James Orr.

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som^other countries, to the personal property of a married couple, which Is not
talrject to any deed, bot left to the operation of the conimon law. In England, such
a phrase is unknown, for upon marriage, all the personal propert v which previously
bdk>nged to the woman (which Is not secured by auv deed or will), as well :is what
was previously his own, becomes and continues tlie husband's absolutelv— he is en-
tire master of It, and can do what he likes with It, regardless of the wishes of Ills
wife or children, and he may even bequeath it away to strangers. In Scotland, the
theory is not so liberal towards the husband, though in practice there Is not much
difference. By the law of Scotland, the husband can also do what he likes with
tlie personal property of both parties. If there is no previous marriage-contract or
other deed goremlog the subject-matter. He can almost squander it at will. It is
only at his death that the theory of a kind of partnership, or of a communion of
goods, comes into play.

Until 1855, when the law was altered, this theory prevailed when the wife died,
for formeriy, at her death, the goods were divided into two parts. If there were no
children, and one-half went to the next of kin of the wife, however distant the re-
lationship, and not to the husband. But now, by statute 18 Vict c 83, s. 6, when a
wife dies before the husband, her next of kin takes no interest whatever In the
goods In comronnlon ; and the law in this respect Is now the same as It is In Eng-
»ud. Hence the phrase goods In communion is less appropriate than It was before
186S. If, however, the husband die, the iroods in communion suffer a division on
the principle of a partnership. Thus, n there are no childrtu, half goes to the
widow, and the other half to the next of kin of the husband. If there are children,
Uku one-third goes to the widow, and Is often called her Jus Relieta (q. v.), and the
other two-tblrds to the children equally. If there is no will ; or if there is a will, then
OB»<thIrd to thena, called the lA^im (q. v.). The aame division also takes place

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Goodair rn

Good-wiU OJi

in England, when tbere is do will ; bat this in done in Engiand by yirtae of a stat-
ute 89 Cliaries II. c S, called the Statute of Distribatious (q. v.)t whereas this efitect
iH produced in Scotland not by a statute, but by the coiumou law. Practically, this
distinction, though importaut to bo known by lawyers, may seem immaterial to

Another more important distinction, however, both theoretically and practically,
is this : The aboro dlrisionof the goods in commnniou prevails in Scotland whether
the husband has left a will or not ; in short, it prevails in spite of his will, and all
that a husband having a wife and children can do by means of a will, is to liequeath
one-third of his personal estate to strangers, and this third is usually allied on that
account the Dead's Part (q. v.). Thus, in Scotland, on the death of the husband,
the wife and children have an indefeasible interest in two-thirds of hbi personal
property, and this inchoate interest during life gave rise to the phrase ** goods in
communion.'* In England, on the contrary, the will, if there is one, may carry
away all the personal propertv to strangers, regardless of the wife and children.
Hence, the result may be stated shortly thus: in Scotland, a man cannot disinherit
his wife and children ; whereas in England he can. See other incidents of this dis-
tinction in Paterson's *^ Compendium of English and Scotch Law," ss. 67S, 738. If
there is a marriage-contract or anteuuptlal settlement between the husband and
wife, the rights both of the wife and children may be materially varied, for the rule
then is, that the parties may make what arrangement they please by way of con-
tract, and in such settlements a fixed sum is generally jirovided both to the wife nnd
children, iu lien of what they would be entitled to at common law, i. e., where no
express contract is made.

QOODSIR, John, Professor of Anatomy in the university of Edinbumh from
184tf to 1867, was born in I8I4, at Anstrnilier, Fifeshire, iu which county H^ father
and grandfather had, for many years, practised the profession of mediciue with
great repute. Very carlv in life, hits studious habits and thoughtful disposition ut-
tracted attention, and when little more tlrnn a boy, he was sent to the university of
St Andrews, where he passed through a four yeors' course of literary and philo-
sophic study. He was afterwards apprenticed to Mr Nasmyth, dentist in Edinburgh,
and during his apprenticeship, attended the medical classes both in tlic nuiverslty
and extra-mural school in tliat city. He studied anatomv under Dr Knox, and
natural history under Professor Jameson, and was the intimate friend of Edward
Forbes, Gleorgc Wilson, Samuel Brown, and other young men, who have since made
for themselves names as ardent students of the natural sciences.

The position of his native town ou the sea-coast had very early caused his at-
tention to be directed to marine Koology, and along Mrith his younger brother, Hqrry,
who wiui afterwards lost In the unfortunate Franklin Expedition, he had begun to
dissect marine animals, and study their forms and structure, before he commenced
his medical studies. His training as a dentist led him to undertake an investiga-
tion into the Development and Structure of the Teeth, which he afterwards pub-
lished in an elaborate memoir, and in which he gave the first consistent account of
tlie various stages through wliich these important' organs pass. This Essay, pub-
lished in 1839, at once caused him to bo recognised as an observer of great origin-
ality and acuteness. On obtain lug his diploma at the College of Sni^geons, in Edin-
burgh, he returned to Austruther. to assist liis father iu practice ; and though ac-
tively engaged for some years in the arduous duties of a country doctor, he yet found
time, not only to pursue numerous importaut pathological investigations, but to
continue and extend his studies In anatomy and natnral history. He formed at the
same time on Anatomical Museum, characterised by the great benuty of the pre-
parations, which was afterwards acquired by the government for tiie use of the
Queen's College, Cork.

He returned to Edinburgh about 1840; and on the conservatorship of the Museum
of the Royal College of Surgeons becoming vacant, ho applied for, and obtained,
the office. Havin^r now acquire4l a more extensive field for pathological res^earch,
he devoted much Titteut ion to the structure and mode of growth of tumors, and
other products of disease; and in 1842—1843, delivered courses of lectures on the
diseases of bone, cartilage, and of the various changes which take place in inflam-
mation of these and other important organs. The lmpro\'ements iu the construe*
Hon of the coxapound microscope, about tliia period, furnished him with a most

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yahiable iDBtnuneiit for condactiDg his iuqairies into the more recoodUe etractoral
phenomoDn, which constitnte the fDudameotal uatareof the chaoges from a bealthv
to a diseased condition of tissues aod organs. At the same time, he also investi-
gated the minute structure of the healthy lissues, more especially with reference to
the mode lu which thoy performed their functions. He was one of the first ob-
scrvera who strongly insisted on the general diffusion, throughout the animal tex-
tures, of the minute bodies called nucM; and he pointed out their importance in
connection with the processes of growth, secretion, and nutrition. His Memoir
on Secreting Structures, published in 1842, in the ** Transactions of the Boyal So-
ciety of Edinburgh,'* shewed, in u most conclnsive manner, the influence exercised
by the cells within a gland on the secretion formed in its interior. In the same
year, he published a description of a case^ in which a very remarkable veffetaole
organism, now known as the SarHna veninetUi (see Sabcina) was pcriodicai|y«dis-
charged In the fluid ^'ected from the stomach nuring vomitiutr. In the following
year, lie communicated to the Royal Society of Edinburgh an account of the strnc-
mrc of the Human Placenta, which is regarded as a most important contribution
to the anatomy of that complex organ. Many o^ his physiological and pathologi-
cal essays were afterwards incorporated in a special volume, published in 1S16, and
the facts which they contain have contributed very materially to establish the im-
portant modem pathological doctrine of the origin of morbid products from changes
m the pre-existing elements of the tissues of the body.

His studies in comparative anatomy and natural history were not, however, ne-
glected during this period. Ho was an active member of the Wemcriau Society,
and along wiUi his friend Edward Forbes, communicated both to it and other scicu-
tiflc bodies severulpapers on the Anatomy of Animals, new to science, which they
had discovered. His papers ou Pelonaia, Thalassema, and Amphioxus attracted
especial attention.

In 1844 he was appointed assistant to Br Monro, Professor of Anatomy in the
university of Edinburgh. His enthusiasm and devotion to anatomical work rapidly
eathered around him a large class of students, and on the resignation of Dr Monro
in 1846, be was appointed by the town council to the Chair of Anatomy. His repu-
tation as an anatomical teacher now became materially extended, numerous students
were attracted to his class, and for manv years the attendance each winter session
amoirated to between 800 and 400. Hisgreatsnccessasa teacher was due not so
much perluips to any special aptitude for public speaking, but to the earnest and
painstaking way in which he brought his subject before his students ; to his thorough
knowledge of anatomy, not only m its minute details, but in its relations to physio-
logical and patliological processes; and to the influence exercised h/ bis manly and
straightforward character. He devoted much of the time not occupied in the duties
of hu class to the extension of the Anatomical Museum of the university, and dis-
sected and prepared a Ktrge number of specimens to illustrate the modiflcations, in
form and strncture, of the organs met with in the dissection of different kinds of
animals. His preparations of the ecbinodermata, moilusco, and cetacea are espec-
ially worthy of notice.

He had a keen sense of the beauty and symmetry of organic forms, and his philo-
sophic mind early led him to undertake an investiifation iiito the constitution of the
skeleton in the vertebrata, thegeneral resulu of which he communicated, in the year
18M. to the British Association for the Advancement of Science.

His devotion to work, and his unremitting attention to the duties of his chair, at
length begun to tell on his robust frame ; and for some years before his death, signs
of »IUng health were visible. Early in 1B67. he was obliged to withdraw from aH
aiitive work ; and he died at South Cottage, Wardie (near Edinburgh), March 6, in
that year. ■•

Q.*B intdlect was eminently comprehensive. He was not a mere technical anato-
mist, but studied his science in its relations to morphology, teleology, and pathology,
lu his philosophic grasp of principles, in the extent of his acquirements, and in his
devotion to his science, he was a worihy disciple of his great compatriot. John Hun-
ter. For a (nil account of his life, &c., see ** Anatomical Memoirs of John Good-
sir,'* published under the editorship of his successor in the chair of anatomy,
Professor Turner (Longmans, 1868).

GOOD-WILL is rather a short popular expression than a legal term. It means

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Gk)odwlii t^A

that klud of Interest which is eold along with any profession, trade, or business. In
reality, it is not the busiuess that is sold, for that is not a distinct thing recognised
by the law, but the house, shop, fixtnres, &c, are sold, and the trade debts ; and
along witli transferring these, the seller binds himself, either by covenant or agree-
ment to do everything in his power to recommend his eacconsor, and promote his
Interests in snch business. It the seller acts contrary to such agreement, he is liable
to an action. But the more usual course is for the seller to enter into an express
covenant not to carry on the same business within 30, 40, or 100 miles, or some speci-
fied moderate distance from the place where the purchaser resides. At first, such a
covenant was songht to be set aside as invalid, on the ground that It tended to re-
strain the natnral liberty of trade; but the courts have now firmly established that
if a definite radius of moderate length is fixed upon, it does not sensiblv restrain
trade, inasmuch as the person covenanting can go beyond those limits, and trade as
much as he pleases. Hence, such limitations are a fair matter of bargain, and up-
held as valio. If the party break his covenant, he is liable to an action for damages.
GOODWIN SANDS, famous banlcs of shifting sands stretching a1>ont 10 miles,
in a direction north-east and sonth-west, oft the east coast of Kent, ut an average
distance of ^% miles from the shore. The sands ore divided into two portions by a
narrow channel, and at low water, many |Nirts are uncovered. When the tide re-
cedes, the sand becomes firm and safe ; but after the ebb, the water permeates
through the mass, rendering the whole pulpy and treacherous, in which condition it
shifts to such a degree as to render charts uncertain from vear to year. The north-
em portion is of tnangnlar form — 3)^ miles long, and %% in Its greatest width ; on
the northernmost extremltv, known as North Band Head, a light-vessel marks the
entrance on this perilous shoal. This light Is distant about seven miles from Rams-

Siite. In the centre, on the western side, jutting out towards the shore, is the
lunt Head, a pecniiarlv dangerous portion, also marked by alight-ship. The sonth-

em portion is 10 miles in length. 8M in width at its northern end, and sloping towards
the south-west, to a point culled South Sand Head, which, lielng marked by a light-
vei«sel, completes the triangle of dangerous proximity recorded for the benefit of


From the sunken nature of these sands, they have always been replete with dan-
ger to vessels passing through the Strait of Dover, and resorting either to the
Thames or to the North Sea. On the other hand, they serve as a breakwater to form
a secure anchorage in the Downs (q. v.). when easterly or south-easterly winds are
blowing. The Downs, though safe nnder these circumstances, l>ecome dangerous
when the wind blows strongly off-shore, at which times ships are apt to drag their
anchors, and to strand upon the perfidious breakers of the Goodwin, in the sbif tinr
sands of which their wrecks are soon entirely swallowed up. Many celebrated ana
terribly fatal wrecks liave taken place here, among which we have only space to
enumerate the three llne-of-battle-ehips, Stirling Ca$tU^ Marpy and Northumber-'
land^ each of 70 guns, whicli, with other ten men-of-war, were totally lost during the
fearful gale of the 26th November, 1703, a gale so tremendous that vessels were ac-
tually destroyed by it while riding in the Medway. On the 81st December, 1808,
here foundered the ^woro, a transport when 800 perished; on the 17th De-
cember, 1814, the British Qtuerij an Ot^tend packet, was lost with all hands ; and,
on January 6, 1S57, during a gale of eight days* duration, in which several other
vesi>el8 were lost, the mail-st«amer Violet was destroyed, involving the sacrifice
of many lives In the catastrophe. From these dates it will l>e seen that the greatest
dangers are to be apprehended in the winter months.

' These dangerous sands are said to have consisted at one time of about 4000 acres of
low land, fenced from the sea by a wall. One well known tradition ascrll)es their
present state to the building of the Tenterden steeple, for the erection of which the
lunda that should have maintained the sea-wall had been diverted : this traditionary
account is of little, if any value. Lambard, in writing of them, says : ** Whatsoever
old wives tell of Goodwyne, Barle of Kent, in time of Edward the Confessour,
and his sandes, it appcarcth by Hector Bofitlns, the Brlttish chronicler, that theise
sandes weare mayne laud, and some tyme of the possession of Earl Godwrne, and
by a great inundatioi^ of the sea, they weare taken tberf roe, at which tyme also much
harme was done in Scotland and Flanders, by the same rage of the water.'' At the
period of the Conquest by William of Normandy, these estates were taken from

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Earl Godwin, and bestowed upon the abbey of SL Angnatlne at Canterhnry, the
abbot of which allowiDg the pea-wal! to fall Into a dllapiaated condition, the waves
roshed in, iu the year 1100, and overwhelmed the whole. How far this acconiit of
the formation of this remarlcuble «hoal can be relied on, is a matter of considerable
donbr, the doctunentary evidence on the subject Iwlng scanty and unsatisfactory. A
colorable conflrmatiou is, however, to bo deduced from the fact of the successive in-
roads which the sea has made for centuries past, and is still making along the whole
past coast of England.

As a precaotiou, now, in foggy weather, bells in the light-ships are frequently
somidcd. Difficulty is experienced iu finding firm anchorage for these vessvlH ; and
all efforts to estublfsh a fixed beacon have been hitherto nnRnccesi«ful. In 1846, a
light-house on piles of iron screwed Into the sand was erected, but it was wahtied
away in the following year. As soon as a vessel is known to have been driv-n up-
on the sands, rockets are thrown up from the light-vessels, and the fact thus coni-
monicated to the shore. The rockets are no sooner recognised than a number of
boatmen, known all along the coast as ** bovellers," immedlnUly launcli their boats
and make for the sands, whatever may be the state of wind and weather. These
"boTellers** regard the wreck itself as their own property, and although during fine
weather they lead a somewhat regardless as well as a wholly idle and iuactire life,
their intrepidity in seasons of tempest is worthy of all praise.

GOODYEAR, Charles, American inventor, was bom at New Haven, Connecti-
cut, December 29, ISOO, the son of an iron-manufacturer, with whom, at the age of
«1, be went into business in Piiiladeluhia. Failing in the Iron trade, his atlentiod
was attracted to the manufacture of india-rubber, and he expended all his means,
and reduced his family to utter destitution, in experiments with various mixtures
and processes, the most successful of which were with magnesia, lime, and nitric
acid to make It available for waterproof shoes, clothing, &c. His efforts were a
series of failures, excepting a partial success in treating the surface of rubber goods
with nitric acid, until ho bought of one Hayward, a rival experimenter, an invention
for mixing india-mbber with sulphur. The great secret of vulcanisation, in which
the two substances, submitted to a high temperature, are converted into the elastic,
enduring, and heat and cold defying fabrics now in use, was an accidental discovery
made while standing by a stove, and idly subjecting a mixture of rubber and sul-
phur to its heat. This new product he patiently perfected, discovering new uses to
which it could be applied, until it required sixty patents to secure his inventions.
Some of these riglits-were secured by other persons in England, and in France
they were forfeited by an informality ; so that, by these means, and from expensive
law-snlts, he gathered little from ten years of toll and privations save the honors
awarded to his skill and perseverance in giving to the world a staple now applied in
different countries to 500 uses, and employing 60,000 workmen in Its manufacture.
He died in 1880.

GOOLArREE or Gomn'l Pass, an important pass in the north-west of India,
across the Snliman ran^ from the Derajnt into Cabul. It enters the mountains at
^_, ^_^ , . . » -. , Jong. TOO e. jt holds its course, which is

>r rather the watercourses of the Goinul,
ry of the Musarecs. It is of great import-
istan4o Afghanistan, as tlie Khyber is the
mmense caravans, consisting principally of
westward from the Indus and the adjacent
viuter in the Derajat. It is much infested
!, and the caravans have often to fight their

river-port of England, iu the West Riding
bank of the Ouse at its junction with the
of York. It has only recently risen into
commencement of its prosperity from its
29. It has commodious ship, barge, and
J ring vessels, ))ondB for bonaed timber, a
warehouse accommodation. G. has a con-
?. sall-making, iron-founding, and agrinil-
al corn-mills, some of whicli are worked

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inr*^' 56

by steam. Ckml Lb largelT exported alonff the coast, and in coosideraUe quaDtitiee
to LoDdou. la 1S75, 3836 vessels, of SSO^^SS tous, entered and cleared the port.
Pop. (18T1) 7680.

GOOSANDER {Mergtw Merganser)^ a web-fboted bird of the same grenns witli
those commouly called MerKousers (a. v.), and tlie largest of the Britiali species.
It is larger than a wild duck; the adalt male has the head and upper part of the
ueck of a rich shining green ; the feathers ol the crown and back of the head don-
gated, the back black and gray, the wings black and white, the breast atid belly of
H delicate reddish boff color. The female has the head reddish brown, with a leas
decided tuft than Uie male, and much irrayer plumage, and has been often
described as a dlflEereut species, receiving the Eoglish name of Dwidictr, Both
miyudiblee are furnished with many sharp serratures or teeth directed backwards,
the nearest approach to true teeih to be found in the mouth ^f any bird. See
also Bill. The O. is a native of the arctk; regions, extending into tlie
temperate parts of Europe, Asia, and America ; in the southern parts of Britain, it
is seen only in winter, and then only in severe weather, the females and young mi-
grating southwards in such circumstances more irequeutly ttian the old males, and
not nufrequeutly appearing la small Aocka in the »outh of ScoUaud and north of
England ; but in some of the northern parts of Scotland and the Scottish islee it
spends the whole year. It feeds on flsli, crustaceans, and other aquatic animals
which its serrated bill and its power of diving admirably adapt it for seising. The
flesh of the Q. is extremely rank and coarse, out the eggs appear to be sought after
by the inhabitants of some northern countries.

GOOSE (il n«er), a genus of web-footed birds, one of the sections of theLin-
uieau genus Anas (q. v.), having the bill not longer than the bead, more high than
broad at the base, the upper mandible slightly liooked at the tip; the I^^ placed
further forward than in ducks, and so lietter adapted for walking; the ueck of mod-
erate length, with sixteen vertebrae, a character which widely distingulshee them
from swans. In general, geese spend more of their time on land tlian any other of
the AiuitidaSf feeding on grass and other herba^ berries, seeds, and other vegeta-
ble food. Although large birds, and of bulkv form, they have great powers of night.
They strike with their wings in fighting, and there is a hard callous knob or tubercle
at the bend of the wing, which in some species becomes a spur. The Domestio G.
is regarded as deriving its origin from the Gbay Lao G. or Coicmom Wild Q. (.1.
ftruH); but all the species seem very capable of domestication, and several of them
have been to some extent domesticated. The Gray Lag CL is almost three feet
in length from the tip of the bill to the extremity of the short talL
Its extent of wing is about five feet The wings do not reach to the
extremity of the tail. The weight of the largest birds is about ten
pounds. The color of the plumage is grav, varying in some parts to
grayish brown ; the rump and belly white, the tail gravish brown and wnite; the
bill is orange, the noM at the tip of the upper muudible white. The young are

grayish brown ; the rump and belly white, the tail gravish brown and wnite; the
bill is orange, the noM at the tip of the upper muudible white. The young are
darker tliau the adults. The Gray Lag G. is common iu some parts of the centre
and south of Europe, also iu many parts of Asia, and iu the north of Africa, but it

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 11 of 196)