James Orr.

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swamp of Tejend, 150 miles to the east of the Caspian Sea. After entering Tnrkes-
tan. the H. soon begins to lose its water iu the sand of tiie desert, and the latter
part of its course lor hundreds of miles Is dry, except at certain seasons of the
year.

HER10T, George, founder of a magnificent hospital at Edinburgh, the son of a

Kkismitii In that city, a descendant of the Heriots of 'lYabronn. East Lothian, was
m In June tStfS. Admitted, in May 1688, a member of the Bdinburgii Incorpora-
tion of Goldsmiths, lie was, in 1697, appointed goldsmith to Anne of Denmark, con-
sort of James VI. of Scotland, and soon after to the king, on wliose accecsiou, iu
1608, to the English thrune, H. went to London, where, ns court-jeweller and
banker, he amassed considerable riches. He died Febrnary 12, 1624, without Issue,
and bequcatlied the greater part of bis wealth (X28,626) to the town-council and
ministers of Edinburgh, to found and endow an hospital In that city
for the maiutenance and education of the sons of poor deceased or
decayed bui^esses. The noble structure of Heriot's Hospital, from a de-
sign, it Is l)elieved, by Inigo Jones, was completed, In 1649, at a cost of
£80,000 sterling. After the battle of Dunbar in 1660, Cromwell made It a milititrv
hospital ; but in 1658 it was restored to the governors by General Honk ; and In 16^i,



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Htr^ nn" 566

80 1)oyrt were admitted. 9M boys are now maintained and edncated in ft, 84 of wftom
art? iioii-reBld.int. I u 17M tlie nnunul revenue was £1966. In 1S8T ftuHUionnted to
jCi 1.235. leaving in that year a aurplns of £8099. The yearly revenue is now upwards
of £20,000. Most of tite ffronnd on which tite New Town of Bdinlnirgli ii» bnilt be>
loii(;t< to ihe hospital. 1 lie revennea frreatiy exceedhif? the expenditure, in IfiST an
act of parliament was procured for tiie erection of mihoola in Edinbnn^h, for tb«
educutiuu of poor children free of ail expense. Of these ** Heriot 8clioolfs" tliero
arc 19— viE., 18 juvenile and 7 Infant schools— attended by upwards of 5100 boys and

girl^ Ttic children who are eli^ribie to these schools are, first, childn'U of decayed
urgesses and fmeinen ; and second, children wlioso parents arc in poor circum-
stances, and who reside within the royalty of Edinburgh ; but of late admission has
also been <;lven to the children of parents residing beyond that limit There are abo
9 free evening scliools, attended bv 1400 young men and women. There is a system
of bursuries connected witli tlie Hospital, botn for the boys who are educated in it,
and for others who are elected according to the discretion of tlie govemora— ** bontfe
bursars,^* £30 a year ; and "out bitrsura/' about £80 ; the former established In 1810^
the latter in 1825.

HERIOT, in English Law. Is a kind of fine due In copyhold estates to the lonl of
the manor on the death of the copyholder, and consists of the liest iK'OSt, jjwel or
. chattel that belonged to ihe deceui»cd. The lord can enforce this riirht liy action, or
seize it brevi manu. Such a rl-jht is practically unknown in freehold estates in Eng-
land. In Scoi land, all land la held on much the same forms as copyholds; and
much muse vexatious thiui^s of a similar kind to heriots, under the name of reliefs,
beco:ne due from a va!<Siirs heir to the superior ou the vaesurs death. In both
countries the practice is equally barbarous.

HE'RISTAL^ or He'rsral, a considerable village of Belgium, in the province of
Liege, extends along the left hank of lite Mans for about ihrec miles, immediately
below the city of Liege, of which it may ulmo'^t )te considered a suburb. Popnlatiou
about TOOO, principally workmen, who flud employment in the coal-mines, the iron
and steel works, which are here carried ou. Some ruins still exist of the castle of
Ueristal, ttie btrilipiace of Pepin le Oros (fatiier of Charles Mnrtel, and great-
grandfather of Charlemagne), and from wliich tie had his title of Pepin d'UerlstaL

HE'RITABLE AND MOVABLE, a Scotch law-phrase denoting tlie distinctioos
of things which go to liie heir and to the executors respcctivelv. The distinction
corre!<ponds^ to a certain extent to tlie phrase "Heir and Executor" (q. v.) in
Eui^iand,

HERITABLE BOND, in Scotch Law, is a bond for a sum of money, and joined
wifii it a conveyance of land in secnriiy thereof. The usual deed is now a bond
and disposition in security, corresponding to the English mortgage (q. v.).

HERITABLE JURISDICTIONS, a remarkable class of jurisdictions held her-
editarily from tlie crown in Scotland, abolished (1748) l)y 20 Geo. II. c. 48. Tliese
jnrisdictious amounted to upwards of a liundred in number^ and con8i^ted of sher-
iffship!>, stewartrics. coustahuhiries, but principally of regalities and bailierios, with
some offices of distinction. One of the more Important was the office of Lord
Justice-iifeneral, and th ; lordship of Argyle and tlie Isles, both belonging to Ihe
family of Argyle. In virtue of their her^ltary rights, the iiossessors of these jnris-
dictions exercised au arbitrary power over vassals and others within tlio Hmita of
their domain, and could punish them by fines, scourging, imprisonment, and even
in some casea put them to death, witliont interference of the common law. As re-
puirnant to social policy, and more particularly with the view of extinguishing the
authority of Higlilunil chiefs over their clans, thc^e heritable jurisdictions were uliol-
ished ; tlie |K>ssesHors receiving payment for the assumed valne of tlieir ri«jht8.
Artryle, alone, n^ceived £21.000 as an indemnity, and nllugether there was paid by
government £162,037, 12s. 2d. The abolition of these odloiia jurisdictions being fol-
lowed by tlie appointinei.t of sheriffs ou a proper fooling, this great legislative act
marks an imporiant era in ihe iristory of Scotland.

HERITABLE SECURITIES, tlic name given in the law of Scotland to what are
called mortgages and charees on land in England. These were formerly distingnished
into wadset, lufcCtmcnt of annual rent, heritable bond, bond and dispoaitloik in se-



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cnrity, nod abeolnte disposition with back-bood, and fll^ rewrred hardens ou land.
All heritable secnrities are fonuded on the tlieory, that they cocstitate a pledge of
the land to the creditor until the debt is paid, or rtiiher the debt is u harden ou the
land, 00 that whatever Ijecomes of the lundf into whatever nnmbor of hands it is
conveyed and transferred, the debt still inheres in it, and mnft Iw flrst paid ont of
the proceeds, unless it is redeemed. In Scotland, tht» prlnci|»al heritable security is
now called the bond and disposition in security, which consists of an obliffaiion to
))ay tlie debt, and a disposition pro temjpwe to the creditor, by war of securuy till the
debt is paid. The bond must be re^ristered in the Register of Hasines, to compieto
the title, and it is opsimable to a third party. A power is always given to the cred-
itor to sell the estate, if the principal or Interest is not paid, in which case, the creditor
most accoont for the surplus after paying himself his debt.

HE'RITOH, in the law of Scotland, Is the owner of land in a parish liable to
public burdens. The heritors, collecllvely, have vested in them the fee of the church
and churchyard ; they repair the parish church, Jtc, and before the Education Act
(137S) elected tiie parish vchoolinaster.

HERM^. SeeHzBJUs.

HERMANDAD, The(Sp. *' Brotherhood "). an association of the principal cities
of Castile and Arason, bound togetlier by a solemn league and covenant fur the de-
fence of their liberties iu seaiions cf tronhle. These confederacies wire sanctioned
by the sovereigns, as agents for suppressing ihe increasing power of the nobles, and
for maintahiiuff public security thruutrh the. land with no cot-t to the trovcrnnient.
In Aragon, the first Bennaodad was eslublii'lied in the middle of the 1 3th c. and in
Castile about 80 years later; while in 129A,B5ciUeBof Cai'tileand L<-on furnted a joint
confederacy, and entered into a compact, by which they pi* dged themtH'lvis to tuke
summary vengeance on every noble who had either rohbcd or injured a member of
their association, and refuced to malie just atonement lor the wronfr : or u|>on any
one who shook! attempt, even by the order of the king, to levy an unjust lax. Dur-
ing the long period of anarclty in which the Christian rulers of Spaht were Imnotent to
maintain order in tlieir own dominions, the Santa Uermandad^ or Holy Brotherhood,
had presented theonly elieck against thenulKinnded licence of the nobles ; and Isa-
bella of Caf*t lie, seeing the beneficial effects which an exient>ioii of the institution
was capable of producing, obtained the sanction of ihe Cortes for its thorough re-
organisation and extension over the whole kingdom in 1496. The criniea reserved
for its jurisdiction were all acts of violence and tlieft committed on the hi};hroads or
in the open country, and the penalties attachetl to Vnch nii>demeanor were siM.'cifled
with the greatest precision in the co<les of laws, which wen; enacted at different
times in the yearly assemblies of the deputies of the confederate cities. An aunual
contribotioD was, moreover, assessed ou every hundred honseholdeis or vecinot. for
the eqoipment and maintenance of the horsemeu and mtadriileraa or oflieials of the
brotherhood, whose duty it was to arrest offenders, and enforce the sentence of the
bw. Altboogh the Hermandad was regarded with much disfavor by the aristocracy.
It continued Hir man V years to exercise its functions, nntil the rouutry was cleared
of banditti, and tuo ministers of justice enabled to distliurge their dntifs
withoat hindrance from lawless disturl)ers of Ihe (leace. In 1498, the objt els of the
Hermandad bavinff been obtained, and )»uhlic order established on a firm hnsis, iho
brotherhood was wsorganiaed, and n>duced to an ordinary police, such a-* it has ex-
isted, with various modifications of form, to the present ceuiury. The laws enacted
at different times in ll»e juntas or assemblies of the Hermandad were compiled, in
1485, into a code, known as the **Ouademo de his Leycanuevasde la Hermaiuhid,"
which was first printed at Burgos in 1621.— See Mariana. '* History of ^nain ; " Pul-
gar, ** Reyes Caloiicoe; '^ Preacott, ** History of Ferdinand and LsaMla."

UE'RMANN, Johann Gottfried Jalcob, a German philologist of great genins and
learning, was bom at Leipsic, 88tli November 17T9 ; studied there and at Jena, and
was made. In 1T98, extraordlnnr>* professor of philosophy. In 1608. he was called
to Kiel as ordinary profet»8or of eloquence. Incoming in addition professor of poetry
in 1809. and in this position he remnined till his death. Sist December 1848. Dis-
tinguisned by iibiral-mindedness and love of truth, by eloquence and extensive col-
^orc, H. continued till his Intest diiys to attract a large circle of stodents to his
Class-room, which sent forth some of the most celebrated teachers In the scboohi aod



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Hermana KAQ

BMnuphroditism ^^^

anWeraities of Germany. The flrrtdepartiaeot which he began tocnlUrate oo orig-
inal priucifrfes was the science of metre, of which lie attempted to develop u philu-
Bophical theory from the categories of Kuit ; and on this subject he wrote, besides
Ilia ** Handbuch d. Meti-ik " 079B), several Latin treatises, among which his '* £pl-
tome DoctrinsB Metricas" (161S) readied a third edition in 1862. Of wider impor-
tance, however, was the new metiiod which he Introduced hito the treatment of
Greek grammar, which has had its iuflaence on the grammar of Latin, and even of
modern langna^es, esfiecially of tlie German. The principles of this metliod are
not only explicitly developed in his ** Dc Emeudeudft Katioue Graaca Grammatics "
(1801), bnt lire pnictically Illustrated in hisunmerons editions of the ancient clas-
sics. H.*s power of dealinj; with chronological, to)X>graphicul, and pensonal ques-
tions, is shewn in his ^^Opnscula" (7 vols., Leip. 18:17—1830), which also contain
some poems breathing the spirit of Bomau poetiy. Consult John's ** Gottfried H.
ehie GedAchtuissrede^* (Leip. 1849).

HERMANN, or Herman, a name that first appears In Germany in the 6th c. after
Christ, but is now become common. It has been erroneously tmusferred to that

Srince or chief of the Cberuscl, called by Roman writers Arminius, and by the
reeks Arinenios. This personage was the son of Siglmer, and was bom 16 b. o.
The period in which the youth of U. was cast was fraught with the greatest peril to
Germany. To secure the frontiers of the empire against the attacks of tlie Ger-
manic tribes, the Romans had been forced to advance into the more turbulent dla-
tricts, and to build a series of forts to overawe the inhabitants. In this manner,
not only had most of the Celtic tribes from the Alps to the Danube been subdned,
but in the years from 9 b. o. to 4 a. d., Dmsns and Tiberius had penetrated into
the north-west of Germany as far as the Ell)e, laid onta nnmberof military roa^
erected fortresses in tlie country, and rednced the different tribes to snch depend-
ence ui)OU Rome, as virtually amounted to complete subjugation. With so much
prudence and caution had Tiberius proceeded, that the Ghirmans coutinoed to all
apptorance on the best terms with the Romans, gradually adopted Roman habits,
and freqnently and readily took service in the Roman armies. Thus U. and his
brother Flavius had enrolled themselves nnder the Roman standards, and as lead-
ers of Oheruscan auxiliaries, had not only obtained Roman citizenship and the
rank of knighthood in the country of the Danube, bnt had likewise acquired a *"
knowledge of the Latin language, and a deep insight into the arts of war and policy
as practised by the Romans. Enriched with these experiences, when H. after the
expiration of some years, returned liome, he found the state of affairs considerably
changed for the worse, through the nnekilful desnotism of the Roman viceroy,
l^uintilins Varus. II. now conceived tiie plan ot delivering: his country from
its oppressors. All the tribes and leaders as far as the Elbe were se-
secretiy summoned ; Varus was lulled into security, and induced to despatch por-
tions of his army to different points, and with tbe remaining portion, which was
hist on the point of leaving the country of the Chemscl for the Rhine, to quit the
highway, tie was thus lured into the impassable districts of the Temobwrg Forwt
(either In tlie upper valley of the Lippc, or the adjoining Prnselan territory); an
engagement took place, which lastea for three days. Tbe result was the annihUa-
tiou of the whole Komun army (9 a.d.). When intelligence of this defeat readied
liome, it excited the greatest consternation and anxiety. The Gemmns, however,
who had only their own liberation in view, prosecuted their victory no further ; and
for a few years both parties, so to speak, hnng fire. When (Jermanlcns (q. v.) , how-
ever (14 A.D.), assumed the command on the Lower Rhine, he resolved to crush Uie
barbarians. lu two successive campaigns, 14 a.d. and Itf a.d., he reduced U. to
great straitji ; but lie being recalled to Rome by the Emperor Itberins, 17 a.d., the
results of his victorious activity were lost. From this time no ROnmii army over
ventured to penetrate from the Rhine Into the interior of Germany, and this circum-
stance, which decided tbe future fate of Germany, must be ascrll>ed cldafly to Uer-
manu. Nevertheless, no sooner was the foreign enemy expelled, than the internal
feuds broke ont with more violence than **ver. In the course o( these. GL was slain
by his own relatives, in the S7th year of his age and twelfth of his leadershipw
Tacitus aays of him : ** He was, without doubt, the deliverer of Germany ; and un-
like other kings and generals, he Attacked the Roman people, not at the coinmence-
ineut, but in the fttlueas of their power; in battles, he was not always auccessfui,



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bXyd Hermaphroditiua

bat he was inTincible In wnr. He still Ures la the songs of the barbariaoB, thoagh
aiiknowu to ihc nuiials of the Greeks, who ndmire only whtit beloDg<< to themselves;
by the Romans, he is not estimated accordlne to his merits becanise In our ndmlra-
tlon for the past, we neglect the present."— Compare Wietersbeim, •*Der Fcldsng
des Gennanicns" (Leip. 1850) ; Massmann, "Armlnlns, Chemscornm Duxac Dccus,
Liberator Qcrraaniic" (1889); BOttger, "H.. der Cheruskerf Qrst " (Han. 1874).— A
colossal statne of H., placed on a hill near the town of Dotmold, was pnblicly an«
veiled on Angnst 1<t, 18;5. The work, intended to be a national monnment, Is by the
Bcolptor Baudel, who devoted to Its completion a largo portion of his life.

HE'RMANNSTADT (Lat CiMm'um, Hniig. Naay'Steben)^ an important town
of Austria, capital of the crown-land of I'ransylTauIu, Is beautifully siiaated on the
Cibin orZlhin, an affluent of tlie Atata; about 70 m. n. u. w. of Cronstadt. H. is
the seat of the Austrian governor of Transylvania, and of a Qreek non-united
bishop, and is the headquarters of the 19th corps of the imperial army. Tanning,
wax-blcachinir, and the making of cloUi, combs, ptiper, and gunpowder, chiefly em-
ploy tiie (I8a») 1S,WS inhabitants, half of whom are Protentants.

II.. origlnslly a village, is called, on the ancient seal of the town, Villa Hermanni,
The Hermann from whom the town has Irs name was a citisen of N&mberg, and is
Bald to have led hither a cotony in the 12th century.

UERMATHRODITE, in Botany, the term employed to designate those flowers
which contain both the male and female oivons of rrprodnction (ftatnens and pis-
tllrt). and are therefore by tliemselves capable of producing perfect feed. Flowers
containing onlv male or female organs ore called uniaextuu or Dielinoua {ja. v.),
and when produci d on the same plant, Monceeiotu (q. v.) ; when on different plants,
IHoeeioit« (q. v.). Hermaphrodite flowers are also called monoclinotu (Qr. moiios^
one, and ktirU a couch) and perfect flowers.

HERMA'PHRODinSM is the term employed by naturalists lo designate the
state or condition of those organisms, whether sntmul or vegetable, In which the
sexual characteristics of the male and femnle an! united in the same individual.
The name is derived from the fable of tlie union into one of the bodies of Herma-
phroditus, son of Hermes and Aphrodite, and tlie nymph Salmacis. See Ovid's
** Metamorphoses,'' lib. Iv. v. 847. «

There are two kinds of hermaphroditism, the true and the spurious; in the
former, there is an actual co-existence, in the same individual, of male and female
reproductive organs ; while in the latter, there is only an appearance, from arrest or
excess of development, of a union of the distinctive organs of both sexes. l>ue
hennaphrodltism is the normal type of sexual structure In most plants. See Hbb-
M APBBODrra, in Botany, li likewise occurs normally in many of the lower In verte-
brata, and as a monstrosity in the higher invertebrata, and even occasionally In cer-
tain vertebrata.

The recent iifvestlgations of Balbtani shew that certain Infusoria (as, for instance,
the common gr«^n Paramcecium), at all events occasionally present the phenomena
of hermaphroditism. In some of the polyps (as, for example, the Hydra and some
of the Actiniae), the sexes are nnlted !n the same indiviauai ; the fame is the case
with some of the Acalephto (namely, the Ctenophora), with certain orders of Hel-
mlnthes or pamsitle. worms (the Ceitodes and Treroaiodes), with certain Annclldes
(the Hlrudliiei and Lumbrlcini, of which the leech and the earth-worm are typical
examples), with many acephalous moMuscs, with the Pteropods and with most of the
Gasieropods ; while in the highest order of molluscs, the Cephalopoda, the sexes are
ahvavs alstlnct Among the crustaceans, the Cirrhlpeds are for the most part her-
maphrodites : but in tlie other and higher orders, if hermaphroditism exists, it Is only
as an abnormal occurrence, and gives rise to a monstrosity. (For example, the com-
mon lobster has been obfl»erved with malo organs on one side of its body, and female
organs on the other ) True but not normal liermaphrodltism is also occasionally
met with in insects. In fourteen cases given bv Oehsenheimer, the right side was
male, and the left female; and in nine cases it was the reverse. Professor Owen
remarks that In insects hermaphrodites are occasionally found, where the characters
of one eex, instead of extending over one-half, are limited to particular narts of the
body which agree in Ibe main with the other sex. Thus, in an individual of GaUro-



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phaga quereut^ the body, tfae antcnniB, and the left wings were those of the female,
wbllo the right winj^ were those of (he male.

I'rae (but of coorse nbuormal) hermapbroditi»m is far rarer amongst the verte-
brata than in iusecis or croslacvaDS. Varions hislances, however, are ou record of
fishes prcseuting a lateral hermaphroditic stmcture. or a roe on one side and a mill
on the other ; and references to various cases that have been reported mav bo found
in Sir James T. Simpson's learned and elaborate article, ** Hermaphroditism. ** in
•• The Cycloptediu of Anatomy and Physiology." The same article may be referred
to for cases of similttr hermaplirodltism in birds and mammals, iuclndiuK the human
subject, namely, cases in which there were female structures on one side, and male
structures (more or less perfect) ou the other.

Kctnruiog from these cases of abnormal true hermaphroditism to those of normal
true hermaphroditism, the question uaturaily suggests itself— Can these true animal
hennaphroditcs, possessing male and female oivans, fertilise themselves? As far
as is known, none of the terrestrial hermaplirodue.s such as loud- molluscs (the com-
mon snail, for example) and earth-worms, are sclf-imprcsnatiiig. They all pair,
and in this respect offer a strong contrast with hermaphrodite plants. But of
aquatic animals, tbere are many self-fertilising henmiphrodites. For further de-
tails on the subject of hermaphroditism generally, the reader is referred to
Steenstrup's ** Uulersuchaugen fiber das Yorkommeu des Hermapbroditismus in
derNatur"(1846).

Spurious hermaphroditism Is a snbject of too purely a professional character to
be noticed at all fully in these pages. Tliose who take nn interest In this subject
may be referred for further information to Sir James T. Simpson's article, and to a
case recorded a number of years ago In " The Lancet " by Dr Qirdwood.

HB'RMAS, the name of one of those who were menibers of the Roman Church
at the time at which SI Paul wrote his Epistle to the Romans, and, us mny be in-
ferred from the upostle's addressing a special greeting to him, a person of some
eminence among his fellow-Christiuns. Ho was, thoneli resident of Rome, most
probably, judging from his name, of Greek orii^in. H.,Tiowever, has obtained even
more consideration from the circumstance of his b Insc the reputed author of the
weU-kuown early treatise called ** The Shepherdt*' which is commonly classed among



the writings of the apostolic Fathers. It is ascrlb.*d to the H. of St Paul, more or
less positively, by Orlgen, Euiiebius, and St Jerom ;. But there is a second H., who
liveti about the niiadle of the 2d c, a brother of Pins I., Bishop of Rome, to whom



the work is attributed by other writers, and it would seem with greater intrinsic
probability. The work contains many allusions which npp<*ar to be directed
specially ai^iiinst the Montanlstlc errors — a fact quite irreconcilable with the suppo-
sition of its having been written in the apO!»iuiic tige ** The Slii*p!ierd." whichever
H. may have iieen its autlior, seems to h;ive been originally written in Greek. How-
ever, until recently, it was known only by a l.atin version, with the exception of
some Greek fragineuu coilecUid from the qiiohitions of the work by the Greek
Fatliers. But in the year 1850. a Gr.H>k text, said to have been found at Mount
Athos, by the since too notorious M. Simonides, was published at Leipslc. the >reun-
Ineiiessof which is more than doubtful; and an Ethiopic ven^ion was printed in
186), by M. Autoine d'Abbadle, th^; well-known Abyssinian traveller and scholar.
** The Shepherd " is a mystical work, divided into three pnrts— the first containing



Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 110 of 196)