James Orr.

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Scliool of Mines, owe.^ much of its liigh character to his teaching and his scieutiflc
reputation. On llie elevation of Professor Qraiiam from the pO£>t of chemist to tlio
Mint to tlie ofiice of master of th.it institution, H. was appointed his succesMor. In
1865. H. accepted an appointment to he professor of chemistrv in the nniversitv of
Berlin, with the commiKiiiou to found a chemical institute. He was a Juror at all
the international exhibitions (London, 1861 and 1869: Paris, 1865 and 1867). In
cuinuuciion with Dr Bence Jones, he edited the iater editions of Fownes's *' Manual
of ChemiKtry." His numerous contributions to the *^Anna!en dcr Chemie and
Pharmacie," to tlie ** Transactions of tlie Chemical Society," and to the "Philo-
sophical Transactions of the Royal Society,^ are for the most part on the very highest
departments of organic cliemistry ; and In 1854 a royal medal was awarded to him
fur his ^* Memoirs on the Molecular Constitution of the Organic Bases." It was In
the course of these researches that he discovered in coal-uaptha aniline, the tiasis
of the now colors mauve and magenta, which had previously been only obtained
from indigo. For bis practical appliances of this discovery, one of tha great priBos
was awarded to him at the Paris Exhibition of 1867. H.*s ** Introduction to Modem
Chemistry'' (1665; 5th edition, 1871) has led to great reforms in the teaching of
chemistry.

HO'FWYL, a yillage of Switserland« la the caatou of Bern, and •itottadsix



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miles north of the town of that nnme. It has been long fttmoas ns the seat of the
educational and agrlcoUnml inHtitutiou founded here bv the late M. Pellenberg (q.
v.). Not many years after the death of M. Fellenberg, the institntton was Kiveu up.

HOO (^M), a genus of pachydermatous quadrupeds, of the family Siwida <q. v.).
The neck is carried straight forward from the tranlc, and is very thick and strong.
The skin is Terv thick, and moetlr covered with stiff bristles, among which a short
cnrled hair is often also found, 'llie bristles of the liack of the neck generally be-
come a mane in wild hogs, and particularly in the males, uiihongh, in domestica-
tion, this tends to disappear. The mncsle is elongated, and terminated l>y a mov-
able cartiluginons disc, furnished, as in the mole, with a special small bone, and
used, along with the tuslcs, as an Implement for turning nj> the soil in search of
roots and other food. There are ft Incisors, V canine teeth, ana 14 molars in escli jaw,
the lower incisors projecting forwards; tho canine teeth long and strong, projecting
and curved, becoming formidable tusks In wild boars, and large ana poweiful
even tn the females in a wUd state. Ibe feet have each four toes,
the lateral ones smsll and scarcely touching the ground, all separately
hoofed. The tail Is short The Momach shews mere traces of division. 1'iie
food is chiefly vegetable, but perhaps no animals may more properly be called oui«
nivorous; niid although, even in a wild state, hogs are not to be reckoned among
beasts of prey, tliey not nnfreqnently, even in domestication, kill and cat smnii aiH
Imals that come in tiieir wuv, as many a housewife has bad occasion to olwervc in
respect to cliickens.— The Common Hog (& wrofa) appears to be a niitive of most
parts of Europe and Asia, and domesticated swine were fonnd hy the first nnviga'
tors In many of the islands of tho southern seas. The wild bonr is still found in the
forests of many parts of Europe, and was at one time un inhabitant of those of
BritHin, where It was protected by game-laws in the 10th and Uth centuries; hut at
what time it ceased to exist as a wild animal in Britain is uncertain. Tho adult
males, in a wild state, are generally solllarv ; the females and yonnc gregorious ; and
wlien assailed by wolves Or other l>easts of prey, wild swine defend themselves vig-
orously, the stronger animals placiufir themselves in the front, and the weaker seek-
Inif shelter in the rear. The chase of the wild boar is one of the mo!?t exciting (•ports
of Europe, or of India, particularly when corried on without the rifle, and on
bormhack with the speur <•• pig-sticking **)• The speed of the animal is very con-
siderable, and the chase sometimes extends to six or seven miles. Although the use
of its flesh was prohibited to the Jew?, and the prohibition has i>ecn adopted in tl)^
MohammedMU law. the hog has been a domesticated animal f rom a very euriy iteriod,
and Its flesh constitutes a large part of the food of many nations. The fecundity of
the bog is great; with proper traitment, it will produce two litters annually, gener-
ally of 4— 8 pics each, although sometimes there are as many as 14 in a litter. Vast
Quantities or the flesh are consumed in various forms in the British Islands and North
.merica, as pork, fresh or salted, bacon, ham, &c Brawn (q. v.) is an enteenaed
English luxury. The fat of the hog. which is produced in a thick layer under the
skin, is an article of commerce, and of various use under the name or Lard
(q. v.), Tho skin of the hog is made into leather, which Is particularly es-
teemed for saddles. The bristles, particularly of the wild boar, are much used
for bmshmaking.

There are numerous varictes of tho domestic hog, of which some have erect,
and some pendent ears ; and those are most eHteemed wiilcli exhibit tho greatest
departure from the wild type, in shorter and less powerful limbs, less muscular and
more ronndiMl forms, Ac. Tho Chinew breed and tho Neapolitan have been of
great use in the crossing and improving of tho breeds comntonly reared in Britain,
giving rise to tho Improved wiilto and black breeds respectively. Hogs arc profita-
bly kept wherever there is mnch vecetabie refuse on which to feed tiiein, ns ny cot-
tagers having gardens, farmers, millers, brewers, Ac. They are often allowed to
roam over fallow ground, which they grub up for roota, and over stuhbie-flelds,
which they glean very thoroughly. They are also fbd in woods— an ancient proc-
tlce— where they consume acorns, beechmast, and the like. When they are fed, as
Is sometimes the case, chiefly on animal garbage, their flesh Is less palatable and
less wholesome.

The hog baa a reputation wldch it does not desenre, of pecollar filthiucss of



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habits. It l8 tnie that it wallowR in the mire, as the other jNU^A^dermoto also do, to
cool itsoli aod to provide itself with a protection agaiust insects, aud it searches
for food in any puddle; but its siecpuig-place is, if possible, kept scmpuloasly
clean. The too corainou flltbiuess of pigsties Is rather the faalt of their owners
than of their occnpauts ; and a clean aud dry Bleeptui(-place is of great importance
to the profitable keeping of hogs.

The hog is not inferior to other anadrnpeds generally in lutelligeuce. It can be
easily rendered very tame and familiar. Its acnteness of scent lias been tamed to
ncconut in makins it search for truffles ; and an instance is on record of a pig having
been used as a pouiter, in which service it learned to acquit itself extremely welL
Instances have occurred of the use of the hog as a beast of draught.

The forests of the island of Papua or New Quinca produce a species or variety of
hog (^. PaTpiutn^\ more widely diifereut trom the comuiou bog tlian its breeds are
from one another. It is 18 or 20 inches high, with short ears, and very short tail.
The color is mostly brown. The Paupans liave not properly domesticated this ani-
mal, although they often trap the young ones and keep them till ready to be killed
for use. Tue flesh is very delicate.

The Babyroussa (q. v.) is another and very remarkable species of \iOg,

Tho Bfmh Fori;, or Bush Hog of Soutb Africa {phoiTvpotam.%M ASrieaiwu^^ la
about two feet six inches high, covered with long brisuee; it has projecUng
tusks, a largo callous protuberance on eacli cheek, and long sharp tufted ears, u
is gregarious, subsists chiefly on vegetable food, and makes destructive inroads on
culuvated fields.

HOO^QUM, the name given in the West Indies to a resinons substance, which Is
there extensively used as a substitute for pitch, to tar Ixmts and ropes, also for
strongthenlng-plasters, ^bc. and internally as a diuretic, laxative, and stimulant medi-
cine. It Is suit disputed what tree produces the true hog-gum ; some ascribing Tt to
Moronobea coccinea, of tho nalunil order ChUtiferas ; some to Rhus vtMopium, a spe-
cies of sumach, of the order Anacarduxcece ; and some to Heltcigia holaaiHiferOj of
the order Amyridaeeo!. The probubility seems to be that all these— «nd perhaps
other— trees yield resinous substances of very similar quality, and commonly d<»ig-
nated by the same name.

HOQ PLUM. Spanish Plum, and Brazilian Plum, names given in the West Indies
aud other tropica! countries to the fruit of certain species of Spondiaa, 'l*ho genus
Spondiati belougs to tho natural order Anaeardiacea/^ or, accoi^ng to some TOtan-
iBts, to a small order called Spondiacea;, differing from Anacardiaeece In the want
of a resinous inice, aud in the drupe having a nut with S— 5 cells and seeds, instead
of one cell and one seed. The species of Spondias are trees aud shrubs with pinnate
leaves, which have a terminal leaflet, and flowers in racemes or panicles. Some of
them produce very pleasant fruits, among which may be recxoned S, Purpurea
aud S. lutea ; the species generallv called Ilog Plum in the West ludicH, because they
are a common food of hogs, which revel in their abuudmice. S. Purpurea has
fruit about au inch in leugtli, ovate or oblong, purple or variegated with yellow :
the pulp yellow, with a peculiar but agreeable acid and aromatic taste. The fruit of
S. Tuberosa, called Imbuzbibo in the nortli of Brazil, is about twice tho size of a
large gooseberry, oblong, yellowish, with a leathery skin aud sweetish acid pulp. A
much esteemed Brazilian dish is prepared of milk, curds, sugar, and the pulp of
this fruit, from which also a refreshing lieverage is made for use iu fevers. The
tree is remarkable for the numerous round blacic tubers— about eight inches in di-
ameter—which it produces on its widelv spreading roots, and which are very cellular*
and full of water. They are evidently intended for the wants of the tree in the dry
Beason, and are often dug out by travellers for tho sake of the water, of which each
tuber yields about a pint. — Closely allied to Spondiaa is the genos PouparUa, to
which l)elong8 the Vi or Tahiti Afplb, formerly Spondiat duSu^ a very flue fruit
of the South Sea Islands.

HOO HAT, or Hutia (Caprontys), a genus of quadrupeds, of the family Muridm^
differing from rats in having four grinders on each side in each jaw, with flat crowns.
The taills round aud slightly hairy, aud is used for support In sitting erect, as by
kangaroos, and for aid in climbing trees, in which these animals are very expert.
They make much use of their fore-paws, as of bauds. Their food la entirely vege-



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table. Tbej aro natlTos of Caba, where thej are found in laive narabers iu the
woods. They were innch ased as food by the aborigines. The biest known species
is of the size of a small rabbit.

HOGARTH, William, a celebrated painter and engraver, bom In London iu the
year 1G9T, nerved his appreoticeflliip to a silversmith in Cranbonnie Street, named
E!lis Oniiible, and next rttadled for some time uadtr Sir James Thoriihill, the histor-
ical painter, bat not with any marked sncce&a. About 1720, be set up for himself,
and his first cniplovmeut was to engrave coats of armis crests, shop-bills, &c, after
which he undertook to execute plates for booksellers, the chief of which are tlie
prints illustrative of *' Hadilmis " (Lond. 1126). He now tried his hand at portrait-
painting, and »oon liad ample employment, though he never cared anjrthin? for this
Draoch of art In 1780, he married (clandestinely} a daughter of Sir James Thorn-
hill, and soon after began to display his extraordinary talent for representing
in pictures the follies ana vices of his time. In 1788, appeared his ** Harlot's Prog-
ress," a series of six pictures, which, like bis other woncs, were engraved by him-
self. It was these engravings, and not tlio original paintings, that mode H. u rich
ukin, and enabled liim to keen his carriuge at the age of U)rty-eight, The " Har-
lot's Froi^ess" was followed by other naoral histories and satirical representations of
vice and folly, such as ** The Kuke's Progress," published in eight engravings,
*• South wark Fair," "A Modern Midnight Conversotion," »* The Distressed Poet," and
** St rolling Actresses in a Barn." The success of these was great, and inspired H.
with the belief that ho could also win a reputation as an historical painter. After
several ineffectual attempts, he recovered from his delusion, and returned to the
path which nature had appointed him. In 1741, he pnblishtd ** The Eiimged Musi-
cian ; " in 1746, ^^ Marriage k la Mode." in a series of six engravings, the pictures
forwhich were purchusecl for the National Gallery; and in 1748, •*The March to
Piuchley." In 1768, he published his '* Analysis of Beauty," a work which excited
much opposition and ridicule, and H. is generally held to be erroneous in the con-
clusions ut which he arrives. In 1766 appeared ** Four Prints of an Election ; " and
in 1762, **The Times," a cuttbig satire upon Pitt He died in 1764, and was bnried
at Chiswick, where a handsome monument was erected to his memory ^with an in-
scription by Ills friend Garrick. In the technical part of his ari, H. was long
thought not to have excelled, but modem opinion is more favorable in this respi'Ct.
There has never, however, been any but one opinion regarding the greatness of his
thought and iuvontiou, and his deep insight into the characteristics of his time and
country. The moral of his satire is always stem, true, and numistakal>le. A
linnd(>ome edition of his works from the original plates, rclonched by Heath, was
pnbllHhed by Nichols (8 volf. Lond. 1820—1822); others appeared at Leipsic (1631—
1»35 : 3d, « dit. 1S41), and at Stuttgart (1839—1840.).

HOGG, James, a Scottish poet, was bom in the dlxtrict known as the Forest of
Ettrick, in Selkirkshire, in 17t2, and was at school for two or three winters before
he reached the aire of clgBi. At that early nge, he entered upon the occupution • f
shepherd. His first sonir appeared anonymousiy in 1801, ana having gone shortly
after to «ell his employer's sheep in Edinburgh, he threw off 1000 copies of verges
which hu Imd written. In the name summer, Seott visited the Ettrick Forest iu
search of nmtcrials for his *• Border Min-trclsy," when H. made tiis acquaintance,
and placed in his posnes^lon a number of balliid?, token down from the recitation
of persons rosidcnt in the district, which appeared In the third volumeof the "Min-
strelsy," in 1803. In the same year, he published "The Monntain Bnrd," the pro-
ceeds ol which, together with two i>riEes for ef^^oys he received from the Highland
Society, amounted to XSOO. With this sum lie took u form, which proved a dicas-
tron» siiecniation. In 1810, he began a conrse of regular authorship. In 1818, his
poem ** 'I'lic Queen's Wnke " appeared. In 1814, he married ; and although he after-
wards went to live on a farm given to him by the Duke of Buccleuch, he busied
himself more with books and booksellers than with sheep and graziu'r. His pen
was profitable, wtiich was more than he could bring his farm to be. He died at Al-
trive, on the 21st November 1836. His works arc numerous, comprising, iu addi-
tion to those already mentioned, *' Modoc of the Moor, **The Pilgrims of the Sun,"
•tt The Jacobite Relics of Scotland." "Queen Hynde," ♦*Tue Border Garland ;" and
some songs of great beauty. He also wrote extensively iu prose. His prose works



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are—*' The Brownie of Bodsber.k," " Winter STenlng Tales," "The Three PctIIr of
Man," ♦♦T!ie Throe Perils of Woman," "The Altrive Talee," a Tolomc of *»Lay
Sennou?," and a " Life of 8ir Walter ScotL"

Afrer Buriip, II. is iiiiqacstiouably the greatest pcnsaot-poei which Scotland hnn
produced. Ills finest work, botli iu conception and finish, is '* The Qauen's Wake.'*
The general flow of the poem la lively and hnrmoulouR, while In one tx>rtIon, that of
*' Kilmeuy,'' the reader seems to hoar ** the horns of Elfland faintly blowing;" and
in another, " The Witch of Fife," ho is Introdnced into the weirdest witch and wiz-
ard world. His prose works arc very unequal, but they occabioually 'display great
humor, and always abound in graphic deiM:ription.

HOOMANA'Y, or Hagmena, a word of donUtfnl derivation, applied In the north
of England and Lowlands of Scotland to New Year's Eve. See NBw Ybab. It was
customary for persons to go on *' Hogmanay night "from door to door, asking iu
rnde rhymes for cakes and cheese (and somcUmes for money), on "receiving which
they passed on to the nest bonse. This custom is rapidly dying out

HO'GSHEAD, an old English measure of capacity. For wine, it was equivalent
to 63 gallons ; for ale and beer, to 64 gallons. In the United States it is still used .is
a measure for liquid**, equivalent to 63 gallons ; bat when used for tobacco, it varies
iu different state-i from about 750 to 1200 lbs.

HOGUE, Cape Ln. See Caps La Hooue.

HOHENLI'NDBN, a village in fjp;>er Saxony« with 860 inhabitants, famous for
the victory gained there by Jf orcau over the Arclidake John, 8d Deceml>er, 1800.
After tlie expiration of the armistice conclndcd at Paersdorf, on the I8th November.
Moreaa's army took up a position ou the plateau between the Isar and the Ion, ana
the Austrian army, nnder the Archdnko John, on the risht bank tif the Inn. The
Austrian main body advanced amidst drifting snow, ana attacked the diviidons of
Qr^nier and Grouchy with the almost fory ; our the French receiving considorablo
reinforcements under Ney, the assailants were driven l)ack ; and. being attacked iu
the rear, were totally rout^ Thu victory was likewise decided at other points in
favor of the French, who were ouly prevented from pursuit by inclement vreather.
bad roaiK and the short winter d ly. Tho Anstriaus liad 8000 men killod and
wounded, 11,000 made prisonens including 180 officers, and 100 pieces of artlllcnr.
The French had 6000 men killed and wounded. In couseqaence of this battle, the
negotiations Imtween the b«:llit;jrent powers were resumed, and shorUy after ended
inthepuaceof Lnn^ville.

liOHBNLOHE. an ancient German principality, in Franconia, now comprised
chiefly in Wurtemijerg, partly also in Bavaria.

HO'HENSTAUFEN", a German princely honse, which kept possession of the
imperial throne from 1138 to 1264. The founder of the family was Frederick von
BUBEM, who livfd about the middle of the 11th c., and assomed the name of U. from
a casile of that name, the ruins of which are hi ill to bo seen on the snmmit of ihe
Ilohensumfen Berg (:d240 feet), a hill on the left bank of the Dannbe, about 80 miles
below Stuttgart. A fon of his was the Chevalier Frederick von Staufen, Lord of
H.. who ste idfastly snpparte<l the Emperor Henry iV.. and in return received the
duchy of Swabia. Duke Frederick, at his death in 1106, left two sons— Frederick
IL, the Oiie.«yed, and Kourad: the former was immediately confirmed in Swahia
by Hunry V. ; aud In 1112 the latter received the duchy of Franconia. After the
deatb of Henry V., his family estates fell to the Honse of H.; and Lotbaire of Sax-
ony was elected as his successor in the empire.

On Lothaire's accea«ion, he revoked i he grants made by previous emperors to the
Honse of IL, and thus gave rise to a furious war, in which Duke Frederick (his
brother Kourad being absent in the Holy Land) had to encounter, single-handed,
the whole )>owi*r of the emperor, the House of Zlihringen, and Henry the Proud,
Duke of Bavaria and Saxony. After Konrad's return, fortune at first seemed to fa-
vor the brothers, l>ut in 1185 they were compelled to implore the emperor's forgive-
ness. They were then put in possession of all their estates. Konrad, in 1188, was
elected Emperor of Germany, as Konrad III. The fuccRCtling emperors of this
family were FbbdbriokL (q. v.) (1162-00), Henrt VL (1190-07), Phile? I. (1198-
1908}, Fbbdbbiok 1L (^. Y.\ aSi9-6lU and Kokbad IV. a861-64t



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HO'HENSTEIN, a ntiall mannftictnring town in the kingdom of Saxony, IS m.
n.e. of Zwickan. Woollen, cotton, nud linen good?, and inachlneiy, are tUo prfnci-
pal mauafacturca. Pop. (1871) 66(».

HOHENZO'IiLERN, a province of Prnsela con^isf log of a narrow strip of land
entirely snrroaiided by the terHtorfes of Wftrtemberg and Buden. Snperncial area
about 480 square miles ; pop. (1871) 95,563. The territory, whose surface is gen-
erally mountainous, is divided into the ditttricts of Si^muringen nnd HecbiugcK,
which rank as medlatistsd principalities. The sent of proylnc&l govemnieut m nt
SIgmarfui^>n. H. is watered by the Neckar and some of its nffluents, and by the
Danube, wbicli crosses it; it is also traversed by the eastern offshoots of the moun-
tain-ranges of the Black Forest, the Rauhe Alb. and the Hart. The mountain val-
leys are productive, and yield an abundance of fruit and com, and flnx in sntlicient
(luantitles for ezi)ortation ; tlie forests abound in fine timber ; there are iron mines
in some of the mountain districts, which also yield gypsum, salt, and coal. The
principal branches of ludnstry are agriculture and the rearing of cattle, nnd the manu-
facture of toys and other articles In wood.

l*he population belongs almost exclusively to the Roman Catholic religion, and
is under the jurisdiction of the Arcbbialiop of Freiburg. There is a Catholic col-
lege at nochnigen.

The Hoiienzollom family traces its descent from Count Ttaassilo, who lived a1>ont
the beginning of the 9th c, and founded a cnstle near Hechingeu, on the Zollem
heights, whence his descendants derived their patronymic. Al>oiit 1166 the first
fleparation took place, Frederic IV. founding the elder or Swabian, and Konrad L
the younger or Francouiun line. The elder line was subdivided, in 1676, into the
branches of H. Hecbingcn and H. 8igraarigen. Frederic VI., the representative of
the younger line, in U16 received from the Emperor Slgismund the iuvestiinre of
the electorate of Brandenburg, thus founding the present reigning dynasty of Prus-
sia. The two branches of the eider line conilnned unbroken till 1849. wiien. in ac-
cordance with a family compact formed in 1831, which declared the king of Prnspia
cliief of the joint Houses, tiie reigning princes of H. Hechiugcn and H. Slgmariu-
gen ceded their respective rights and principalities to that monarch, win agreed to
pay an annual pension of 16,W)0 thalers to the former, nnd one of 85,000 tlialers to
the latter. The princes were to retain their estates and bear tlie tltie of Highness,
but were to exercise no act of sovereignty.

HO'HESCHEXD, a town of Rhenish Prnssin, 17 miles east-by-aonth from DQs-
seldorf. It has extensive le:id-works and iron-works. Pop. (:S75) 9MS8.

HOKIA'NGA. a river of New Zealand, enters the Southern Ocean on the west
const of the North Island— its mouth being in lat. 86° 36' s,, and long. 173© 26' e.
This point is almost the antipodes of Tangier, on the sooth side of the Strait of
Gibrultar.

HOLBACn, Paul Heinrich Dietrich, Baron Von, a French phlloflopber of the
18tU c, was bom of wealthy pareuia, at Heidelsheiro, in tiie I^atinate, in 1728. At
an earlv tige, he wont to Paris, where he coutlnned to rwide during the remainder
of his lifo. He died 91st June 1789. As H.- was remarkable for his agreeable social
qnaliiles, and kept a good table, the most eminent thinkers and writers of the day,
snch ns Condorct^t, Diderot, Duclos. Helvetius, Rayuai, Rousseau. Bnffon. &c were
in tlieiiahltof asi«embling at his house. The witty Abbt Ouliaui called H. the
maitred'hdiel of philosophy. Hei-e speculation, it is i»ald, was carrie^l to such dar-
ing lengths, that Buffon, D'Alemberi, and Roupseau were compelled to witlidraw
from the circ'e. H. was tlie zealous champion of notnraliun, nnd contended not
only against Christianity, but agiinst every positive religion. His principal work is
the **8ysteme de la Nature" (publifhed In 1770). In tliis work, the antlior endeav-



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