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writing iu Egypt, tlie early Christiana having iLtrodnced the Greek alpha1>ct^ with
a few chaructera borrowed from Uie demotic. Thia acript la rarely uaed for public
movements, although it appeara on the Kosetta Slone ; bnt waa universally em-
ploved for coutracta, public docnmonts, and occasionally for religious funitulie.
owing to tho decretusing knowledge of hieroglyphics. At the time oiCieini nt ll was
tlie first learned by bcgiuuora. With it the Greek lau^^uoge begun to apix:ar in
publip uae.

Besides the Egyptian hloroglyphica, there are thoae of tlie Azteca or Mexican,
which were a Kind of pure picture-wriiiu*.;, the names of moiiarcha. tuwna, aiul
other things iieing painted by the objects which corres|ionded to their names.
While in their historical writings the events themselves were portrayed, tlie num-
ber of the years of the reign of the king waa indicatt*d by phicing iu a line tn
poUnee in the picture ilie aymliola of the years of the AzU'C cycle, which were named
aft^ plants and animala. The Mexican bieroglypha, in fact, oonalated olcouvtn-
tional pictures, and they had no means of expressing grammatical form or any
stroctoral parts of a laugoage. This mode of pure pictore-writing prevailed not
only In Mexico, bnt amongst the nationa of Central America. The knowledge of
these symbols has nnfortanatelv been almoat lost ainoe the Spanish oonquesi, the
meaning of only a few having been rescued from oblivion in the 14tth c., when the
greater part of the Axtoc MBS. was destroyed by the Spanish eodeshiatica. It has

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Indeed be«n asserted, that the monks need these sjmbols socordlng to tbalr i

to writu the Lord's Prayer aud other formalas ; thos a flag prononuoed Am^ was

used for the syllable Pa; % 'stone, TeU for tf, the two expreMlng Faler ; a cactus
fnilt, Sochtli, for Koch; aud u stone as above for te: these four gronpe expreoeJuK
PtUe{r) XoehtA, or Notter; and i*o forth. This eeems to slirw tlie development ot
a phonetic system, bat it was never extensively used, on aoconnt of the abUorrenoe
entertained of the Aztec Idolatry.— The tvrui bieroglvphic was also nsed by the
writers of einbltMunta or devices, symbolising Gnomic sentences taken from the
Oreek aud Latin fioets, aud having no relation to Egyptian hieroglyphs. — In re-
cent times, too, tlie astrological almanacs have had their symbolical represeuta-
Uousaud snpposed prognostics of fature events, which they called hieroglyphs. —
Zocif-u *' De Origlne Obelisconim " (fo. Ronne, 1797) ; Young, •• Arclissologla " (181T,
vol. xvll. p. 60) ; "Eiicyclop. Brltannica"(8th ed.) ; CliaropoUion, "Prdclsdii Systdroe
Hioroglyphique" (1824); **Oramraaire Egyptienne" 0841—1861); *• Dictlonnaire "
(1841); Lop8iii«, in the '* Ann. del' Instiluto Arch." (1SS88); Birch, *' Introduction
to tlie Btndy of the Hieroglyphics »' (1867) ; Bnigsch, ** Uramniairc D^>motlque " (Bed.
1855), ** WOrterbnch " (1867—1868), '' Grammatik " (187S) ; De Roug^ '' Einde d*une
8i6le Ejjryptieunc " (1868); CImbas. " Papyrus Magiqued»Harris » (1861); *' Zeitscbrif L
£. igypt. Sprache " (1863—1874) ; Bnusen, " Egypt's Place " (voL v. 1861).

niERO'NYMITES, one of the many hermit orders (q.^v.) established In the
conrsu of the 13tli and 14tli c?*ntnriu8. ITie Uieronymltcs grew out of tlie tliird
order of St Francis. See Franciscans. Some of the followers of Thomas of Slcna,
oue of the Frauciscau rlgorists, having established themselves lu varlons places
among the wild districts which skirt the Sierra Morena, by degrees formed Into a
community, and obtained in 1874 the npproval of Pope Gregory XL, who conflrraed
their rule, which was founded on tlint of St AugiiPtiue. The Instltnie extended into
other nrovluces of Spain, and also into Portugal; it was subsequently established
in Italy, Tyrol, und Bavaria.

HIEROPUANT, or My'etngogue, the priest who presided over the mysteries at
Eleusis, was always selected from the family of Euaioluut>, wtio was regarded as
their founder, aud the first Hieropliant. The U. was required to be a man of ripe
years, without auy physical defect, endowed with a flue voice, and of spotless
character. Ue wsd forbidden to marry, but it is not improbable that married men
were likewise appointed n., and were merely prohibited from forming a second
marriage. In the mysteries, the H. represented the Demiurge or creator of the
universe. He nione was authorised to preserve aud explain the unwritten laws, to
introduce candidates into the temple at Eleusis, aud gradually initiate them iuto tlie
leaser aud greater mysteries. On this account, he was likewise styled XLy^tagoQUBtkuH
prophet, aud no one was allowed to utter his name in the presence of an uninitiated
liersoii. At publui solemnities ho carried tho image of the goddess spleudidly

HIGH ALTAR. See Altab.

HIGH BAILIFF, is a term applied to some ofncors In England, who dl6Chan»e
mluiatcrial duties, such as serving writ^, &c., in certain liberiies or franchises, ex-
eiiipt from the ordinary sn|)ervision of the sheriC The term is used in contradis-
tinction to tlie ordinary name of bailiff, whicti is now almost a term of reproach, and
co'jflued chiefly to the lowest class of offlcers, who execute writs against debtors.

HIGH COMMISSION COURT, a tyrannical court established by Queen Elisa-
beth to reform the ciinroh, abolished by 16 Ch. I. c. 11.

HIGH CONSTABLE. See Constabi^b.

HIGH MISDEMEANOR, au offence short of, bat closely bordering on, treason.

HIGH PLACES (Heb. Bamoth)^ the name given In Scripture to certain places
where ilhcit worship was performed by the people of Israel. The practice of erect-
ing altars on elevated situations was common in ancient times, and originated in
the belief that iiilltops were nearer heaven, and, therefore, tlie most favorable
places for prayer and incense. The fathers of the Jewish nation acted in this re-
spect just like their neishbors. Abraham, we are tokl, built au altar to the Lord

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613 gtwoormnc

on a moQDtatn doat Bethel. The Mosaic ]aw, however, true to ira graud aim of se-
cnriux uational strength and purity by a vigorous aystcm of ifrolaiiun, proiilbited
the practice for the future, on the ground that the sputs which the Israelites would
he compelled to choose, had been iilreadv polluted by idolatrous services. In spite
of the vehemence with which the high places are again uud ugaiu denounced in ilie
Peutatenci), the nrobibitiou seems to iiave been a longtime in producing tliede8irt;d
effect — if, indeed, it ever really accomplished it During tbc whole eventful period
of the Judsres, it was not only practicHlly obsolete, but we actually find that both
Qideon and Mauoah liniit altars on high places by Divine command (Judges, vl. 26,
St6; xiii. 16 — 28). Italno occaoioua much surprise to read of the violations of the
Injnnctiou— among others by Samuel at Mispeh and Bethlehem, bv Siiui at Gilgnl.
by David, by Elijub on Mount Carmel. Tlie explanatioua given by the rubbis of
these con tradlctiona between the conduct of the prophets and kings of the Hebrew
people, and the commands of their great lawgiver, are too absurd for mention.
Whatever may be the true explanation, it is quite cort'iin that worship in high

? luces was almost universal in Judea, both during and after the time of iiolomon.
*he results wero such as might have been anticinated. The people erected altars
oot only to Jehovah but to Baal, and from worshipping In idolatrous ninces, pro-
ceeded to worship idols themselves. At a later period (see Books of Kings and
Chronicles), a series of vigorous efforts was made bv the more pious mounrchs
to suppress the pracii«9| and after the time of Josiab, it seems to have been flually

UIOH-PRIEST (Ilcbr. Kohen hatjgadol^ or cmphat. Kohen, Gr. arehiereus^ Lat.
primus pontifex^ Ac), the clilef of the Jewlfh Priesthood. His dignitv was heredi-
tary in the line of Bleamr, the sou of Aaron, and many more restrictions attached
to it than belonged to the ordinary oflSce of a Priest. He wns only allowed to marry
an intact virgin, and one of \\\n own trilw ; e\*cry impure contact even of the dead
bodies of his own parents he was strictly forbidden, besides hnvine to ahi>tiin from
many other things that might cause any defilement whatever. His functions con-
sisted principally in the general administration of the sanctuanr and all that be-
longed to the sacred service. He alone was allowed to enter liie Holy of Holies on
the day of atonement, and to cousult the Urim and Tbummim (q. v.). ^o lei's wns
bis costume of surpassing costliness and splendor, compri^hig numerous vestments
In addition to those of the ordinary priests. This bnllfant costume, however, was
laid aside by the High-Priest when, on the day of atonement, he went to i>erform
th« most awful service in the Holy of Holies; a simple garb of white linen— the
funeral dress of the Jews in later times— was all he wore on that occasion. Ttie
revcnneaof the High-Priest were in the main the same as those of the other
priests; but, according to the Talmud, he was to be richer than tliesc, and If his
own means were insufficient, he was to be provkled with opulent means by his
brethren, in virtue of his exalted position; the other priests never addressed the
High-Priest but by I»hi Kohen Gadolj "My Lord Higli-Priest.»' Before the Law,
however, tlie High-Priest was equal to any other Israelite. It is doubtful at w hat
time the office of Saaan, or vice-High-PriePt, was created. The Talmnd, more-
over, speaks ot a '^ Maskiach Milhamah," "Anointed for the war;" an officer who
seems to have shared almost the dignity of the High-Priet«t, and whose specuil duty
it appears to have been to read the proclamation presci ibcd in Dent. xx. 3, in tiie
time of war, and who may have accompanied the troops for the purposes ot cojo-
brating U»e service iu the camp. For further historical and theological points con-
nected with this subject, see Priests, Aabom, and Jews.

HIGH 8EAB, i. e., the open sea. Including the whole extents of sea so wr as u
is not the exclusive property of any particular country. The rnle of i«»*^™?J*°"J;
law is, that ovei7 country bordering on the sea l»as the exclusive eo^«f<5«V. y, 9^^;
such sea to the extent of three miles from its shore; but all ^'y<>"?' "jj^ 'V'^^Va
not within three mllee of some other country, is open or cf^^mon to a 1 countries.
The part of sea witWn three miles' distance is generally culled t^® .\*^ri Itoi lai sea oi
theiSrticnlarcoiinti7,or«.ars eUwsum. The**distinction has JitUo effect on the
rfghtof uavigaUon, hut as regarda fishing it is otherwise. ^,'1 »»"^/or ^J^VPjJ,Vout
e&D flaheriDeS have uo right to fish witllifii three miles of the B^i\^J^ ?°7hVpreuch
aBcence from the crown, or unless some special treaty— ae, for example, the French
and Bogltoh tresty—has laid down other arrangemcuta.

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Hifh a^A

Highway ^•'•*

HTQH STRWAHD, n jndge now always a kgal peer, who la specf alW afvpolDted
by Ihe crowu Tor the triul of peers indictoid for treaBon or r«loiiy. He is a kind o<
ppoak r or clinimmn of tlic pi^ciR, and votes with the re»t. It Is one of the privileges
of I lie British peerage to be tried by the court of the high steward.

HIGH TREASON. Sec Treason.

IH'GHOATE. n northern Ptibnrb of London, In the connty of Middlesex, and a
still iou on the Highgate and Edgeware Railway, 6 miles uortli uortli-we»t of 8i
Paul's. It comprises nianv elegant villas, and some Important benevolent Institu-
tionn. On the slope of a hill i)ciow the chnrch of U. is the North London Cemetery.
New buildings for the Highgate Granimar-acbool were erected in 1867.

HIGHLAND REGIMENTS. T!ic origin of the first of these regiments, the 4«d,
Ims l>eeu givtru under ilie head Black Watch (q.v.). The valuable services of this
rei:iiucnt encouraged tlie government to augment the force; and accordingly seven
oiucr Highland regiments have been raised from lime to time— vlx., tbe 71st,
in 1777 ; the 7ad, or Duke of Albany's Own, in the same vcnr ; the 74th, in
1787; the 7Sth, or Ro?s-8hirc BuflFs, in 1793; the 79th or Cameron Highlau-
der««, in 1805 ; the 92d, or Gordon Highlandei-is in 179« , and the 03d, or Suther-
land Highlanders, in 1800. The nnitorm of each of these corps Is the Highland
dres?, including n distinctive tartan. Tlie soldier wears ^ coatee of scarlet, a
kilt (in most, l>ut not all, of the regiments), a plaid across thesnt)ulder8,a plume.and
the other attributes of tiie Gaelic costume. lu an armv wiiere officers are appointed
by general competition, nationality ii necessarily dlsregarde<l ; but these corps
are tho'^e in which Scotch gentlemen most frequently seek appointments, and a
large proportion of the officers are Scotch. Of the men, about 79 per cent are
Scotch, 11 per cent. English, and 10 per cent. Irish. The regiments arc recruited at
Stirling, Aberdeen, Perth, Fort George, and Lanark.— See "History of the Highland
Clans " (Fullarton),

nrGHLANDS, a term p'^nerally applied to the higher parta of a country. As, for
example, Highland:«of the Hnd^ion. as defining a certain high and pictareiqae re-
gion on the river Hudson, in tlie state of New York ; but the term has a moro spe-
cial application, to a particular district in Scotland. This district baa no political or
civil boundary. Sepftmted by only a vague line of demarcation from the dtrisioo
c:illed the Lowlands, the Scottinh H. mav be briefly described as that portion of the
north and north-west of Scotland in which the Celtic language and manners have Ics«
or more lingered until modern times. The Highland line, as it is usually called, ex-
tends diagonally across the country from Nairn on the Morav Firth to Dambarton
on the Clyde; but the mountainous part of the counties of Banff, Moray, Aber«
doen, Kincardine, and Perth are also understood to bo included in the designation
Highlands. Caithness might be excluded as being a generally level country; but
throughout the H. there arc rich level tracts, none being more so than tbe eaatera
division of Ross-shirc The Hebrides (q. v.) or Western Isles are Included In th*
H., but the Isles of Orkney and Shetland, though to the north, are distinctly ex-
cluded, bv reason of the Norwegian origin of the Inhnbitanta.

The H. are full of lofty hills, some green and pastoral with tracts of haath, and
others rugged and bare, varying in height from 1000 to 4000 feet, and having geoer-
ally narrow valleys between, or else lakes and arms of the sea, called lo^. Be-
sides the grander features, there ore Impetuous mountain torrenta, picturesque ra-
vines, and valleys or glens, in which, and on the sides of the hills, are seen the huts
of the aborigines. I^rhaps the most remarkable feature in the country la the Hoe
of valleys from Inverness to Fort- William, in which lies a series of navigable loche,
united by artificial channels to form the Caledonian Canal. Growing up ander a
system of clanship, the state of society in the H. was antiquated and nnaatisfac-
tory, in a national point of view : while the country was almost impenetrable to
tniveliers, or to any species of trafDc The Urst great attempt to reform this atata
of affairs was the opening up of the country by roads In different dtrectfona, onder
the superintendence of General Wode. abont 1725—1786. The next great act of
melioration was the abolition of Heritable Jurisdictions (q, v.), Including the ancient

Erivilegcs of the heads of clans, abont 1748. And lastly, not to speak of the plant-
ig of schools and churches^ mac!i was done by the eataUiahment oC the Highland

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615 gfU

and Agricaltttrtl Sodety in 1T84. Since tbeM erento, the ancient patriarchal eyatem
baa giyen plaM to imt^rovementa as regardacommnnteatlonfsafrricnUnre, dwellinini,
edacatlon, and other modem conditiouB, iiicladinf a gradnal nobtitirutlon of Snffltoli
for tbo OaeUc laniraafe. LaiteriT, there baa been a keen apfrit of promesa in the
Hifphbiiids. Great unmbera of the Celtic Inhabltanla, who bad little chance of im-
proYing their drcumMancca on the spot, have been diapoaaemed, nnd their place
taken by atock-farmere with capital froon the Lowhwda. See Svtbulahh. While
a uew character haa tbna been given to cxtcnaiTP Highland paatoraffea, the raloe of
eetatee haa been further and very remarkably advnnced by being let for the pnrsnit
of game to aportamen, chiefly persona of rank and opaleace from Snchind. Whnf ,
therefore, with improved farming and ahootinga, Highland eatatea hare of Inteyeaw
rlaen immenaely in raliie. Invemeaa is nsnalry spoken of aa the capital of the H-
and ia noticed under its proper bead. The Highland counties are al*o noticed indl-
▼Moally. There are amidir popular Gaide-booka for tonrlsta In the H. ; and for
minnte topographical and other detaUa, we may refer to the •' Guide to the Hieh-
landa and laUmda of Scotlaiid,'' by Q. and P. Anderson. Lood. 1S84; 4th ed. \M,

HIGHNESS, a title of honor given to princes. The titlea ** Your Hlghnef a " and
** Tour Grace " wene both used in Sngland in former tiroes in addressing the Sorer-
elgfi, but were supplanted by ** Tour Majesty " toward the end of the reign of Henry
VIII. The cbikiren of royal personages are addressed*' Tour Royal 11 ighaess;^*
those of emperora, " Your Imperial Highncas." The aultun of Turkey Ife addreaaed
aa ** Your Highneaa."

HIGHWAY, ill EngKsh law. is the place over which a right Is enjoyed \a the
pabHc of walking, driving, or riding. It ia often caUed tlie (^eeu's b^hway ; not
becanae tlie Qneen haa any greater or better rfgbt than any of the public, bat to de-
note the impartiality and iquaHiy with which all the subjects enjoy the right of way
witbOQt distinction. Highwaya are distinguished into several kiads. 1. A footway,
where the public have no right except to walk on foot; S. Afoot and horseway.
Where the public have the right of walking or riding ou horseback ; %. A pack, and
drift way - « way oaed for dBvingcattle and pack-horses; 4. A foot, horac, and cart
vray, where the pnblie can waflt orr!de. or uac Telilcles of all ordinary deacriptiOBs.
Navigable rivers are also caHcd highways, but this is rather in a flgurative aense.
Where the right of way belong not to the public eenerally, bat to the owner of one
or two housea and tbefr tenanta, thia ia called a private way, and ia ckaaed among

It baa often been diepoted«and cannot be said to be yet thoroughly aettlod,
whetber a higtiway must be a thoroughfare—in other words, whether a road which
doea not leadto any public place can be a highway. The nrepooderance of author-
ity aeema rather to be in favor of the proposition, that it is essential that the high-
way be a thoroughfare. The mode in which a road is created is by dedication, or by
grant of the owner, or by the neccsaiiy of thinga or act of parliament. Thua, if a
peraon altow the pul>hc for four or Ave years to paaa tiirougb his flelds without stop-
ping theUft, thia vnll be evidence from which a jury may infer that the owner meant
to make a preaent to the public of the right 6l way. and be cannot afterwarda ex-
dnde the miblic, for the maxim holds, ** once a higii way. alwaya a hlirhway.'* The
mode in wtrtch a grant of tlie way is proved, ia generally by shewing that the public
baTe, from time Immemorial, or for a few yeara without interrnption, and with the
owner's consent, enjoyed the rielit of way ; for if that is proved, then the Uiw pre-
sumes that the right was given by some lost grant There are alro rights of way
limited to a particular purpose, which may be proved by immemorial custom, aa a
way for the nibabitants of a village to or from the parish church. One of the tnci-
denta of a highway is. that if it is fonndrons, or out of repair, the passenger is en-
titled to go over tlie adjacent land, whoever may be the owner of it, ao as to avoid
the foondrous part of the road. Another incident of the uae of a highway Ih. that
if any obatmctlon la niaeod upon It, wlietber in the natnra of a gate, or a wall, or
even if a house be built too near so as to encroach on the highway, any passenger
haa a right to abate the nnisance-^. e., he may hrmaclf, wttboot aiy
ceremony, remove the obatraction or demolish the wall, but he mast take care
not to do more damage than Is neoesaary ftw tbo parpoae of cUwr-
hig the road, otherwfee be wHI aubject hfmself to an *^<»v Another
IncMtBt of the nao of a highway la, that the pubtlc have an abaolote right to

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U90 erery part of It and to pasii to and fro in all directions. Of conrae each moat
comply with certain well known rales, aoch as that of ffiving and taking the road,
otherwise^ if an accident were to occnr, he woald be liaole for the negUgenoe, if it
aru!«e from a uegtecl of snch ralea, for theae constitate, aa it were, the law of the
road. It reeuits from this principle that no person, or bod]U)f persons. Is entitled
to convert part of ibo highway into nnj purpose, however nserol, other than a high-
way. Thna in London and other parts of the country, some veetriea and snrvevora
presumed to give leave to a contractor to lay down a tramway in the streeta, which
was alleged to be a great public improvement ; nevertheless, aa it practically resulted
in giving a monopoly to some persons, and moreover was an obstruction to others,
this was held to be a nuisance, and the parties who took part in it were indicted for
the obstruction. And on the same principle, it haa been held an indictable nuisance
for an electric telegraph company to place their tehsgrapli posts on the stripe of land

at tlie side of the road; for though it might be thoiwlit for the benefit of tlie public
instead of the revenue, yet as it practically obatmcted the public in the free paasaee
from every part of the highway to every other, it was held to be a unisance. Noth-

ing but an act of parliament can legaliM snch nses of a highway, and no peraou or
iKxly now existing haa authority to restrict tlie free use of the Qneeu's highway in
audi a manner.

The soil of the higfaa'ay, or rather the right to the ground beneath the liigh^
is presumed to be (not, as it is said to be In Scotland, in the crown, but) in tite
joining owners. Thas, if the laud on both sides of a highway belong to the same
owner, then tlie rii^ht to the ground l>eneath (he road belongs tonim also; and if the
land on one side belongs to a different owner from the land on the other side, thea
each is presumed to have tlie right to tho ground under tiic highway np to the middle
line. Tills rule is more than a mere theory, for thougli neither of the adjoining owners
can ever interfere with tlie passage of the public, who ha^-o an absohite right for
ever to use it for every lawful purpose of transit, yet thendjoiuiug owner haa oH the
rights incidental to the property which do not interfere with this public right of
passage. I'hus, if a mine were discoverud under the road, Uie adjoining owner
woula have the sole right to dig it and keep the contents ; all that be wonldrequire
to attend to would lie, lo leay^ suffldont support to the surface of tlie road. So, in
like manner, where there are strips of land at the aide of the rood on which trees or
grass grow, these lielong solely to the adjoining owner, and the public have no right
to the& use. Another remarkable consequence follows, that if, for example, a gas
company or a water companv were to presume to take up the highway in order to
lay their pipes under the surface, this is not only an indictable nuisance as regar ds
the public, inasmuch as it obstructs the use of the road for tlie time being, ont it
subjects the company to an action of trespass at the snit of the adjaoetit owner,
whose property coucists of all Uiat lies under the surface of the hiriiway. Another
oooseqneuce of the same rule is, that if n person is loitering on a hiKhway, not with
the intention of using it qua highway, but for the purpose of poaclung at night, the
courts have held that he might be punished under the night poaching act, for tres-
passing on the land of the adjoining owners in search of game.

The repair of a hizbway. In general, is n burden which falls upon the oc-
cupier of the lands in the parish. Probably the reason is, that they use those
highways most, and somebodv or other must keep them in repair. Sometimes,
however, the burden of repair is fixed on the owner of the adjoining hind, if it oan

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