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is not known In America. It Is a bird of temperate rather than of cold climates.
Iu some countries, it Is found at all seasons of the year, but it deserts its most
northern haunts in severe weather, migrating southward; Its flocks, like those of
others of this genus, flying at a great height, beyond the reach of shot, except of
the rifle, one bird always leading the flock, the rest sometimes following iu a single
line, but more generally In two uncs convei^ing to the leading bird. The Gray Gus,
G. was formerly abundant Iu the fenny parts ot England, and resided there all the
year, bur. the drainage of the feus has made it now a rare bird, and only known as
a winter visitant in the British Islands. It frequents bays of the sea and estuaries
as well as inland waters, and often leaves the waters to visit moors, meadows, and
cultivated field:*, ;:eii(!rally preferring an open country, or taking its place, as remote
as possible from danger, in the middle of a field. These excursions are often made
l)y night, and no 8iuali mischief is often done by a flock of hungry geese to a field
01 newly-sprung wheat or other crop. At the breeding-season, the wiutcr-flot'.ks of
wild geese breakup into pairs; the nests are made In moors or on tussocks in
marshes; the eggs vary in number from five to eight or rarely twelve or fourteen;
they arc of a dull white color, fully three Inches long, and two inches in diameter.

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Althongh ttte common G. haa been long domesticated, and It was probably
atnoug tbe very flret of domesticated birds, the varieties do not differ widely from
each other. JSmd^H Otem are remarkable for their perfect whltcneas ; TouUnue
Qmm, for their large size. As a domesticated bird, the G. is of great valne, both
for tb^ table, and on acconnt of its qaillSf and of the floe soft feathers. The quills
papplied all Bnrope with pens before steel peAs were invented, and have not ceased
to be in great demand. Geese must have free access to water, and wbea this is the
case, thev are easily reared, and rendered profitable. Two broods are, sometimes
prodoced in a season, ten or eleven in a brood, and the yonng geese are ready for
the table in three months after they leave the shell. They Hve, if permitted, to a
great age. Willajrhby records an instance of one that reached the age of eighty
jreara, and waa killed at last for Its miscliievonsness. Great flocks of geese are kept
In some piacea in England, particularly in Lincolnshire and regularly plucked five
times a year, for feathers and (^nills. Geese intended for the table are commonly
shot up for a few weeks, and tat ten cd before being killed. Great nnmbers are
Imported from Holland and Germany for the Loudon market, and fattened In
England in establishments entirely devoted to this purpose. Ocone-hams are au
esteemed delicacy. The giaaards, heads, and legs of geeae are also sold in sets,
ander the name of <j1bletH^ to be used for pies. The livers of geese have long been
in reqaeat among epicures; bnt the pdte de foie d^oie or pdU de/oiegras of Stnis-
burg, is made from livers in a state of morbid enlargement, caos^ by keeping the
fieeee in an apartment of very high temperature. I^rgc goose-livers were a favor-
ite delicacy of the ancient Roman epicures.

The Gray Lag G. Is the largest of the native British species. The next to It in
sixe, and by far the most abundant British wild goose, is the Dean G. {A. segetum),
a very similar bird ; the bill longer, orange, with the base and nail bhick ; the Plum-
as mostly gray, but browner than in th«! Gray Lag G^ the rump dark brown. The
wings extend beyond the tail. The habits scarcely diner from t>i6 Gray Lag G., but
the Bean G. is a more northern si^cies. It is common in all the northern partp of
Europe aiid Asia ; and great numbers breed in Nova Zembia, Greenland, and other
most northern regions. Large flocks are to !)e seen in man v parts of Britain in
winter, particularly during severe frosts, but a few also breed In the north of Scot-
land, and even in the nortn of England. The Bean G. is ea^^ly domesticated, but
Knerally keeps apart from the ordinary tume geese.— The White- Fronted Q., or
lUOHiNQ G. (A. alhi/rons), is a frequent winter visitant of Britain ; a native of
Europe, Asia, and America, breeding chiefly on the coasta and islands of the arctic
seaa. It Is only about 27 inches in its titmost length. The plumage is mostly gray ;
there is a coospicnous wiiite space on the forehead. It has been often tamed.—Sim-
ilar to it In fiae is the Pink-pooted G. (A. hraehyrhynch\t9), a species which has a
very short bill. In England it is rare, and a mere winter visitor, bnt it breeds In
great nnmbers in some of the Hebrides.— The Snow G. {A, hyperhoretM) Is
found in all the regions within the arctic circle, but most abundantly in America,
where It migrates southward in winter, as far as the Golf of Mexico. It is somewhat
sroalk;r than the Bean Goose. The general color of the plumage Is pure white, the
quill feathers brownish black. The feathers imported from the Hudson's Bay terri-
tories are in great part the produce of this beautiful species, and probably nmny of
the fine white goose feathers im]>orted from Kussla. Its flesh Is greatly esteemed.
—The Canada G. {A. CanadtntsU) is one of the most abundant North American
species, breeding even in the milder latitudes, but in \Ke>i numbers in the more nonh-
em parts, from which it migrates southwards on the approach of winter. It waa
introduced Into Britain at least 800 years ago, and many now be regai-ded as fully
naturalised; a great ornament of lakes ami artificial ponds, from which It makes
excursions In small flocks over the surrounding districts. In the uniform breadth
of the bill it resembles swans. It is fully three feet and a half from the tip of the
bill to the extremity of the tall ; but its neck is long and slender, and it does not
exceed the common G. in weight so much as in length. The bill, the feet, the head,
great part of the neck, the qmll-feathers, the rump, and the tail are black ; there is
a crescent-ehaped white p^ch on the throat, whence this species has received tho
name of the Cravat G.; mi back, wings, and flanks are gravlsh brown, the breast
and belly pore white. The Canada G. has a peculiar resonnding hoarse cry. It Is
easily reduced to the most complete domestication. Its flesh affords great part oC the

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winter sappliM of the Hadson's Bay residents, and is mach used Id a aalted state.—
The Chika G., or Guinva G. {A. Guinmnais or eygnoiden), of which the native
sountry is sapposed to be Guiuea, baa Iod^ been Icnown in Britain in a state of do-
niestieatioii. It has an elevated knob at tEre l>a»e of tlie upper mandible, which has
obtained it the nauio<of Kuoblied Goo»e. — Other species of geese are noticed in the
^rticlen Barmaotjb Goosb and Ceobopsis; and species closely oiUed to those
noticed in this article nre foaud in lodia and otlier parts of the world.

GOOSEBBRRT iQrostularia)^ a sat>>geDas of the genus Ribes («ee Cuxulamt),
dietiugoished by a thorny stem, a more or lees bell-shaped calyx and flowers on 1—
l-fldwered stallu. — ^I'he common G. iRibea Growularia) in a native of many narts of
Snrope and the north of Asia, growing wild in rodcy situations aod in thiclcets.
partioolarly in monutainous districU ; out it i« a doubtful native of Britaiu, although
now to be seen in hedges and thidiets almost everywhere. Some botanists have
distinguished as species the variety having the berries covered with gland-bearing
hairs lset4x); that having the germen.* covered witli soft unglandular hairs, and the
berries ultimateiv smooth and that which has even the germens smooth {R. Onxmi^
kuria, R, wa^-erUpcL, and R, reclimUum); but these varieties seem to have no defi-
nite limits in nature. The varieties produced by cultivation are very numerous,
chiefly in England, where, and particularly in Lancashire, greater attention is paid to
the cultivation of this valuable frult-shmb tliau In any ouier part of the world. In
the south of Bnrope, it is little known. It does not appear to have been known to
the ancients. Its cultivation cannot be certainly referred to an earlier date than
the 17th c, and was only in its infancy at the middle of the 18th, when the largest
gooseberries produced in Lancashire scarcely weighed more tlian 10 dwta., whcreis
the prise-gooseberries of that county now sometunes exceed 80 dwts. Many well-
known diversities of form, color, and flavor, as well as of sise, mark the dilferent
varieties. For the production of new varieties, the G. is propagated by seed ; other-
wise, generally by cuttings, which grow very- freely. Any good garden soil suits
the gooseberry. It is rather the better of a little shade, but suffers from much.
The bushes are trained in various ways, but it is necessary to prune so
that they may not be choked op with shoots, whilst care ought to
be taken to have an abundant supply of young wood, which produces
the largest berries. Besides its well-known wholesomeness 9fid pleasant^
ness, and its use for making an excellent preserve and jelly, the ripe
fruit is used for making wine and vinegar. An effervescent goosebernr
wine, which might well claim attention under its own name, is often frami-
uientiy sold as ciiampagne. The use of unripe gooseberries for tarts increases
the value of this fruit-shrub. The G. season is prolonged by training plants on
north walls, and by covering the bushes with matting when the fruit is about ripe.
Unripe gooseberries are kept in jars or bottles, closely sealed, aod placed in a cool
cellar, to be used for tarts in winter. When the l>ottles are filled, they are heated,
by means of boiling water or otherwise, to expel as much air aspossible before they
are corked and sealed. Various derivations have been given of the name G., but
most probablv the first syllable is a corruption of groteiUet the French name of the
fruit, from which also comes the Scotch grozet or grozarU In some paris of Bng-
land, the G. is called feaherry. — among the other species of G. most worthy of
notice are R, eyno»batij a native of Canada, of Japan, and of the mountains of
India, much resembling the common G. in foliage and hab^it, the fruit more acid
than the cultivated G. ; R. dioaricatum^ a native of the north-west coast of America,
witii snK>oth, black, globose, acid fruit : R. irriguum. also from the nortli-wcst
coast of America, with well-flavored globose fruit, half an inch in diameter; R.
oxyacanthoides^ a native of Canada, with small globose, red, green, or purplish berries
of an agreeable taste ; R. gmcilB^ found in raonntain-mea<K)ws from New York to
Virginia, with blue or purplish berries of exquisite flavor ; R, adcvlare^ a Sil>erian
species, with sweet, well-flavored yellowish or purplish smooth l>erries ; all oi which,
and probably othere, seem to deserve more attention than they have yet received
from horticulturists.— The Snowy-Flowbred G. {R, nioeum\ a native of the north-
west coast of America, is remarkable for its beautiful white pondnlons flowers. Its
berries in size and color resemble black currants, are #cid, with a very agreeable
flavor, and make delicious tarts. Another species from the same region {R, speciosum)
is very ornamental in pleasure-grounds, and is remarlwable for its shining leaves, its

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flowers with fonr stamens— the other species having fl t o ^and the sreat length of
the fllaments.—it saxatiie, a native of Hiheria, auu other sp«ciea. forming; n snb-
genas called Botryearpum^ have a character somewhat intermediate between cur-
rautfl and gooMberries, beini; prickly slimbe, bat having their flowers in racemes.
R, aaxahle has small, smooth, globose, dark pnrple berries, like currants, which are
very agreeable.

GOOSEBERRY, Ooromandel. See Oaraxbola.

GOOSEBERRY, Peraviau. See Phtsalis.

GOOSEBERRY CATERPIJJJ^R, the larva of Abraxas ffroMtUaHata, a moth of
a wliltbh color, with yellow streaks, and spotted with black. I1ie larva is beautl-
f ally colored, with black and white stripes, and in its progression, forme an elevated
loop with Its body. It feeds on the foliage of the gooseberry and cnrrant. — Another
moth, of which the caterpillar also feeos on the leaves of these shrnbe. Is HaliM
Vanaria. Both the moth and the caterpillar are smaller than the former. Bnt more
destructive than either of these \b the larva of a saw-fly, KevuiUiB rlbeaiU which de-
posits its eggs along the ribs on the nnder sarfnce of the leaves ; the larva is green
and ** shagreened " with mlunte black tabercles. Many remedies have been proposed
and tried lo prevent the ravages of these larvre, of which, perhaps, tlic best are pick-
ing off the leaves observed to be covered with the egg9 of the saw-fly, and dusting
wMh powder of white hellebore, which, if carefully and saffldeutly applied. Is most
eflScadons, killing any kind of larva.

qO'PHER WOOD. The probable Identity of the gopher wood of Scripture with
the Cypress (q. v.), is maintained partly ou account oftbe qualities of the wood, and
partly on account of the agreement of the radical cousonauta of the names.

OOTPINGEN. a small town of the kingdom of WQrtemberg, is situated on the
right bank of the Flls, 87 miles north-west from Ulm, and is a station on the rail-
way from Ulm to Stuttgart It is an industrlons, cleanly, and flourishing town, pos-
sessing a town-hall, a Inrge castle, and mineral baths, and carrying ou manufactures
of woollen doth, earthenwares, and some trade In wool. Pop. (IdTft) 9688.

GORAL (Anlilope OorcU, or NemorheduM Gorat). an animal of the antelope fam-
ily, inhabiting in large herds the elevated plaina of Nepanl. It is of a grayish-browu
color, dotted with black, the cheeks white: the hair is short; the horns are short,
indioed, recurved, and pointed. It is a wild and fleet animal, and when pursued,
takes refuge in rocky heights. Its flesh is highly esteemed.

OORAMY, or Gonrami {O»phromenit» of/ax)^ a flsh of the family AnabatidcB or
LabjfrifUMbranehida, a nntive of China and the Eastern Archipelago, highlv es-
teemed for the table, and which has on that account been Introduced into Mauritius,
Cayenne, and the Prench West India Islands. Its form is deep in proportion to its
length, tl>c head small, and terminating In a rather sharp short snout, the mouth
small, the tail rounded, the dorsal and anal flns having numerous rather short spines,
ttie first ray of the ventral flna extending into a very long filament. It is sometimes
kept in large jars by the Dutch residents in Java, and fed on water plants. It was
introducedlnto Manrltins about the middle of the I8th c, and soon spread from the
tanks in which it was at first kept Into the streams, multiplying abundantly. The
success which has attended the Introduction of this fish into countries remote from
thoee in which it Is indigenous, holds out great encouragement to other attempts of
the same kind. The G. is interesting also on other accounts. It is one of the ncst-
bnildlng fishes, and at the breeding season forms its nest by entangling the stems
and leaves of aquatic grasses. Both the male and female watch the nest for a mouth
or more with careful vigilonr^, and violently drive away every other flsh which ap-
proaches, till the spawn is hatched, afterwards affording a similar parental protec-
tion to the young fry.

OORDIAN-KNOT. The traditional origin of this famous knot wos as follows :
Oordins, a Phrygian peasant, was once plonghiiig In his fields, when an eagle set-
tled ou bis yoke of oxen, and remained till toe labor of the day was over. Surprised
\t so wonderful a phenomenon, he sought an explanation of it, and was informed
by a prophetess of Telmissns that he should offer sacrifice to Zeus. He did so, and
out of gratitude for the kindness shewn him, married the prophetess, by whom be

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had a eon, the famone Hldas. When Midas grew up, dietorbances broke oat In
Plirygia, and the people sent meraeDgers to the oracle at Delphi, to aek about
choosin? a new king. The measengers were Informed that a king would come to
them riding on a car, and that he would restore peace. Returning to Phrygla, *JJkj
announced theae things, and while the people were talking about them, Gordlna,
with hia father, very op]>ortuuely arrived in the requisite manner. He waa immedi-
ately elected king, whereupon he dedicated his car uud yoke to Zens, in the acropolis
of Uordium (a city named after himself), the knot of the yoke being tied in so skilful
a manner, that an oracle declared whoever should unloose it would be ruler of all
Asia. When Alexander the Oreiit came to Oordium, be cut the knot in two with
his sword, and applied the prophecy to himself.

GORDI A'NUS, the name of three Roman emperors, father, son. and grandson.—
The first, Mabous Antonius G., was grandson of Anuius Severus, and was de-
scended by the father's skie from the famoos family of the Gracchi. He was re-
markable for his attachment lo literary pursuits. After being asdilo, in which
capacity he celebrated the gladiatorial sports with great magniftceuce, he tv^icc filled
the office of oousul, first us the colleague of Caracalla. iuSlS a.d.; and second, as
the colleague of Alexander Severus. Soon afterwards, he was appointed proconsul
of Africa, where he gained the affections and esteem of the people by his modest
and gentle manners, his splendid liberality, and his refined literanr taste ; his old
age was spent in the stndy of Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, and VirgiU The tyranny and
injustice of the Emperor Maziminus having at length excited a rebellion against his
authority in Africa, the imperial procurator there was murdered by a baud of
nobles who had formed a conspiracy against him on account of his cruelty. G.,
now in his 80th year, was proclaimed emperor, after having vainly refused the dan-

ferons honor. He received the title of A/rieantu, and his sou was conjoined with
Im in the exercise of imperial authority. The Roman senate acknowleilged both,
and proclaimed Maximinus, then absent in Panuonia, an enem^ to his country. The
younger G.. however, was defeated in battle by Cupellianus, viceroy of Mauritania,
before Curthage, and his father, in an agony of grief, put a period to his owu
existence, having been emperor for little more than a month. In his
personal appearance, G. is said to have greatly resembled Augustus. — Mabcus
ANTONins G., grandson of the preceding, was raised to the dignity of Oiesar along
with Pupienns. Afaximus, and Balbtuus, who were also elected emperors in opposi-
tion to Maximinus; and, in the same year, after all three had fallen by the hands of
their own soldiers, Marcus Antonius was elevated by the Pnetorian bands to the
rank of Augustus. Aasisted by bis father>in-law, Misitheus, a man distinguished
for his wisdom, virtue, and cotvage, whom he made prefect of the Prtetorians, he
marched, in the year S48, into Asia, against the Persians, who, under Shahp&r
<Sapor), bad taken possession of Mesopotamia, and had advanced into Syria. An-
tioch, which was threatened by them, was relieved by G., tlie Persians were obliged
to withdraw from Syria l>eyond the Supbrates, and G. was just about to march Into
their country, when Misitheus died. Philip the Arabian, who succeeded Misitheus,
stirred up dissatisfaction in the army against G. by the falsest treachery, and finally

S>aded ou ttie ignorant and passionate soldiery to assassinate the emperor, S44 a.d.
nt knowing the great affection which the Roman people had for the gallant and
amiable G.» he declared in his dispatch to the senate that the latter had died a nat-
ural death, and that he himself had been unanimously chosen to suoceed him.

GO'RDIUS, a gouns of Annelida^ of tlie very simplest structure; very much
elongated and threadlike, with no greater marks of articulation than slight trans-
verse folds, no feet, no gills, no tentacles, although there is a knotted nervous chord.
The mouth is a mere pore at one end of the anhnal ; the other end or tail is slightly
bifid, and has been often mlstjikeu for the head. The species hiliublt moist situa-
tions, arc sometimes found on the leaves of plants, but more frequently in stag-
nant pools, and in mud or soft clay, through which they work their way with great
ease. They often twist themsolves into complex knots, whence their name G.,
from the celebrated Oordiat^-knot^tind many of them are sometimes found thn^
twisted together ; but thev arc also of ten to be found extended Inthewatijr. The
most common species in Britain is G. aquatietis, of which the popular name is Haib
Ekl; and a notion still prevails in many parts of the country, that it is nothing else

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Ihan a honwvliatr, which hne romchow acqnirad life hy long Immersion in water,
and which is dentiued in dne conree of lime to become ini col of the ordinary kind
and dimensions ; iii ])roof of all which many an honest oWserver is ready lo present
himself as an eyo-witneps wlio ha» often eeen these very siender ecla in his walks. A
popular notion prevails hi Sweden, that the bite of the G. canses whitlow. When
the pools in which the G. lives are dried up. it becomes shrivelled, and apparently
lifeless, hot i-evives on the application of molstnre. The Abbe Fon^uia kept one in
adrawerfor tliree years, and althongh perfectly dry and hai-d, it soon recovered vigor
on being pnt into water. Gordii are extremely common In the Thames.

GORDON, The Family of. 'J'lie origin of this great Scottish histi>rical honse is
stilt wrappe<l in some measnre of obscuniy. UucriticHi genealogists of the nth c.
atfected to tntcc ita descent from a mythical Uiffh Constable of Charlemagne, a
Duke of Gordon, who, it was said, flourinbed abont the year 800, and drew his
liueage from the Gordoni, a tribe which, taking its name from tlie town of Gordu-
uia, in Maeudooia, had settled in GanI before the days oC Julius Csesar. Tliene
fables and fancies have long ceased to be btilleved. Nor is more credit given to the
conjecture that the family, having carried its name from Normandy lo England in
the train of the Conqueror, soon afterwards passed on from England to Scotland.
No proof has been found of any connection between (he Gordons of France and the
Gordons of Scotland. Tlicre is little or no doubt now that the Scottish Gordons
took their name from the lands of Gordon in Berwickshire. Their earliest historian,
writing in the 16th c, says that these lauds, together with the arms of tiirt* boars'
heads, were given by King Malcolm Ceaumohr (106T— 1098 a. d.) to the progenitor of
the bouse, as a reward for slaying, in the forest of ITuntly, a wild boar, the terror of all
tlie Merse. But in the 11th c, there were neither heraldic bearingslu Scotland nor Gor-
dons Id Berwickshire. Tlie first trace of the family is about 0.6 end of the ISth c,
or the beginning of the 13tb c, when it appears in record as witnessing charters by
thegreat^rls of March or Dunbar, and as granting patches of land and rights of
pasturage to the monks of Kelso. About a century afterwards, it enters the page
of hifttory In the person of Sir Adam of Gordon. He is found, in 1806, high in the
confldeuce of King Edward T. of England, holding under that prince the office of
joint justiciar of Lothian, and sitting in tiie English council at Westminster as one
of the representatives of Scotland. lie seems to have been among the last to join
the banner of Bmce, who rewarded liis adherence, tardy as it was, bv a grant of the
northern lordship of Strathbogie. The grant failed of effect at the time ; but it was
renewed by Khig David IL in 18fi7, and by King Robert II. in 187A. Under this
last renewal. Sir John of Gordon, tlie great-grandson of Sir Adam, entered into pos-
session, and so transferred the chief seat and power of the family from the Merse
and Teviotdale to the banks of the Dee, the Deveron, and the Spey. Ita direct male
line came to an end in his son Sir Adam, who fell at llomildon in 1403, leaving an
only child, a daughter, to iblierit his lands, but tniusmitting his name through two
illegitimate brothers— John of Gordon of Scunlargue, and Thomas of Gordon of
Buihveu — to a wide circle of the gentry of Mar, Bnchan, and Strathliogie, who, call-

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 12 of 196)