James Orr.

Chambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 online

. (page 126 of 196)
Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 126 of 196)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

ors to ex)>oiind the natural principles of momlity. and to investigate the origin cf
the conflictim; oninloiis on virtue nnd vice. He dK«'CUsscs tlie maxims of religious
morality, and takes a rapid purvey of social nnd savage life. He touches on the so-
callerl •• social compact," and in the course of his observations tries to prove, aiuong
other things, tlint selMntcrest is the ruling motive of lunn, and tlint God is only aii
ideal l>eing, cteatcd by kings and piit;f ts. The materialism of tlie French phUoso-
phes of the 181 h c is nowhere more pernicious and paltiythan in the writings of
Holbach. It is but fair to state that his lifo was better ttian his books. He was a

Digitized by VjOOQ IC


Holbaln 648

man of good heart, aud in spite of his theory, of most QDseHlsb benevolence.
When thti Jesuits foil into disgrace dnring (he reigu of Loais XV., H., though he
hated tlieir system, and had written asaiust them in the days of their prosperity,
made his house au osylam for his old foes wheu the clouds gathered round them.

HOLBEIN, Hans, the Younger, one of the flrst masters of Oermau art, was
born at QrQnstadt iu 1497. He learned the rudiments of art from his fafher, Hans
Holbeiu the Elder, also a painter of great merit (bom 1450, died 1526). Wiieii
little more than Id years of age, ho adorned several houses aud churches at Basel
with portraits, frescoes, and iutar-pieces. IVaditiou has preserved many of his droll
sayings, and his life is as rich iu anecdotes as those of the greatest Italian
painters. H. growing tired of Basel, Erasmus, who took a great interest in him,
and endeavored to induce him to abandon his Irregular coarse of life, introduced
him to Sir Thomas More, who kept him employed in England for nearly three years,
and then invited Henry VIII. to view the pictures. Henry, surprised and delighted,
exclaimed : ^' Is the artist still alive, aud is he to be had for money T " More pre-
sented H. to the king, who took him into hto service, and rewarded him liberally. H.
continued to reside in England, highly esteemed aud fully employed, till, iu 1554, he
died of the plnKue. Though cliieo}', and at many periods of his life almost exclu-
sively, a portrnit-paintcr, in this stvle he stands on a level with the great Italian
mast«;rs, and takes precedence of ali his German contemporaries. His portraits are
not ideals, but nature apprehended in its nipst iuteilectiLil features ; the execution
is rich and perfect To the earlier p?irt of his career belong his most celebrated
paintings, including '•The Last Supper," "The Dance of Death," several pictures
ui the Dresden Qallcry, two famous portraits of courtesans, &c At a later period,
his execution is slighter, aud his stylo of coloring not entirely free from the manner-
ism of those Flemish painters who had studied Iu Italy. Some splendid and able
portraits by H., belonging to tliis period, are to be seen in the Loavre at Paris, in
the Berlin Museum, at Longford aud Windsor Castles. Eighty-seven sketches of
persons belonging to the court of Henry VIIL by H. ore still extant. His ^^ Dance
of Death,'^ the illustraUons of the Old Testament, and three seto of alphabet Initials,
would certainly entitle him to rank as one of the first wood-engravers, supposing
them to have been not merely designed, but likewise engraved by him. This opm~
Ion has, liowever, been disputed, and the question remains undecided at tlie present
day. A selection from H.'s pictures hi the library at Baf>el were publislied iu Jitbo-

-raphs iu 1S29, by Birmanu uud Sous at Basel.— See Wolkmaun, **H. und seine

^eit"(Lelp. 1878-76).

HOLBERG, Ludvig, the creator of modem Danish literature, and not only the
earliest, but the wittiest and best writer of light come<ly in Denmark, was l>om iu
1684 at Bergen, in Norway, at the period when the latter country formed part of the
Danish dominions. The ten years which succeeded his appointment in 1T18 as pro-
fessor of metaphysics in the university of Copenhagen, where he had stndied with
the origiual intention of entering the church, embrace the most active literary ^riod
of his life ; for during that time he composed his various satlrlco-heroic poem»and
romances, and the greater number of his numerous comedies, which are still re-
garded by his countrymen as the best productions of their idnd In the Danish lan-
guage. The creation of a national theatre iu 1723 by King Frederick IV.. who sent for
French actors to teach Danish players the art of declamation, had led H. to try his
tidcnts in dramatic writing, and the success which attended the attempt was soeedily
followed by oMiers siill more felicitous. Wealth and honors poured in upon htm as
he advanced in years, and he received a patent of nobUlty in 1746. Ho died in 1754,
bequeathing his property to the Danish Royal Military Academy of Soroe. H.*s
collected works were published in 27 volumes octiivo at Copenhagen in IKM; and in
1842 an association was established in that city for the better editing of his writings,
the dramatic portion of which was edited by Llebenberg in 1843 — lS47.

H.'s first satirico-hei-olc poem of "Peder Paars" (1719), and Ms ** Niels Klims
nnderjordirtke Reisc" (1741), which appeared originally in Latin, bnt which was
speedily translated into several modern languages, rank among his productions,
although among his numerous comedies there are many that have enjoyed an almost
equal popularity. Of these we may instance as especially notal)le for their liroad


Digitized by VjOOQ IC


649 =3^

bniDoraud tnith to natare, '*Den poliHske Kandestoeber," *' Jeppo paa Byorgel,"
**D6n Stundesloese,^ aud ** Jalestueu/'

HCVLCUS. See Sorr 01U88.

HOLD Is that Interior compartment of a rewel thronghont her length wbich is
ncareat to the keel. From the lowermost deck it extends to the very bottom of the
ship ; It is always below the water •line, aud dependent on the hatchways for ventila-
tion and what little natural light it obtains. In merchant-vessels, the greatest por-
tion of the cargo is stored in the hold ; In men-of-war, It contains the oread-room,
filled with provisions, the water^tanks for the supply of the ship's company, and
almost aU miscellaneous stores, snch as spare masts, sails, blocks, Ac For this
latter purpose, the hold Is subaMded into several sections by bulk-beads. The
after 'hold ]\e» abaft ttie raain-mast, the tntrin-hold jnst before the same mast, and
Xhefon-hold is from the bow nearly to the main hatchway.

HOLDING, the term in Scotch Lnwused to denote the manner in which herlia-
ble csUite is boldeu, corresponding to the English Tenure (q. v.). All the land in
Scot kind is presumed to bo uoldeu of the crown as the snperiort and all persons who
hold the lands are called vassals. The ereat proprietors are called crou-u-vassn1s.
and the little proprietors, who srencrally hold under the crown-va<»sals, are called
vassals. The chief holding is called feu-holding, which means that the vapsal holds
the land for ever, sub^l to a feu-duty or annual payment in money or grain to the
superior. Bach vassal can carve out his land into smaller feus, and sell them to
sub-vassals, to whom he stands in the relation of a superior, and so on to iiiflnfty.
This ¥» not a mere form, but enters Into the substance of land trauBfers, and entails
great expense on all hindholdere, because each vnssal must always have his title
complete, which means he must pay up the little dues and perquialtes which con-
stantly result out of this feudal pnnciple to his superior. In England this practice
of cnbinfendatiun wus put a stop to by 18 Edw. I., and now most of the land in Eng-
land Is held In freehold, which means that each owner is entire master of his land,
and pays fees or perquisites to nobody, not even to the crown. Besides fen-holding
in Scotland there is blench-holdinff, which means a holding where the payment is ^
nominal. Formerly, there were also wanl-holding and Mortification (q. v^. the
latter being the holding by which ctiurches and religions houses were held. Tnero
is also bnrgng<vholdIng, applicable to lands within Burehs (q. v.), and tlie transfer
burgage teiicmenta has been lately pnt on a similar footing to other tenements.

HOLDTNO OVER, a phrase in English Law, meaning that a tenant, after a res^
ular notice toqnit, or the end of his term, still refuses to quit, and holds over. Iii
snch a case, the tenancy is held to bo renewed on the same terras from year to
year, if the landlord chooses not to enforce the quitting j-bnt If the tenant himself
gave the notice to quit, or the landlord demands possession at the expiration of his
notice, and then the tenant refuses to quit, he is thereafter liable to double rent, or
double value according as the notice to qnit came from the tenant or the landlord.
In Scotland, this renewal of the contract Is called TaeU Relocation (q. v.) ; but no
liability to double rent is incurred.

HOLIDAY, In Law, means Christmas Day, Good Friday, and any other day an-
nolnted for a public fast and thanksgiving. There are other holidays usual in pub-
lic ofllces and courts of law. When a bill of exchange falls due on a Sunday, pay-
ment roust be made the day previous. If it falls due on any of the bank holidays,
the bill Is payable the day after. In England, the conrts excuse a man for not giv-
ing notice of dishonor of bills of exchange not only on Sunday, Good Friday, and
Christmas Day, but also even on the festival days of his own religion ; and though
there has been no decision In Scotland on the subject, the same rule would no doubt
be applied to fast-days prescribed by different sects, and a notice sent on tlie day
folk)wIng would suffice. But as a general rule, and in all other respects, it may he
laid down that no sect, established or nnes tablished, nor any court or public body,
has any power whatever to declare a holiday which has any legal effect, or which
can bindtbe public or the rights of third parties. Nothing but an act of parliament
has that effect, and not even a proclamation of the Crown would be sufllctent.
Hence it is that when a solemn national fast is proclaimed, which is to be put on

Digitized by VjOOQ IC


Holland "'^^

the same footing as a Sanday, it reqaires a Bpedal act of parliament to make it
binding on the pablic;,in matters of business.

HOLINSHBD, RlC^bael, an English chronicler, was born of a Cheshire familr
in the earljr part of the l«th c, and died between 1578 and 168S. The worlc by which
be is rememWnl is entitled ** The Chronicles of Englande, Scotlaude, and Ire-
lande " (8 vols. fol. Loud. 1677). This edition— tiie first— is known aa the '* Sliak»-
peare " edition, from the fact of its having supplied the great dramatist with mato-
rials for his historical plays. It contained some passages disagreeable to Queen
Blizat>eth, which W(;re omitted in the second edition of 1587. A modem edition, in
«TOlB..was published in 1807— 1808, with the ''disagreeable passages" restored.
H., altnoi^i the princ.ipalt was not the onlv author of these ** Chroniclos." He was
assisted in his kilH>r8, among others, by William Harrison, who wrote the historical
descriptions of the island of Britain ; and by Bichard Stanihunt,who contributed an
account of the condition of Ireland, to which John Hooker added the '* Conquest
of Ireland ^ (a tmnslution from the Latin of Oiraldns Cambrensis). H. has always
been a great favorite with black-letter scholars, and has been freely used by modern

HOLE AH, the name of a powerful Mahratta family, the members of which have
at various times been formidable enemies to the British empire in Hindustan. The
founder of the family was Mulhar Rao Holkab, wlio was bom in the Deccan,
KI93, and having gained by his valor the favor of the Peishwah, obtained from him
the western lialf ot Malwah, with Indore for his capital. In 1751, he joined tlie great
league of the princes of Hindnotan, formed to bar the progress of Ahmed Shah
Duruni, and was present at the battle of Panipur, 14th January 1751 ; but ns lie fled
shortly after the battle had commenced, he was suspected of treason. H. was the
only Mahratta chief of note who returned from that dreadful slaughter. He died in
1758, and was succeeded by his nieoe, Aylah-Baee, who resigned the military power
to ToKHAGi Holkab. On his death in 1797, his natural son, Jeswdkt Rao
HoLKAii, a man able, bruve, and niiscrupulous, seized Indore, bnt was driven our
by Sclndla. Such, however, was H.'s reputation for energy and nbililv, thut [kui of
the victorious army d^erted to him, with whom, and his o>vn troops, he obtained a
signal victory over Sciudia and the Peishwah (October 1808). After fighting a lonj;
time against the British with varying success, he whS compelled to conclude |>c:ice,
and died insane, October 90, 1811. His son, MitlhabRao Holkab IL, a minor nine
years old, succeeded, and in 1817 declared war against the British, but his army was
totally routed at Muhedpore, Slst December; whereupon he sent offers of peace,
which were accepted, and an English residency vns estabHshed at Indore in Januarit
1818. He died in 1883. Mabtund Rao Holkab, Hubbx Rao Holkab, and
KmCDi Rao Holkab, sneresslvely ruled after him: but the last of these dNiiig with-
out heirs, the Bast India Company assumed the rlgntof nominating Mulkbbji Rao
Holkab, who was educated under the auspices of the British government, and who
has displayed great ability since he nssumed the reins of government in IS5t. On
the breaking out of the mutiny In 1867, he took the field in support of the British,
but the refractory beiiavior of his troops prevented his rendering any effective

HOLLAND, Lord, Henry Richard Fox, Vassall-Holland, third baron, F.R8.,
an English statesman, was descended from Henry Fox. first baron, pecretary of
state to (aleorge IL H. was bom at Winterslow House. Wilts, In 1778, and suc-
ceeded to the utle on the death of his father, the second baron, in 1774. He went
to Eton, and thence to Christ Church. He was trained for public life by his cele-
brated uncle, Charles James Fox. and made his first speech in the House of Lords
in January 1798. After 4he death of Mr Fox, H. Iicld the post of lord privy seal in
the Orenville ministry for a few months. He then shared the long banishment of
the Whigs from the councils of their sovereign. During this long and dreary in-
terval, H., to use the language of Macanlay (who has paid an eloqoent tribute to his
memory), waa the *• constant protector of all opprensed races and persecnted
sects." He held unpopular opinions in regard to tne war with France, and signed
a protest against the detention of Napoleon at 8t Helena. On the other band, he
labored to ameliorate the seventy of the criminal code ; made manful war, though
a >^est India planter, on the shive trade; threw his whole heart, though a land-

Digitized by VjOOQ IC


6K 1 Holinshed

*^^ Holland

owner, Into tbe strnsgle dsahiBt tbe Corn Laws ; and nithoneh bj rank and brced-
iiiff an ari^tocraL labored TuceMantly to extend and confirm ibe rights nud Hbertlea
of the sQbject In 1880, he became chancellor of tbe duchjr of Lancaster, and a
member of tbe reform cabinet of Earl Orey, and these posts he also held In
the Melboame ministry. He died at Holland House, Kensington, October 28.
1840. In bis ample person and expressive features, he resembled his celebrated

HCKLLAND, a name frequently applied to the kingdom of the Netherlands (q.v.)t
although in the strictest sense it is applicable only to the provinces of North and
South Holland (q. v.).

HOLLAND, New, the name formerly applied to the Islnnd or continent of Aus-
tralia (q. r.).

HOLLAND, Parts of. See Lraoouf shirs.

HOLLAND, North, a province of ibe kingdom of the Netherlands, lying between
5«o W nud 63° 18' n. lat,, ond 4° 80' and 6° «y e. long. Area. 1060 square miles, and
population (1876) 699,846. North H. consists of a peninsula joined to the mainland
at Its southern extremity, and of the islands of Wieringen, Texel. and Ylielnnd.
lying at its northern extremity. It is bounded on the w. 1^ the German Ocean, ana
on tne e. by tiie Zoider Zee. The surface is marshy, and in many places lies below
the level of the sea, from whose encroachments it is protected by dunes and dykes,
while canals interHect and drain it in every direction. Tbe principal river is the
Amstel. The canal from Amsterdam to Nieuwediep is an important waterway, but
is now superseded (for large ships) by one tbrougn the peninsula, opened Nov. 1,

The Haarlem Lake (q. v.), has been drained and converted into productive land,
with a population (81st Dec 1874) of 19,670 ; but there still exist various smaU hikes
or ponds in the marsiiy districts. The chief towns of the province are Amsterdam,
Haarlem, Alkmaar, Zaaudam or Saardam (q. v.).

HOLLAND, South, a province of the kingdom of the Netherlands, lying be-
tween 61° 45' and 62° 20' n. lat. and 8° 60' and 6° 10' e. long. Area, 1169 square
miles, and i)opnlntioii (1875) 748.168. It Is bounded on the n. by North Holland, e.
bv Utrecht and Gclderland, s. oy the Maas, which separates it from Zeelaiid and
North BralMint, and w. by the German Ocenn. South H. comprises the land aroniid
the embouchures of the Rhine and H^aan, which is cnt up in its southern portions
into several islands— viz., Voome, Overflackkee, and Qoeree, Putten, Ysselmoude,
Beiierland, Ac

The country is flat and low, and is broken bv no elevation bevond the down?,
which protect it from the sea. Streams and canals intersect it in all directions, and
it abounds with lakes and with poldtrSt or lands that have been recovertrd from the
sea or lakes by dmlnltjff. One of the most noted of these is the Biesboi^ch, land
recovered from a marshy lake which was formed by the terrible inundation of 1421.
Tlie chief rivers Are the Old Rhine, the T^sel, Lek, Maas, and Merwede. Tlie prin-
cipal towns of South H. arc the Hague, Le)'den, Rotterdam, Dordrecht, (Joriiichem,
Brielle, Oouda, Delft, and Schiedam (q. v.). The two provinces of Holland rank
among the most populous districts of Europe, and their Inhabitants are disiin-
gnishcKl for industry and habits of great cleanliness. 1'he rearing of cattle, of
which there are upwards of a million Hi North and South Holland, and the prepara-
tion of butter and cheese, are the pHncipal industries in the rural districts. Alk-
maar in North Holland, and Gouda in South H., are the preat centres of the cheese-
trade. In 1874, the cheese sold at Alkm»ar weighed 8705 cwts. The provinces of
Holland enjoy the largest share of the national comnivrce and wealth.

HOLLAND, Sir Henry, Bart., M.D., F.R.8., D.C.L., Ac, an eminent physician,
lx>m at Knutsford, Cheshire, in 1788. He received his professional education in
London, and subsequently at the university of Bdinbnrgb, where he graduated as
M.D. In 1811. He ttien spent two or three 3'ears in the east of Europe; and in 1815,
after his return to England, published his •*l'mvols In Albania, Thessaly, Ac.,'* in a
4to volume. He settled in London, and soon rose to high eminence In his profession,
of which he became one of the recognised heads. In 1828, he was elected a Fellow
of the Royal College of Physicians, a distinction at that time very rarely conferred on

Digitized by VjOOQ IC




gjjjj""* 652

a Scottish M.D. In 1840, ho was appoiutcd phyBidan-In-ordlnary to the Prince Con-
Borf , aud in 1862, ph jsfcian-Iu-ordiuarv to the Qneeu. In the follow'mg year, he \va«
mud'? a baronet. In 1866, the nniverefty of Oxford conferred ou him the honomr/
degree of D.C.JL, and he has likewise received the degree of LL.D. from the university
of Cninbridse, MasstacbasettP. In 1S40, he published a volume entitled ** Medical
Notes and Reflectione," counisting of 84 essays upon various of the mo*t interesting
departments of medicine and psycliology, which has passed through several editions.
In 1853, his *• Chapters on Mental Physioloey " appeared, which arc expunslous of
those essays in his former work which treated of ^that particnlar part of hnman
plivsiology which comprises the reciprocal actions and relations of mental and bodily
)benomenn.'' His ** Essays ou Scientific Snbjects,^ published in 1868, and embrao-
.ng the consideration of many of the most profound subjects in physics, shew
that if bis Bpeclal studies had taken a different direction, lie would have attained fame
a9 a natural philosopher. The ** Recollections of Past Life " ho pabliahed in 1S71.
Ue died Oct. 1878.


HOLLOW- WARB, a. trade term, applied to each common iron utensllaaa aro
hollow, sucli as caldrons, sauce-pans, kettles, Ac. There are two classes of iron
goods so culled— viz., cast-iron hoUow-ware, and wronght-iron holiow-ware. Both
kinds Include coolting and other vessels for domestic use, and comprise also some
other articles, such as coffee-mills, which are moulded aud finished in a simihir way.
Wrought-iron liollow-ware is largely made by the process of Stampiuz (q. v.), but a
great deal is also made bv the older way of joining pieces together. Vessels of this
kind not intended for cooking are eeuerally coated with zinc, while those which are,
have usually a coating of tin. Both metals are put on the iron by immersion.
There is also a process in use for coating the surface with silicions enamel, which
will bo described presently. Since the introduction of these methods of protecting
aud beantif yiug the surface of iron, domestic vessels of this metal have greatly taken
the place of those made from copper and brass.

Ca^t-irou hollow-ware is finished in tlireo ways — some of it is enamelled, some
tinned, aud some of it is left hlaxk^ or nntinned; but there is comparatively little of
the last now used. The process by which tinned hollow-ware is made was patented
by Jonathan Taylor, a Birmingham workman, in 1779. It Is conducted as follows :
A vessel, such as a saucepan or goblet, is cast in a mould prepared in the ordinary
way from an iron or a brass pattern. See Founding. The vessel is then Annealed
(q. v.), so as to soften the ciist-irou preparatory to turning, and such articles are
then turned quite smooth on the inside, by means of a common lathe when they
are circular, and by an oval lathe when they are oval like fish-pans, a workman
holding and directing tlie tool in both cases. Self-acting lathes have l>eeu tried, but
liltherU) without any saving iu the cost. The operation of tinuinc follows next, aud
is performed by the workman pouring small quantities of melted tin ou the iusido
of the vessel, which he rubs on with a piece of cork, gradually going over the
whole surface. A little sal-ammoniac is thrown in during the process to make Uie
tin adhere. Handles of malleable iron are then put upon such vessels as require
them, and a final finish is given to them by coating the outside with a black varnish
which i-« drird in a gtove. The covers of saucepans are made of liu-plate, tho*e for
tea-kettles of cast-iron.

With reHpect to the enamelllDg of cast hollow-ware, a patent was taken out for
this as far back an 1799 ; but the process then introduced, in which the enamel con-
tained U^ad and tin. was ultimately abandoned. The subsequent patent of Messrs
T. and C. Clark of Wolverhampton, taken out in 1839, has been more successful.
Their enamel is applied to the cast-iron in two coatings, one of which forms the
body of the enamel, and the other the glaze, both being free from metallic oxides.
It is especially desirable to avoid the oxide of lead, as it does not resist tlie action of
acid substances in culinary operations. As Iron, in common with most metals,
differs from any vitreous enamel in the rate of its expansibility by heat, there is of
course a difficulty in securing the permanent adhesion of the two substances,
especially with such an article as a cooking-vessel. In the case of cast-iron ves-
sels, however, the difficulty has been practically overcome.

Iu England, cast hollow-ware is made chiefly iu the Midland hardware district, of

Digitized by VjOOQ IC



653 13^

ivhlch Blrmingbam and Wolverhampton are the centres. Eight ronnofactorlea make
tinned, aud two euuinulled hullow-ware. A few more make the bluck or uiitiuued
kiud. AboQt 2600 haudrvd bauds ore employed, nud the anaiitity of materials anna-
ail y consumed in estimated at 12,000 tons of pig- iron. 1000 tons of wrought-iron,

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 126 of 196)