James Orr.

Chambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 online

. (page 127 of 196)
Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 127 of 196)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


177 tons of tin, aud 28,000 tous of coke aud cooL In Scotland, there are six mnnn-
factories of tinned hoi low-wnre— that of the Carron Company, who^e goods have
long been famous ; thoShotts Iron Company ; the Falkirk Iron Company ; aud three
fn Glasgow. Wronght-iron hollow-ware is made principally in Birmingham nnd
the sorroandlug district, and the nnml>er of handis employed opon it is probably
nearly the same as for cast-iron goods of this kind.

English hollow-ware is sent to most civilised coontrles, bat for export trade tho
best markets are fooud in the British colonies. Little or none is taken by France,
and scarcely any by the United States since the outbreak of the civil war, on ac-
coaut of the high dntles.

With regard to the comparative merits of the different varieties of hollow-ware,
there is no donbl that the kind made of enamelled cast-iron Is, on the whole, tho
best for cooking purposes, although it is about one-flfth dearer than when merely
tinned, aud is, moreover, not liked by cooks for any bnt small-sized vessels, on ac>
count of its iseing somewhat heavy. Enamelled wrought-Iron cooking- vessels ore
much lighter to handle, but then upon them the enamel does not stand nearly so well,
very probably l)ecanse the comparatively rapid heating up of the thinirouof which
they are made more rapidly destroys the adherence of the two substances. A great deal
of cast-iron tinned hollow-ware is now made without l)eing turned, an omission
easily detected by the uneven surface which the Inside of each vessels presents.
Artlaes so finished are, of course, cheaper than when they arc smoothed on the latlie ;
bnt for look, durability of the tinned surface, and least trouble of cleaning, those
which are turned are decidedly preferable.

HOLLT (/<esB), a genus of trees and shrubs of the natural order AquifoliaeetBf
chiefly natives of temperate climates; with evergreen, leathery, shining, aud gener-
ally spinous leaves; small flowers which have a 4— 5- toothed calyx, a wheel-shaped
4— 6-cieft corolla. 4 or 6 stamens, and the fruit globose aud fleshy, with 4 or 6
ftones {nut4). The ConoN H. (/. a^vi/Mtum), the only European spedefl. and a
native also of some parts of Asia, is a well-known ornament of woods, parks, and
phrubberies in Britain, tho stiffness of its habit being so compensated by the abun-
dauce of its branchlets aud leaves, as to make it .one of our roost beautiful ever-
greens. It Is found as a native plant in ScotUnd, although Britain is nearly its
northern limit : and it attains a greater size and displays greater luxuriance in the
northern than in the southern parts of its geographic rauge, often appearing iu the
ble shee, 20 to M feet high, whilst iu the latter it is



former as a tree of considerable size, 20 „ .

generally a mere bush. It prefers light soils. There are numerous varieties of II.,
product, or at least perpetuated by cultlvotion, exhibiting great diversity in the
leaves, of which the Hedgehog H, may be mentioned as extremely sinuous aud
rpiuous, whilst others are prized for their color, golden, silver-blotched, Ac. Tlie
flowers of the H. are whitish, oxllhiry, nearly umbellate ; tho fruit small, scarlet,
rarely yellow or white. The abnudance of tho fruit adds nmch to the
ornamental character of the tree in winter, aud affords food for birds;
but to man it is purgative, emetic, and diuretic, aud In larger quan-
tities poisonous. Tno leaves are inodorous, have a mucilaginous bitter
and somewhat austere taste, and have been used medicinally in cases of gout and
rheumatism, as a diaphoretic, and also as an astringent and tonic to corix>ct a ten-
dency to diarrhoea, Stc The leaves aud small branches, chopped, are sometimes
used for feeding sheep in severe winters. The root and bark are emollient, expector-
ant, and diuretic. Bird-lime (q. v.) is made from the inner bark. The wood is
almost as white as ivory, very hard and flue-grained, and is used by cabinet-makers,
turners, musical instmment-makers. Ac., and sometimes for wood-eneravinj(.
Handles of tools aud handles of metal tea-pots are very often made of it. The H.
fs often planted for hedges, as it bears clipping well, and makes an excellent
(once. A H. hedge may either be kept low, or, as is the case at Tyuiughame, In
East Lothian, allowed to grow to the height of 20 or 80 feet In the gardoning of
former days, uollies were often clipped into fautastic ahapea. The name U. Is said



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



CHAMBERS' ENCYCLOPEDIA



Hour 654

to be derived from the ase of the branches and berries to decorate chorehes at
Clirlsfiime, froiu which the tree was called Holy Tree.— Nnmeroos other species
of II. are foaod iu North America, inoet of them !n swampy sitnatloDS, iu Sooth
America, Nepanl, Jupau, and other parts of the world ; some of which have now be-
come uot uufreqocnt oruameiital trees und sbmbs In Britaiu.— M^Ti (q. v.), or
Paraguay Tea^ is the leaf of a Soath Americau species of H. (J, Paraguenns),

HOLLY SPRINGS, a towu In Northern Misfdseippi. United States, America, on
the Central Railway, W miles south of itsiniictiou with the Memphis and Cbariestou
line. It is the princlpnl town hi Northern Mississippi, and contiUns several cburchei^,
four academies, a bank, and two or Uiree newspapers, with a large trade in cotton
and merchandise. Pop. (1870) %4M : (1880) 3870.

HO'LLTHOCK (AlUum ro9ea), a plant of the natural order MalvaeecB. commonly
referred to the same genus with tlie Marsh Mallow (q. v.). It has a tall, straight,
hairy stem ; lieart-shaped, crcnate, wrinkled, 5— 7-angled leaves, and large axillary
flowers almost without stalkfl : the leaves diminishing into bracts, and the upper
part of tlie stem forming a spike ; the petals hairy at the base. The H. is a native
of India, tlie south of Europe, Ac., is to be seen in almost every garden in India, and
has l>een much cultivated in gardens in Britain from a very eany period. At pres-
ent, it is a favorite flower, and varieties, the result of cultivation, are very aumerons.
It varies much In the color of the flowers, and double und semi-double varieties are
common. It is an autumnal flower, continuing till the frost sets hi. It is a biennhil
or perennial plant. The stem rises to a height of 8—15 feet, nnbranching, or neariv
so. The fibres of the plant have been made into yarn, but it is not yet certain if ft
is really valuable for cultivation on this account, or for the mannfacture of paper.
It is not improlmble that it might be cultivated with advantage to afford green fodder
for cattle, which are very fond of Its leaves, and the leaves are proda^ in great
abnndancc if the plant is prevented from flowering. The flowers are mucilagtnons
and demulcent, and are sometimes used like tho^e of mallows and marsh mallows.
The leaves yield a flue blue dye— The Chikesb H. {A. Chineruia) is an allied
species.

HOLMES, Oliver Wendell. M.D., an American physician and author, was born
at Cambridge, Massachusetts, Angnst 28, 1809. In 1829, he graduated at Harvard
College, and entered upon the study of law, but soon adopted Eis father's profession
—medicine. He studied in Europe, graduated as doctor of medicine In 18S6, and
two years after was appointed professor of anatomy and physiology in Darimonth
College ; and in 184T, was transferred to the same chair at HarvaroTthe medical de-
partment of which is at Boston, where he has since resided. Dr H. is not only a
man of science, but a humorous and satirical poet of much ability. Several of his
lyrics also are among the most exquisite produced in America. Most of his poems
have been delivered before college literary societies, as •* Poetry, a Metrical Essay ;"
"Terpsichore:" ** Urnnia ;" and** Astnea." In 1857 he contributed his ** Autocrat
of the Breakfast Table," a connected series of prose essays, to the ** Atlantic
Montiily," which was followed by **Thc Professor at the Breakfast Table." and
** The Poet at the Breakfast Table " (1878). A remarkable work is the singular ro-
mance, ** Elsie Venner" (1861). Dr. H. is one of the most popular of pnulic lee*
turers. Of medical writings may be mentioned *' Boyleston Prise Dissertations,"
** Lectures on Uoniceopathy and its Kindred Delusions," a '* Report on Medical Lit-
erature," besides articles in professional periodicals. In 1868, he published a sec-
ond novel, entitled *'The Qnardiau Angel;" and in 1870, "Mechanism in Thought
and Morals."

HOLOCA'NTHUS, a genus of flshes, of the family Chcetodontidm (q, v.), re-
markable for the great beauty and symmetry of their colors, and for their excel-
lence as articles of food. They have the very compressed fonn and other gon^tU
characters of the CfuetodontidcB^ a single dorsal flu, and a laiige spine on the gill-
cover. They are natives of the seas of warm climates. H, imperator Is one of the
most esteemed flshes of the Bast Indies, rivalling the salmon tn flavor. It greatest
size is about 16 Inches long; its color is deep blue, with numerous narrow bands of
orange, the pectoral flns bhick, the tall bright yellow. It is known in some parts of
the East as the Emperor qf Japan,



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



OF UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE,



655



HoUf
fidothnrU



HO'LOCAUST. See SAcnxnoE.

HOLOF£'RNES. SeeJiTDiTH.

HCyLOGRAPH (Or. ftoto«. aU, an4 graplu, writing), deed or writing, in Scotch
Law. means a writing in wliicli the author or malcer does hi« own i^manBliip. •
Conttiderable privilegeB are given to this speciee of writing, whereas, in Bngland and
IroUind. it is in general utterly immaterial whose penmnusltip is used, provided tlie
party sign or seal tiie writing or deed. In Scotland, if a p4*n^n execute his will or
a deed in holograph, this dispeueeawitb the osnal formuli ties which wonid bereqai-
sitc If he merdy siffued a paper written by another itaud, for no witnesses arc rc-

3nired to attest hotogmph deeds or testaments. If the hand wilting, however, to
Isputcd, evidence must be given as to wiiose handwriting it is. In Snglaud, it is
qalte Immaterial wiiether a person writes onl ^is own will or not; in either case
tiiere must be two witnesses. So in the cam; of holograph missive writings and ac-
connts, there is a difference as to the period of prescription applicable in Scotliuid,
bnt in England there is uo dlf tinction merely on tlils groaiid. The distluctiou l)0«
tween holograph and other deeds also prevails in the iaw of Franco and ether couti'
nental conntries.

HOLOPIT'CHIUS {holoB, all, and ptycM, wrinkie), a remarkable genas of fos-
sil ganoid fishes, so named from the wriulcled Appearance of the enamelled acalcp.
Tliey were of Uirge size, tome species probably reaching the length of 12 feet The
small head was covered witli laige tubercalated plates, like those of the crocodile,
and the body was completely encased in large scales, more Uke those of a reptile
than a fish. Home scales hnve been found measuring 8 inches in length by 8X in
breadth, and a foil eighth of an hich in thickness. They were composed iutemaHv
of porous bone, in numerous layers, arranged alternately at right angles to each
other, and the outside was covered with a bright glossy corrugated euaineL The
spines of the fins were large and liollow ; the bones were partleJly ossified ; the cen-
tre remained in its original cartilaginous condition, and cousequentiv appears hol-
low in the fossil. The jaws were covered with hard enamel instead of skin, and
were furnished with a double row of teeth ; the outer row, placed along the edge of
the month, were small and thickly set ; Che inner range were widely set, and very
large, at least twenty times the bulk of the others. The specimen obtained rt Cla?h-
bennie. on the Firth of Tay, by Mr Noble, now forms part of the British Museum
coliectfou. It is a foot across by two feet and a half long without the tail, which U
wanting. It is nearly perfect, lying on its back, with the scales and the ventral fins
in their original position.

The genus is peculiar to the Old Red Snndstone and Carboniferous Measures ;
eight species being found in the former, and nine in the hitter. The name Hc^pty-
chlns is now generally confined to the fossils of tlie Old Rod Sandstone, and that of
Rhizodus, wmch Owen applied to the teeth remains before their connection wi^ the
fish was known, has been given to the Holoptychians of the Coal Measures, which
have the outer row of teeth more robnstand obtuse, and the inner set longer, sharper,
and more slender timn in the older species.

HOLOTHU'KIA, a genus of Sehinodermata (q. v.). the former limits of which are
now those of a family, Holothuridoe^ divided, into numerous seuera. Sea-sluo and
SBA-oucuiiBBB*are popular names of some of the aoirauls of this family. The Holo-
thuHdof have not the coverins of calcareous plates characteristic of the more typical
EehinodermiUa^ but soft leathery muscniar integument, very irritable, and capable
of great distention and contraction. Some of them arc almost globose, some so
much elongated as to be almost worm-like; but the same iudividuafls often capable
of extending itself to several times the length which it has in a state of
repose. lu locomotion, the body is extended and contracted os by the annetidcs,
but the principal organs of locomotion, as in star-fishes and sea-urchins, aro
suckers or A mhuUicr a (q. v.), of which tliere are usually five double rows, whilst
sometimes they are distrilnited over the whole surface of the body; but some of
the species have the suckers dercloped only on a disc, and tlie body then presents
an upper and an under surface. The radiate structure is most apparent in the
mouth, which Is surrounded with tentacles, in numl)er always a multiple of five,
exhibiting great variety of beautiful forms, and capable of being completely re-
tracted. Little is known of the food of the 'flo^otAuruto, whici^ however, probably



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



CHAMBERS' ENCYCLOPEDIA



§3;"^ 656

consistB of email mariDe animals. Within the opening of the month there Is a dp-
ctc of teeth. There la no proper stomach. The InteeUne is often reiy complicated.
The respiratory organs are near tlie auos, and consist of branching tubes. The
organs of both sexes are fooud in each iudlvidaaL The Yoang pass through w&t-
erul stages or transformatious, in which the/ are very nnuke their parents ; iu their
first stage, after leaving the egg, tliey swim rigorously Inr means of membranous
expansions of the body. TheffototAmcia aru capable of the most extraordinanr
reproduction of parts, even of the moat important organs. They are found in aU
seas, but particularly abound in the Red Seal and between the south of Asia and
Australia. The largest Buropean species, H. {Cueumaria) frondima, oocosionaUr
foaiid in the British seas, is atMut a foot iu length, and capable of extending itacdf
to three feet. Most of the British species are small, and tbey are not of a pleasiug
appearance as they usually come under observation, although the expanded tentacles
give them beauty in their proper abodes. But many of the tropical species exhibit
splendid colors, and are among tlie creatures which make the bottom of the sea,
particularly among coral reefs nud islands, gay and lovely as a garden.

llie Btehe-ds-mer (q. v.), or lYepnng, so much esteemed as a delicacy by the
Chinese, belongs to this family.

HO'LSTSIN, formerly a duchv belonging to Denmark, aud nt the same time a
member of the Ourmaulc Cotifeoeration, was annexed iu 1386 to Prussia. It is
separated from Slesvig ou the n. by the nver Byder aud the Slesvig-Holstein Canal ;
is l>oundcd on the e. by the Baltic S^a, the territory of LQbeck. aud the duchy of
Laucnbnrg; ou the s. by the Uambar;; territory and the river BIbe, which separates
it froui Ilauover; and ou the w. by the North Sea. Area. 3270 square miles; pop.
651,610. The principal rivers, besides the Blbt> aud the Eyder, are the StOr and the
Trave. Of the surface of the land, one-eighth consists of marshes. I'he central
districts of the province are occupied by an undulating plain, varied by low hills, and
traversed from north to south by a hontby and «audy ridge, from which the land
falls away gradually on the east— where the surface is varied bv lakes and fertile
well-wooded valleys—and on the west. The soil, with the exception of several tracts
of sand and heath, is very fruitful, and is most luxuriant iu the marshes. The cii-
ra ite and natural productions closely resemble those of similar districts in the north
of Germany. Salt and lime are the only miucrals found. Amber is obtained on tho
eastern coast, aud the Interior abounds iu peat The manufactures of H. are iucou-
sid'rable: agriculture and die rearing of eatrle are the chief employments of the
people. The history of H. and its political relations are noticed iu the article
Slesvio.

HO'LSTBRS, cases for pistols oflflxed to the pommel of a saddle. They are Cro-
quei^y covered with wool or fur, to prevent injury to the rider in the event of bis
beitur thrown forward upon them.

HOLT ALLIANCE, a league formed after the fall of Napoleon by the sovereigns
of Russia, Austria, and Prussia, nominally to regulate the relations of the states of
Christendom by the principles of Christian charity, but really to preserve the power
and influence of the existing dynasties. Most of the other Buropean rulers acceded
to it. and the treaty was formally made public in the ** Frankfurt Journal," Febru-
ary 2, 1816. It was in virtue of this league that Austria, iu 1821, crushed the revolu-
tions iu Naples and Piedmont, and that France, In 1828, restored absolutism in Spain.
Sub8eqneutly, both Franc; and England seceded, after which it became a mere fiom-
inis umbra. A special article of the treaty excluded for ever the members of the
Bonaparte family from any Buropean throne I

HOLY COAT, a relic preserved with the grcitest reverence in the cathedral of
Treves, of which dty it is esteemed the greatest treasure. It Is alleged to be the
seamless coat of our Saviour, and to have 1>een discovered In the 4th c by the
Bmpress Helena, in iter memorable visit to Palestine, and by her deposited at lYeves.
The Treves relics were concealed from the Normans In the 9th c In crypts ; but tho
Holy Coat was rediscovered iu 1196, and then soleinuly exliibited to the public gase,
which did not take place ai^ain till 1512. when multitudes flocking to see and ven-
erate it, I^eo X. appointed it to be exhibited every seven years. The Reformation
and wars prevented the regular observance of tliis great refigfons festival ; but It was
celubrotea iu 1810, aud was attended by a concourse of no fewer than 227,000 per-



Digitized by



Google^






OF UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE.



657



Hotstein
Holy

!^rti^ be^erSraS^ 'i'he exhibition of the Holy Coot ii»

iSlTot^cmB^ memorable for the reactioD wliicU { produced. l««diDe to tbe scj
SSlon of 1<^ «id the German Catholics from the Church oj Ro^^.-I^or further
lSSlS?aUoi^** The Book of Days." published by W. & R. Chambers.

TTOl Y FAMILY, tlie name g.veu,ln the languaife of art, to everv repreBcntation
of th^ilJant Sttviiur ami his at? endnnta, Ii. Uie early part of the middle ages when
of theliiianiaMviournuu u. Vuchi and Child were usually the

the object lu ▼ie^J" *? Jt i latei d^ od JoaeDh. ElizabetU, St Auna (the mol hor
o,,Iypci5pnareprMei.ted. At « ljtej^P«r^^» J'^P'^^J '^^^^^ ^^,^ old Gmunu

of the V rgiu), and fjfXelve ^w3S> al"hik^^^^ and playfellows of the iufaut
ehri^t^U''iJ^l^«s1^c?r^n^^^^^^^^^^ tL Itanau achooU with

S?flne fSjlini for compo.Hit uu, was the first to recognise of how many flgur^ tlie
Jf^^ must ^Mi^^I^f ^ iutoreat is to remain undivided, and be concentrated on
f^Xnre XthS that figure be the Madonna or the Child. Two musters arc pre-
SmliSn tWs B^iea of ?«presentatiou-Leouardo da Vinci and RaphaeL

HOT Y FIRE in the Church of Rome, a light kindled at Easter, by sparks struck
r,«S « flT.,r In Smerabnmce-according ^ the missal-of Christ as tlie great corncr-
IS^ and hi?lJd b? knSSfi^ecclealasilcs with the words '* Light of Shr et" (Lt*.
S^^A^S The ceremony takes place on Holy Saturday, of which dav's service
ir^JniTatriklne pwt; and at Rome, it takes place in the presence of the pope
lii?ISr. nil Sfo^&htVii the chapel liavlng been previously extluguished, to be re-
kfS£5 'nt tbe Sew flro -The^^ of tlie Holy Fire in the Church of the Holy

kindled at we new are. ^^ZiX of the Oriental Church, is represented as

mfifi^KS^ The Or^k A AnnlSan clerey combine on this occasion and amidst
SSSSiioo^ solemnities, an excited muUltuSJ, and scenes disgraceful not only to the
S;?S?Sf relS^on but to human nature, the expected fire makes Its appearance from
^IhL a J!i^rtment iu which a Greek and an Armenian bishop have locked them-

"'mi Y OHOST. or Holy Spirit, in Orthodox Theology, the third person of the

r„_t :9 / «\ ^-rieedlne from the Fathtr and the Bon. yet of ono substance,
Trinity (q. V), proceeding irom ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ,^.^

y*r;Y'^*J?o^inw is believed to i" Scrip-

distinct pereouaiiT^wj^''^^" One may BuflSce: »• But wlicn the Com-

tnre, which It '^..^'"^f^til 2nd uSto you fromthe^Father, even the Spirit of truth.
^^5^*t*"*'i^lot from the Father, lie shall t^^stlf y of me" (John xv. 26). The
whtch Prpc<^f"V[?,?,hes5rlti8 thesu^^^ the chief differences be-

! ^"^£^ TJk^tiVaU the wistern or Latln^hurches. He Is essentially a spirit of
twoen the Kastern ana uie^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ,j^^ benefits of

^niiTi^th t> ^k in them, first, a bclM of the truth as it is in Jesus, and then
tn^Mmlifythcm by that truth.

HOT Y GRASS (Hieroehtoe horealU), a grass about a foot high, with a brownish

HOLY ^^(tiT It is found in the most northern parts of Britain, and in the

«'*!S^*?^EfJ?»of* It has a sweet smelU like.tbat of vernal grass; and in Iceland,

north ot ,f"f3i;-i It is used for scenting apartraeiits and clothes. In some coun-

trie1Ji*iti?iS!cwedou t^ phices*or«orship on festival-days, whence Its

***^Aty TSLAKD,or Lindisfa'rne, a small island of England, belonging to the
^S^Jiorrimmfcrland. and situated about ten miles south-east of Bbrwlck-ou-
cpuntT <»,f.^" VS"t four miles long, and t^vo miles brwid, and Is connected with the
^1 1 ; HhvsSnds three miles in^extent. which can be traversed at low-water by
roftin laud by wnns I ^^ ^^^ 87«; but, including the chanelries of

vehicles of f "^^Vf J^hich are both iu the ancient parish), and called Ulandahire,
Kvloe on«^^"„JSth coast Is the village of Holy Island, finely situated, ai)d now ranch
8t44. On tije Booth wasys I «^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ruins, the chief of which

resorted to *^*°*!^.'^^iombro-lookinir remains of the famous Abbey of Llndisfarne,




HOLY LAND- SeePALBSTiUB.



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



GtiAMBERS' ENCYCLOPEDIA



Hoif 658

HOLT PHIAL, or Sainte Ampoule, Order of, the name of an order of knight*
hood which formerly existed in France, and was composed of foar persons, nsoaliy
tlie first ill point of ranlc, family, and fortune in the province of Champagne, and
styled Barom de la Sainte AmpotUe, At the coronation of the French kings, tber
were delivered to the Dean, Priors, and Cliopter of Rheims, as hostages for the fof-
fllineut of the engagements entered into bv the great otBcers of the crown to retnm
tiie lioly phial in which tlie coronation oil was Icept^ and which, according to Uie
le<;end, was brought from heaven by the Holy Ghost under the form of a dove, and
put into the liands of St Remy at the coronation of Clovis— an enormous crowd
UMviiii!: prevented the messenger from bringing in time that which had already been
prepared. Tiie pecnliarity ofthts order was tnat the knights were only knights for
a day. Their badge was a cross of gold euninelled white, cantoned with four fleur-
de-lis, nnd on the cross a dove descending with a phial in its beak, and a right
liond receiving it.

HOLY PLACES, Holy Sepulchre. Under the head Jbbubalbm Iq, t.) aro ennm-
erateil many localities which, from the memories associated with tbem, must be
full of solemn interest for eveiy religious mind ; but the name Holy Placet of Jer-
nsalom more strictly designates the group of sacred places of which the Church of
the Holy Sepulchre is tlie centre, ana which are supposed to comprise the sites of
the chief events of our Lord's passion, death, burial : Qcthsemane, the Supper room,
the Church of the Ascension, the Tomb of the Virgin, Ac

In the artide Jbrusausm, the general topographv of the ancient and modem city
is briefly dci>cribed. The so-culled Church of the Holy Sepulchre stands within the
modum city, on the north-western or Latin quarter. It is a ByEantlno building, in



Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 127 of 196)