James Orr.

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(in his Autobiography) that the very handwriting of H. exercised **a magical inflo-
ence** (etrae moffttehs ChtoaU) over him. In 1776, on tho recomroendallou of Goethe,
he was invited to Weimar by the Grand Dake, and oppointed conrt-preacher and
consistorial councillor. Here he resided until his death, which took place ISth
December 1808. H.*b writings are very unmerons, amounting in all to 60 vol&
(Stuttg. 1827—1830.) They may be divided into three clnsses : 1. Those relating
to religion and theology ; 1 Those relaUug to literature and art ; 8. Those relating
to philosophy and liistory. As a theologian, his raoct important work is his **Geist
der Hebr. Poesie" (Spirit of Hebrew Poetry. Dess. 1788 ; later edition, Leip. 18t5;
transhited into EnKlish by Dr James Marsh, 8 vols. Burlington, 1888). Asa philos-
opher, he has left oehind him a fund of valuable observations on nature ana man-
kind. His philosophical master-piece is his unfinished " Tdeen xnr Pliiloeopbie der
Geschichte der Meuscbhelt" (Ideas towards a Philosophy of the History of Mankind,
4 vols. Rigfl, 1784—1791 ; 4th edition, with Lndeu*s Introduction, 8 vols. Leip. 1841;
translated into English by T. Churchhiil under the title, ** Outlines of a Philosophy
of the History of Man'*). I« this work, all the rays of his genius converge. His
aim is to represent the entire history of the race as a series of events polutiog to a
higiier destiny than has yet been revealed. His love and reverence for humanity are
intense, pure, passionate. An ideal humanity, it might almoi^t be said, is his divin-
ity, in whoso service he labors with restless zeaL That enthusiasm, however, which

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madeH.80 effective as a morerof men's mlnda, had Ita fatal compenaiitioii in a
deficieucjr of artistic excellence. His writings buve not that flue perfection of etjle
and method which will enahle them to float down the stream of time nnmoleeted.
Amone his other works may ho mentioned his ** Oedichte Volkslieder/' and tho
*^ C!d«'^ the last of which is considered br the Spaniards themselves to be trnlj
RpAnlsh in Its spirit. See H.'s *^ Lcbenbild,** executed by his son (Brlang. < ports,

HERBDI'TAMENT, in English Law, a comprehcnsWo word, inclndiug every-
thing that goes to the heir-at-law. It is often divided into corporeal and incorpor-
eaL Tbup, a boose or laud held in freehold is a corporeal hereditauieut ; while
tithes, advowsous, &c., are incorporeal, being merely rights in connection with cor-
poreal things. The word inclndes some things personal as well as real, as when a
cliattel right is carved oat of an estate of iulieritauce.

HERE'DITARINESS. The inflnence exerted by parents on the qnalltieS of
their offspring is nniversally admitted, bat the relative amount of influence which
each parent exerts is still to some extent nn open qneslion.

The general structure of the body, the height, the di>eree of development of the
bones and muscles, the tendency to obesity or leanness, ac, seem to depend ns fre-
qnently on one parent as on the oihor, in the cose of man ; but In many nnimaK as
the dog, horse, &c., the fatlier most frequently determines the general form and the
sl«e of the l)ody.

The color and complexion of the offspring follow no definite rule. Sometimes
the coloi>s of the two parents api)ear undiluted In the offspring, as In the case of a
piebald colt, resulting from the union of a bay stallion and a white mare, while in
other cases an intermediate tint appears inthevoung. In the offspring rosnlting
from the union of individuals of the dark and white human races, we have this in-
termediate tint developed; but it is believed that the color of the father usually pre-
dominates over that 6t the mother.

A very carious department of this subject is the transmission to the offspring of
special marks or deformities exhibited by one of tiie parents or more remote an-
cestors, and not common to the si)eclcs. Nwvns (or mother's marks), moles, liare-
lip, erowtbs of hair In unusual places, an unusual number of flngt^rs or toes, and
special malformations of the heart and of other orgnns, have been frequently traced
to hereditary influence. It is deserving of remark, that these peculiarities have a
tendency to shew themselves In alternate generations, or even at greater intervals.
Bnrdacb, Blumenbach, and other eminent pbysiolofiists, have held the doctrine,
thht parents (whether dogs or men) who have suffered accidental or intentional
routilation of certain parts (as, for example, the tail, flngers, Ac.), often produce
offspring which Inherit these Injuries ; for Instance, the dogs witii cropped tails
often produce pups with cropped talis. If the facts are true (which possibly may
be doubtful)* tne resulta are probably due to an impression on the mother's mind
rather than to an hereditary tendencr. The immemorial practice of tho Chinese in
stunting the feet of their women, has not produced a natural variety with that

Morell, in his " Introduction to Mental Philosophy," observes that there are
latent powers or tendencies which have been inherited, and which often remain
unknown until brought out by peculiar circumstances. He gtves the familiar ex-
ample of the pointer. The habit of pointing at game is originally an acquired one ;
but so strongly does this habit become seated in the race, that the very flrst time
the young pointer Is taken Into the fleld, he will stand and mark it, thus developing
a purely bereditarr instinct ** Exactly In the same way," he adds, ** we flnd in man
Iteculiarltles of mind, temper, thought, habit, volition, Jtc, appeanne and reappear-
ing in families and rsoes. Lord Brouffham found some of hw grandfather's writing
exactly resembling his own (which Is very peculiar], though the grandfather hud
died before he was born, and his father's was quite different" It is alleged that
the children of sUHed artisans are, as a rule, more apt at petty manipulations than the
children of ordinary laborers, and that hence the population of certain towns— Bir-
mingham, for example—has a great advantage over that of other towns in point of
manufactarlug indostry. It is well known that tongevity or the reverse, a tendency to
great fruit falMW or to sterility^ pecoliarities in the de^e of delicacy in the external

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StfcfordXre 562

senses, and a special tendency to certain diseases— tts gont, pnlmonary consnmptJon,
cancer, &c— sro freqoently transmitted in hereditary descent from one or otber
pnrent to the offsprlufr. The predifpositiou to any special disease may t>e trans-
mitt4!d l)y either parent ; bat where both parents have been affected, tlie of&ndng
are eepcciully lUibie to suffer from it. Deformities and diseases, also, engendered
by circnmstances to which the exposure is lifelonfr, or affecting sacceasiTe genera-
tfona, are more certainly and conspicuously hereditary.

Hereditary Tendetteyto Mental DiseoM. — As the mental constitution In general fs
einiuRutly propngable, the hereditary tendency In mental dl^enro \f more familiar
and better demonstratsd than in other forms of morbid action. One observer tit-
tribntes six-sevenths of the cases of insanity to tlils canse. In France, and among
the alBnent clnss««, one case in every three ; amonc the peasants, one in every ten,
is fonnd to occur In families predisposed to alienation. In Italy, the proportion is
nearly tlie same. When statins that deninsemcnt is traced to transmitted taint,
expression is given to the complex proposition, that individuals who liave inherited
an unhealtliy cerebral organisation, or bodily qualities, such as anaemia. Incompatible
with sound meutul action, till victims moie frequcutly and inevitably to iui>anlty
than those physically and mentally robust would do. Bxperience shews that as par>
ticular forms of physical degeneration, such as riclcets, consumption, In lllce manner
particular species of alienation, are propagated in families; thnltbo suicidal Impulse
appears in one, while the uocontrollable and insatiable desire for stimulants, Is the
iieritage of a third. There are certain laws bv which tills proclivity seems to operate.
Not merely are there more females tlian nuucs actually insane, but there are more
hereditarily disposed to be iusaoc. In couuectiou with this It must 1)6 observed that
women are more exposed by constitution to the exciting causes of Insanity than
males, and that as Infants thevmore readily acquire tlie mental tone of tlie mother.
But, moreover, the moduens o( the mother is more frequently transmitted than that
of the father. French authorities record that of 467 cases of mentnl affections, 279
were traceable to the mother : an Biiglish physician similarly records 76 out of i;t3.
Where the taint exists on the side of the mother, a ereatcr number of children, and
a^^reater number of daughters, are born of nusonnd mind. But this disposition to
disease of the nervous matter is manifested in the same family by different mem-
beri), in various forma— as epilepsy, mania, eccuntricity. or delusions. Even the
last are exhibited in successive generations. Oxford, who fired at the Queen, his
father, and grandfather, all believed themselves to be St Paul.— Holland, ** Medical
Notes,' Ac; Lucas, "L'II6i-6dit6 Natnrelle;" and Galtou*s "Hereditary Genius."

missibility of hereditary rights and privileges has been much agitated with regard
to three points, especially m more recent times. Tlie first Is hereditary monarchy.
The '* divine " right of Icings is now iittte urged, being felt to be incompatible with
modem notions of the political relations of society ; and the defence of the heredi-
tary transmission of ttie supreme power of the state is rather rested on the ground of
political expediency and necessity. The animosities and disturbances of pumic affiiirs
that attend the ever-recurring election of a head of the state are avoided, tt Is arr ncd,
by making power hereditary In a particular family, and by a detAnnlnate law of suc-
cession ; while the dangers and disadyantagee which might arise from an anthority
depending upon the chance of birth, are capable of l>eing ueutmlised by InstitntlouB
which preyent the monarch from doing harm, oyon if there were not eyery reason to
hope that self-interest will lead him to use the power which Is the birth-right of liis
family, for the permanent honor and advantage of that family, and, theref<Mre, of the
community with which it is indissolubly bonud np.

Another and perhaps more dlfllcnlt aspect of the question is with regard to here>
ditary classes, dignities, and ofllces in the state over and aboye the hereditary mon-
arch. One thine is now nniyersolly agreed upon, that the transmission In indlvldnal
families of dignities, rights, and offices, inyolyiug essential parts of goyernment,
such as the supremo dispensation of justice, and other attributes of sovereignty, is
Inconsistent with the very idea of a state. The splitting up of Germany into a mase
of petty sovereignties arising out of fiefs of the empire become hereditary. Is a signal
Instance of the dangers of this principle. A hereditary nobility with such rights Is
no longer considered defensible. It is another qnestion whether, as a polltlciu iustl-
totion, a ckiss with certain hereditary privileges may not be advaniageooa or even

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neceeHuy as an element of atflbitlty, and aa affiordiog a eource of trained sbitesman-
Bliip. Society baa a longer life than the individDals tlmt compose ir, aud should
have f nrtber-etretching yiewa— '* looking before and after ; " and it is chiefly iu the
great historical familieH of a nation that i>nch extended views grow np and nre
cherished— farailies whose traditions form part of the national history,
and which naturally identify their future with the national prosperity
and dignity. Befidee their traditions and well-developed nationnl in-
stincfp, the individual mcmbrrs of such families enjoy other advantngcs
as political and social leaders. Their nsnally good educatiou, and their well-secured
• poeeeasions which, in addition to a high sense of honor, raise them al>ovc having^
rvcourfe to petty shifts and jobs, ma&etiiem valuable as examples and us admiuis-
tratora in a commouwealth which alms ai dignity and stabiUty. Carried to an ex-
treme length, aa was the ci\se in Frauce prior to the gix>at revolution, the hereditary
firivilegea of the nobility became a source of social discontent and disorder; but
Imited as in the United Kingdom, hereditary privil^es and dignities are found to
be no way iucompatUtle with the utmost socialexpausion, and are iu reality so popu-
lar as to be admittedly a happy feature in the structure of society. It is further to
be obsenredf that aa great families with privileges and titles are from time to time
dying oat» while others, through distinguished public services, are raised to t lie
rank of nobility, tiiat degree of lufusion of new ulood is kept up which gives vigor
to the qrstem, and at least preventa the British aristocracy from degenerating nito
an effete or antiquated caste. — Aa regards the economic view of hereditary riglit to
private property, see J. S. Mill's ^^ Political Economy."

HEREDITARY RIGHT, strictly spcaWng, means the right of succession as an
heir-at-law. The foundation of this nght is nothing but convenience, the principle
being, that If a man does not by wilfappoint his own heir, the law will do it tor
him ; and the law, in doing this, proceeds according to certain degrees of relation-
ship. Ir is therefore a mistake to suppose that there Is anything in mere hereditary
right which is divine, or superior to that which results from the radical right of
ownership. It Is a secondary and siibHtitntional right, the principal and prithary
right being that by which the ov\ner of land ifl entitled to Buy who shall at his death
enjoy that land.

HE'RRFOKD, a city, parliamentary and municipal borough, and capital of the
couDiy of the same name, is situated iu tho ferlilenud higlUy cultivated valley of the
Wye, 1S4 miles west-north-west of Loudon. The principal building is the cathe-
dral, a noble edifice, which, after bavinir been substantially restored, was reopened
Ui 1888. St James's church, built in 186S, is an oruanieut to the city. A very inter-
esting old map of the world, said to date from the 18th c, and other geographical
worta» are deposited in the chapter-house and library. Besides many other public
buildings, H. contalua numerous benevolent aud educational institutions, among
the latter of which arc several important free schools. Among its manufactures,
which, however, are inconsiderable, gloves, hats, and flannel are the chief. Of its
6 annual fairs, that lield iu October is perhaps the largest iu the county for cuttle
aud cheese. H. returns 2 members to parliament Pop. (1871) 18,847.

HETIEFORDSHTRE, an inland county in the west of England, is bounded on
the w. by South Wales, and on the e. by the counties of Worcester and Gloucester.
Area, 534,823 acres. Pop. (1871) 126,870. The surface of the county is hilly, with
occasional valleys opening into wide-spread plains. Among the chief hill-ranges,
are the Black Mountains on the western, and the Malvern Hills on the eastern border
of the county. The whole of H. is In the basin of the Severn, and the general direc-
tion of the streams la south-east toward that river. The Wye, aud Its affluents the
Lngg* the Arrow, and the Teme, are the principal rivers. The climate of H. varies wii h
the elevation ana the exposure, but, as attested Inr the general longevity of the iu-

rou9, aud cider la made In great quantity. Sheep and cattle of excellent breeds are
extensively reared, and In the north-west of the county a useful breed of horses la
produced. Agriculture Is the chief employment of the inhabitants.

H., cr at least the greater part of it, formed a portion of the territory of the ao-

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Bteiot 004

cient Bilnro', mid wa< conqocred bv the Romans in aboat 7S a.sc Dnriag the
so«€alIed llcptarcliy. it wiih iucladed in Mercia. Prom its position on the Weteh
border->n portiun of the county being iucioded in the debatable land called the
**Marchea*'— 11. wua long tlie eceiie of freqoent contetta.

nERE'NCIA, u town of Spain, in the proTiuce of Cindad Real, and about 40
miles north-cast of the citv of that name. It carries on manufactaros of aoap, has
a large weekly marled and a popnUitiou of 6400.

HB'RBSY (Gr. Haireait) primitively means a ehoic» or sleeUon^ and In its applica-
tion to rellgiouA belief is nsed to designate as well the act of choosing for ooe^
self, and maintaining opinions contrary to the authorised teaching of the religiootf
commnnity to which one's obedience Is due, as the heterodox opinions tlins adopted
and the party which may have adopted them. In the Acts of the Apostles (see Acts
V. 17 ; XV. 6 ; xxiv. S; xxviii. 82), the word seems to be used of a sest or partv, ab-
stracting from the consideration of Its character, whether good or bad ; but in the
Epistles and in the early Christian writers it is almost invarlabfy used in a bad sensa^
wiilch is the sense onlvcrsally accepted in all subsequent theolc^cal literature. The
notion of heresy, as understood by theological writers, involves two Ideas ; first, the
deliberate and voluntary rejecliou of some doctrine proposed by the supreme anthor-

) bolfeveid ; and secondly, a coc

Ity established in any churcli as necessary to bo I . ,

clous persistence in such rejection, with the knowledge that the belief of thedo»>
trine is required of all the nieml)ers of that particular religious commnnity. Roman
Catiiolic writers, regarding the authority of their own church as supreme and floal,
apply the name of heresy to any formal denial of a- doctrine proposed by the
Komuu Catholic Church as necessary to be believed. Protestant writers seldom use
the word, except in relation to what each sect regards as the essentials of Christian
faith. Beyouci this point, indeed^ the idea of heresy has no proper place in the dog-
matical system of the Protestant sects, especially in reference to other communions
thou their own. In the Roman Catholic Church, the stipreme authority mar be
elilter the decree of a general council ap;^roved by the pope, or a dogmatical de-
cree of the pope himself, expressly or tacitly received by the oishops of the various
churches; anaiu^nerai the crime of heresy is incurred In any church bv the re-
jection of a doctrme which in that church is held to constitute an essential and in-
tegral portion of the Christian faith. Apostasy Is the complete abandonment of the
whole Christian doclriue, and tlic renunciation of the Christian profession. If the
Intellectual error be accompanied by full deliberation, and by fuU knowledge of the
motives of belief, the iieresy Is called /emui/ ; should it arise from ignorance or im-
perfect knowledge, it Is styled material; and the heresy is held to be Imputable, or
the contrary, according as this ignorance is vincible or invincible.

Bven in the apostolic times, heresies had arisen in the church, and before the
council of Nice, the catalogue of sects had already swelled to considerable dimen-
sioud. Without attempting any enumeration of these heresies, it may be said in
general thai the sects of the early centuries are all reducible to two classes: (1)
Those which attempted to associate the Christian doctrines with Judaism; (8)
Those whicli ingrafted Christianity upon the OentUe religions or the Gentile philoso-
pliies. And this latter doss naturally subdivides itself into (1) The sects which
were tinged with the errors of the oriental philosophy ; and (8) Those which drew
their errors from the Grecian schools. Of ail tiiese we nnd traces, more or less dis-
tinctly marked, in the sect of the later ages.

From the very date of the establishment of Christianity in the Roman empir<^
heresy appears to have been regarded as a crime coguiz.il)le bv the civil law | ana
Constantine enacted several severe laws for its repression, which were contmued
and extended by hh! successors, and were collected into a single title, '*De Here-
ticis," iu the Justinian code. The penalties of lieresy ordained bv these enactments
are very severe, extending to corporal punishment, and even to death ; and they all
pror.eed on the distinct assumption that a crime against religion is a crime against
the state. These enactments of the Roman law were embodied in the various codes
of the European kingdoms ; and in considering the history of the middle agesL It
is necessary to recollect that the principle above referred to, as to the social bearing
of the crime of heresy and of other crimes agtdnst religion, pervades the whole sys-
tem of medieval jurlsprudeuce. It is further to be remembered, that the principles

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of many of tha niedleta) sects were aDti-soclal sod commnnistica], as well as op-
posed to tlie doctriues of the clinrcb ; and that their leaders, in niauy instances, by
adoping violent and revolntionary means for the propatratloa of their doctrines,
drew upon themselves the poDishmcnt of anarchy ana rebellion, as well ss of het-
erodoxy in religion. Btill, wirb even these allowances, CatLolic liistoriaiM themselves
admit that the medieval procedores against heresv were in maov instances excess-
ive, us were, indeed, also the procewes and penalties of the criminal code.

In English Law (2 Hen. IV. c 16>, heresy consi^ed in holding opiuioiM contrary
to Catholic fuitli and the determination of Holv CImrch ; and by common law tlie
offender was to be tried in the provincial synod by the archbishop and his council ;
and, after conviction, was to be given np to tiie king to be dealt with at liSs plea-
sure, the king being competent to Issue a writ dehartUeo eomhttrendo ; bal tlie
statute above referred to empowered the diocesan to take coguiaanoe of lieresv, and
on conviction, to hand over the criminal directly, and without waiting for the king's
writ, to the sheriff-major or other competent officer. Tliis statnte continued prac-
tically in force witii certain modifications, till the 29 Charles 11. c.9, since which time
heresy is left entirely to the cognixance of the ecclesiastical courts; bat, as there is
no statute defltiing in what heresy consists, and as, moreover, mucli of the jurisdic-
tion of the cccicsiostiail courts has been withdrawn by the various toleration sets ;
and, above all, as the effect of various recent decisions has been to widen almost in-
definitely the coni'truclion of ttie doctrinal formularies of the English Church, it
m.iv now be said that tlie jurisdiction of these courts in matters of heresy is practl-
culiy limited to preventing ministers of tlie Established Church from preaching in
opposition to the doctrine and the articles of the estublisbment from wbi<5i they de-
rive their emoluments, and that, even In determining what is to be considered con-
trary to the articles, a large toleration has been juridically established. See the re-
cent trial of Dr Rowlnnd Williams, and the jndgment given by Dr Lueblngtou in the
Court of Arches. For the history and literature of heretical sects, see the varions
ecclesiastical historians, as also Stockmnnn's ** Lexicon HKresinm " (Leln. 1T1») ;
De Ciesori's " Hwresiologia " (Rome, 17M) ; Pritx's •♦ Ketxerlexicon »» (WQrzburg,
1884); Arnold's " Keteerhistorie" (Frankfurt, 16W); Walch's **Ocschichte dor
Ketxereieu " (Leip. 1702) ; and Uilger's^Darsteilnngder Hseresieen ** (Bonn. 1837).

HE'RFORD, n town of Pm«sia, in the province of Westphalia, is situated close
tothefrontier of Lippe-Dctmold, on the Werre, 17 miles south-west of Hinden.
Tam-spinning, linou- weaving, and carpet manufactures are carried on. Pop.
0876) 12,012.

UB'RI, Herl-md, or Hurl, a river of Central Asia, which rises In the Hindu
Knsh Mountains, about 150 miles west from Cabul, pursues a western course
llirough Afghanistan, for more than 800 miles through a fertile and beautiful valley,
in wiilch stands the city of Herat (q. v.) ; then bending suddenly to the northward
along the boundary l>elween Persia and Tnrkestan, and afterward north-west
through Tnrkestun, It has a further course of fully 400 miles, tiJI it terminates iu the

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 109 of 196)