sixth son and Ills desccndanls^u '"^^^ried
wlglnaiing about the time of Henry VII., bnt which cannot consistently ^s ^^^



torongh all the ramifications of a family for a pucceuaion ot genera»io»
Cadekct. ^. ig BO to

Blazonry Is an essential part of the science of nrma. To ^^aison a cow- ^^ ^^
describe It that any one with an ordinary knowledge of lieraldry wUl »« "{It' d. Th'^
Jict it correctly. In the language of bla2<»ry, all tautology nnift be *J"' ^ ^>«^^
Hl^t^re of the field Is fli-st menfioned ; ilie ordinary, if nny»io"S!y^ *iftSe» on tVio
chief; then the charges between which the ordinary la placed. Tbe cn» »^^.y^ a \%&
ordiuury follow, and lastly we hove a canton or chief, and marlcs ot cauc
nilcs of blaeoning ore given In the article. Blazon, Bi-a«owky. *^iiowiag l>o^?

Besides the heraldic devices depicted on the «bield, lUere ^^In motto oad acroll,
external to It— the helmet, the mantling, the wreath, tlie crcat, the rnov
we ijnpporters, and the coronet. ^ ,„ ,v« course of ""^®

The helmet, originally a piece of defensive armor, ^^ca^J^lS- the armn, U came
ooe of the usual accompaniments of the shield : and J>lo<^«'^,5T®j;tlSas. which are of
Jyiita form to mark thVrank of the wearer. For tjieae di^ nctio^, „,^^|et.
coinnoratlvely recent date, atid applicable only to ^^tjsh J ereldry, »ee side* of

^. The manding is an embellishment of scroll-worfe fl^^;''^^ JSSSd ttie body in *^«
the shield, and originating in the cofnltids, or acarf , wrapped rouna m
wys of coat-armor.



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Heralds KCn

Herbarium 0^<^

Prom Hie centre of the helmet, within a vrea^ oC two pieces of silk of the two
flret coIoi-8 of lUe uimorial besrhige* issues the crtaL, oriffiDnJIy a special mark of
liuuor worn ouly hy beroes of greut vulor, or adTauced to a nigh military coinmaod ;
uow ail iii^purahle atjjauct of the coat of nrina iu Eugheht though uot in contin^i-
tal heraldry, and ofleu ussnmed or changed arbitrarily without proper aathority.

The 9croll^ placed over the crest or below the shield, coutains a maUo, beariug In
many cases an allii!>loii to the family uame or anna.

Supporters are flgares or animals standiug oii each side of thfi escutcheon, and
seeming to support It. They were iu their origin purely oruameutal devices, wliich
ouly gradually acquired a heraldic character. In Kuglaod, the right to use supporters
is confliicd to the royal family, peers, peeresses, and peers by courtesy. Knights of
the Garter, Kuights Qraiid Cross of the Bath, aud a very few families whose ances-
ters bore supporters licfore their general use was restricted. Iu Scotland, saK>or-
ters are also u.^ed by the baronets of Nova Scoiia aud the chiefs of various families.

The crowu of the sovereign, the mitie of the bishop, and the corouet of the
nobility, are adjuncts appended to the shield ^ those whose dignity aud office en-
title them to that distinction. For a description of the crown of Great Britain and
the coronets of the royal family, see article Cbown. Under the articles Dmui,
Marquis, Earu Viscount, and Babon, the coronets appropriated to the different
ranks of the nobility are described.

The subject of marshailiii^ atm»i or arranging viu-ious coats iu one escutcheon, te
explained iu a separate urtic'.e. Hero it may sutnce to lay down a few general rales.
itiUi -...-. .... ,.



A husband is entitled to impale the arms of his wife, i. e., to plac«» tticm on thes
shield side by £<ide with hisowu. When the wife is an heiress, the huslwnd boars
her arms in an escutcheon cif pretence^ or small escutcheon in Uie centre of his owa
shield, and the descendants of the heiress may quarter her arms with ttieir paternal
coat. A sovereign also quarters the anus of his several states, and feudal arms are
sometimes quartered by subjects. Au elective king, It is said, may place his hered-
itary arms on an escutcheon of pretence over the iuslguia of his doiuiuioos.

For information on the details of heraldry, reference is made to the standard
worlcsof Quilllm, Edmonson, oud Nisbet ; and for n more discriminating view of
the subject, to such recent treatises us Montague's "Heraldry," and Plandid's **Par-
saivaut of Arms."

HEKALDS' COLLEGE, or College of Anns, a collegiate body, founded by Rich-
ard III. iu 14S3, consisiiug of the heraldic 001061*8 of Euirland, who were assigned a
habitation In the parish of AII-hallows-tlio-Lcss, iu London. Various charters con-
firmed the prlvilegiw of the College of Arms, and It was reincorporated by Philip and
Mary, who bestowed on it Derby Honsis on whose site in Doctors' Commons the
present college was built by Sir Christopher Wren.

The presidency of the college is vested in the earl marshal, an office now here^<
tary in the family of Howard, Duke of Norfolic; he nominates the three kiug«of
arms, six heralds, aud four nnrsnivants, who are the member? of the coIiet^fHte
chapter. Persons having a hei*editary claim to arms, which has been disused for
one or more geimrations, are om|X)wered by the Heralds' College to resume tbeni)
on proof and registration of pedigree. A person who has no hereditary claim, ana
wishes a grant of arms, must memoriali^ the earl marshal, aud shew that bo as in a
condition to ** sustain the rank of gentry." An important department of the Heralds'
College is the recording of pedigrees. Any pedigree shewing the existing state or
descent of a family, may, if accompanied with sufficient evidence, be entered on tlte
books of the college. The mcmners of the college have salaries, but derive their
)rincipal hiconie from fees charged for assistance in tracing pedigrees and titles, and
or the granting and registration of arms. In Scotland, the corrcspoDding fnuctious
belong to the Lyon Couut (q.v.).

HERA'T; capital of the most westerly of the three divisions of Afghanistan,
stands on the river Heri, at the height of 2500 feet alx>ve the sea. Lat. Si" 60' u.,
long. 62*^ 30' e.; distance from Cabnl, 390 miles west. Situated near the boundaries
at once of Afghanistan, Persia, aud Iude|>endent Tartary, H. is one of the principal
mart« of Central Asia, carrying on at the same time extensive inannfaetaree of its
own in wool and leather. The vicinity, naturaily fertile, has been artificially ren-
dered much more so by meaus of irrigation. But the city claims notice mainly on



f;



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Henlds
BbrtMriuil

political and tnilltary gronnnt. Jjong, tlie roynl raat of tho descendants of Timur.
and often a IxNie of conteutioo between the warlike tribes »U ronnd, it is fortified
byaditcb and wall, and is coramanded on its uortli side by a strong citadel. In
more modem times, tbe plaoe iias acquired a kind <^ Baropeau importance, being,
towards Persia, the key of Afgiiautstan, which again, in tnm affords tbe only ap-
proach by land to Western India. In this conuectiou H. has been viewed as an
outpost of England's eastern empire against Rnsslau intrigue and encroach-
ment. Hence, it has been alike the sabject of treaties and the occarion of wars be-
tween Great Britahi, as tbe mistress of Hindostan, and Persia, as rirtaally a vassal
of Russia. This feature of the history of the city was more specially developed in
connection with the last conflict between Persia and Bugland. In November 185^
tlie Shah, regarded by the Britisli government as tbe vassal and agent of the Cznr^
captared H., while octoaOy conducUog negotUtlona for an amicable adjustment at
Cont>tautinople ; bnt he was within a few months constrained to relinquish his
prey and renounce lih» claims by a British expedition directed against Ibe opposite
extremity of his empire. According to different estimates, referring, bowevrr, to
different epochs, the population has varied from 20,000 to 70,000.

HERAULT, a maritime department in the sontli of France, bounded on the
soutli-east by the Qnlf of Lyon, is oval in form, and Is 84 miles in greatest length
from cast to west Area, «4M square miles; pop. (1872) 4»,878f' It is occupied in
the north and north-west by the Lower Ceveunes, from which several branches of
moderate elevation run toward tlio south, gradually subsiding as they approach tiie
sea. The principal rivers are tho Herault (from which the department derives its
name), the Orb, and the Lee, which, risinc; in the Ceveunes, pnrsne a generally
southward course to tlie Mediterranean. The coast-line is about M miles in length ;
and along the shore, from Agde to the VIdourle, are numerons HemgBj or marshy
lakes, uiiited by tho Cnnal-des-Elangs, and communicating with the sea. In the
neighborhood of the ^(ofHTS, the climate is unhealthy, especially in tbe summer,
when agues and fevers prevail ; Imt elsewhere throughout the department It is unusu-
ally flne. About a fourth of the entire area consists of arable land, and about a
sixth is under vineyards. Tlie de|)artment of H. stands, for quantity at least, at ihe
head of the wine-growinff departments of France, 46,062,000 gallons being the
overage annual produce. From the shore-lakes and the sea, immense qnantitlee of
Ash are obtalneo. Woollen, silk, and cotton fabrics, in great variety, are largely
manufactured. Coal and copper mines, as well as quarries yielding variously veined
marbles, building-stone, granite, &c, are worked. This department supplies a

Seatqaantityof ibesaJtnsedin France. It is divided into four arroudisscments.
ontpcllier Is tlie capital.

HBRBA'RIUM, tho name usually given to a collection of dried plants, Intended
for the future study and examination of botanists. Foiicollecting plantf^ a box of
tinned iron, called a voienlum^ Is generally used, which preserves niO!>t plants from
withering for. at least some hours. Plants intended for the herbarium should be
collected on a dry day : plants which when gathered have moisture on their leaves,
should, when broturht home, 1m placed In a vessel of water, and there allowed to
dry. Plants with Thick succulent stems or leaves are Immeired for a few seconda
in hot water to kill them. The sited mens are tiien laid betwetfu layers of blotting-
paper, or of a thick btbntons kind of paper called botanical dnrlng-pnper, not
spread ont with anxious minuteness, nor so placed as to distort their parts. The
nnmher of sheets of paper hi each layer is aocomroodnted to the nntnreof the plants,
and pressure is applied by means of welglits, screws, or straps, the wliole being
enclosed in hoaros, and tlie layera of paper, when very numerous, having also
botirds occasionally interposed. Care must be taken that too much pressure oe not
applied at first, lest the parts of tlie plants be uiiflited for future examlnatimi. For
a short time, the paper is clianged every day, or every second day. dry pafier being
supplied. Specimens have the beet appearance which are quickly dried. Some
plaoia wliicli, in aplte of all care, lose their natural colors in the ordinary met4iod of
drying, and become black, tm orchids, may be beautifully dried by euclosiiig the
Infers of papers iu a network wire-frame, and hanging the paelcage before a fire,
where it is turned ronnd like meat roasting. Speciaiens are thus dried in a few
boat*, whldi otiierwise would have reqniredeighi or ten days.~Wheu Uie speci*



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Hartart f:c>l

Herbtrt ^^^

mens are follj dried, they are laid witbia aheecs of wrftiog-paper, or tfaej are
gummed or );lned to aheeta of paper, the name of the apecioe, with the locality, date
of colloaiou, and any other lutereatiug parUcolars, beinc inarfeed beside eaoli. As
moch aa poesible of each plant is preserved in the hMerbariam, bat the flower
and leaf ranst always be exhibited. Some parts of plants, as sacaUeitt roots,
frnita, Jbc, are otherwise preserved. The herbariam Is arranged acoordlug lo a
botanical system. Care mast be taken to preserve it from the ravages of rootlie
and beetle^ by freqaent inspection, by the aid of camphor, and by the occasional
application of a little corrosive snbiimate. llierc are herbaria lu existence which
are now some centuries old, and which are still coosnlted for the identfllcatloo of
species. The heriwtium enables as to cooipare plants which flower at dHK^rent sea-
sous, and those of differaut countries. The heHxirla formed by traveUeta bava
been of great importance to the progress of botany.

HJSRBART, Johann Fricilrich, a Glerman philosopher, was bom at Oldoubiirg,
May 4, 1770. He was educated at Jenn. At a very early age. he was familiar witli
religions and metaphysical doctriues and dlscossioos, and at twelve years had read
the systems of Wolflf and Kant He became the papil of Fichte.aud received his
philosophy with onthoaiasm ; hat after more reflecuon, he fonud hloMelf ot>liged
to reject much of -Jiia system, and to fonn one of his own. In 180), be was ap*
pointed cxtraordiimry professor at QOUingen , in 1809, lie olitained the chair of
philosophy at KOiiigsi)org. where he remained until 18^ when he returned to GOi-
tingeii, and enjoyed the Jisnities of titalor professor and anlic councillor ontil his
death, August 14, 1841. The school of philosophy bo promulgated has (or hud) its
centroif at G(Htiui{oii and Leipsic. His collected works were published, in IS vol-
nmus, ut Leipslc (if 18S0— 1852.

The philosophical system of H. is neither very profound nor very original, bat
it has, what in the eved of inuny is no smHll merir^ the quality of extreme obscnr-
ity. The total result of his metaphysical hivestigaiious may be thus briefly ex-
pressed : that the variety and change of the given phenomenal world are not to bo
explained by the hypothesis of a single r>iality, but of a plurality of such («ms
Vtelheit des Bealen or Monad^n). He hns made a fruitful application of bte meta-
physical doclriued to ))Hychologr, through the help eapeclally of his great mathe-
matical knowledge, and has endeavored to shew the niitenahteucss of the ordinary
vlew6 regarding the soul, but his own speculations ou the subject are anything bol

HERBELOT, Barth6iemy d% a celebrated orientriisl. was bom In Paris, Decem-
ber 4, 1625, and Anally became i>rofes9or of Syriac in the College of France. Ho
died at Paris, December 8, lfl»5. Uis celebrated work, the *'Biblioth«qQe Urientale,''
was published after bis death by Qalhuid (Paris, 1«»7), and afterwards with a snp-
ptement (Maestricht, 1776—1781); but the best edition is that poblisbed at the Hague
(1777—1782. 4 vols.). It Is onfortnuate that H. was unable to give I be flnlshlng
touch to a work which had cost him so much labor and reaearch, and vrbicb, in spite
of the errors, repetitions, contradictious, and omissions which one meets with, still
bears a deservedly high character. In it we find an abridgment of the immense
Turkish literary biography of Haji Khalefah, and nnmerons extracts from a milti-
tude of Arabic, Tnrklsb, and Persian authors, who have written oa history, geo-
graphy, religion, and the manners and customs of oriental nations, especially thoae
who profess Islam ; and the enormous labor the author must have nndergoae may
be imagined when we consider that at least ISO of these works were in MSl

HERBERT. This name, which stands forth prominently npon the records of
British history, has been ennobled at various times, in so many of its branches, by
BO mauT ancient and renewed creations, that it has become a matter of difllcalty to
ascertain vrith certainty which is the parent stem ; though Sir Bernard Bnrke is In-
clined to give the representation of the Honse to Henry Arthur Herbert, M.P., of
MnckrosA, CO. Kerry. It is certain that the Herberts came over to England in the
train of William the Conqueror, for H.. Connt of Vermandols, who afterwards
fliled the post of chamberlain ander William II., Is mentioned in the Soil of Bat-
tle Abbey, and received from his sovereign a grant of lands in Hampshire. His
•wife Emma, daughter of Stephen, Count of Blois, was a granddaughter of the Con-
queror, and liis sou H. (called in history H. of Winchester) was chamberlain and



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Hn1)ert

treararer to King Henir I. Beren or eight geneniDonB later, we flnd the Herberts
diTeiglog into M^verol diftiDct branches, InclndiDg the lines of th« Earls of Powis
(now extinct lu the male line), of the Lords U. of Cherhnry (also extinct), the Uer-
lierts of Muckross (ancestors of the genileman mentioned al>ove), and also several
untitled l>ranches which have flonrh-hed upon their ancestral lands in England,
Wales, and Ireland, lu the relgu of Henry V., Sir William H., of Raglan Ca»tle.
CO. Monmouth, recfived the honor of kniglithood In reward of his vnlorlnthe
French wars. His eldest sou. a stannch adherent of the Hoose of Torfc, was
creat«x] Earl of Pembroke* by Edward IV. in 1460. bat fell into tlio hands of the
Laiicnstrians after the battle of Danes Moor, and was beheaded the follow-
ing day, wtieii the title became extinct It wa«, however, revived in 1551,
in the iicrsou of his (Illegitimate) grandrOn, William U.. K.Q., one of the most ii>-
flnontial noblemen of his age. and one who took an acti\'e part lu public affairs,
both as a statesman and as a soldier. It is recorded by Sir B. Bnrke, that "• he rode
on February 17, 156S— 16(3, to his mansion of Baynard's CtiStle. with SOO horse in
his retinno, 100 of them being gentlemen in plain blue clotli, with chains of gold,
and badges of a dmgon on their sleeves." Ho was bnried in Old 8t Paul's, and his
funeral was coudncted ou snch a scale of magniflcence that, according to Siowe, tlie
mourning given away on that occasion cost jCaOOO— a v«'ry large sum in those days.
By his wife, wlio was a sister of Catharine Parr (the last queen of Henry VIII.). ho
had a foii Henir. si'cond earl, K.H.. to whose conntesK. Mary, daughter of Sir Henry
Sydiny. K.O., 8 r Philip Sydney dedicated his ** Arcadia." She is celebrated by Ben
Juiisou lu the well-knowu lines —

Underneath this marb!e hearse

Lies tile snbject of nil verse —

Sydney's »»lster, Pembroke's mother.
Tlie fourth earl, pomc ti:ne Lord Chaml>erlaln to Charles I., and Chancellor of the
university of Oxford, was the foander of Jesus* College in that seal of learning. The
eighfli eari held several high offices under Qneeii Amie, includlnc that of Lord High
Adinira'.. From hhn the present Earl of Pembroke (Oeorge Kohert Charles H.,
born in 1860) is dlrectlv deirendcd. The l;itc Lord Herbert (q. v.) of Lea— -better
known as Mr Sydney Herbert— was the younger brother of the late, and father of



Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 107 of 196)