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the centre of a ^pncions enclosed court. Under the great dome of the church stands
the Holy Sepulchre, which is of nu oblong form, fifteen feet by ten, and is surmounted
by a rich ceiliu!^, decorated with gold, silver, and precious marble. A circular
hall surrounds the space beneath the dome. Around this circular hall are oratories
for tlie Syrians, Copts, and Maronitcs; and above it is a series of salleries, whicU
are similarly appropriated. In the body of the church are the chapels of the Greek,
Liitln, and Armenian Christians, the church as a whole being maintained by the
Ottoman authorities in the couditioji, as it were, of a common meeting-ground for
all the Christian communions, as tlie rivalries of the several religious bodies con-
stantly lead to angry controversy, and not unfreqnently to sanguinary conflicts.
Opposite the entrance of the enclosure is a somewhat elevated maiblo slab, which
is called the Stone of Unction, and is shewn as the stone on which onr Lord's body
was anointed before entombment: and above is an elevation approached by steps,
which is the traditionary Mount Calvary, and on which now stands a rich dome-
shaped building, floored with rich nurbles, in the crypt of which is the cavity sup-
posed to have been formed bv the erection of the cross. The street by which this
site is approached, from tlie direction of the ruins of Hcrod*s palace, on the north
side of the city, is the principal street of the Latin quarter, and is called by the Turks
Uardt^el-Albam^ and by the Christians the Via Doloroaa, as being the supposed route
of our Lord from the hall of judgment to Calvary.

Such Is the traditional view as to the locality, not only of these leading events of
onr Lord's history, but also of many others of minor importance, and less promi-
nently noticeable. For a long course of ages, the Christian worid unhesitatingly
acquiesced in this view of the topography of the Holy Places ; but rinco the bogiu*
ning of last c<'ntnry, doubts have been entertained as to Its correctness ; and in late
years, the qu.-stion has been diKUSsed with much learning, although with little
positive, or at least conclusive result About the year 1780, a German, named Kortc,
who had visited Jerusalem, and explored the locality, published a work, calling the
antlientlcity of the received system of sacred topography into question. Thedonbia
expressed by him have been repeated at iutenrals ever since his day, atid especially
by the celebrated American critic, Dr Robinson, author of ** Biblical Researches in
Palestine," who may be said, in two succeesive investigations, to have exhausted
tlie evidence, on one side of the question, at least so far as the remains of the ancient
citv had at that time been explored. Dr Robinson distinctly affirms the impossi-
bility of reconciling the received sacred localities with the plain requirements of the
gospel history ; bul he falls himself to point out a scheme of topography which may

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be 8ab«t1tiited for that which has been traditioaaUy reoeived. More recent critlcn.
and especially If r James Fergasou, iu an ^^EasaTou the Ancieut Topography of
Jeraaalem/' %mA\\% with Dr Robineon in rejecting the received topogniphy, con-
tends against him that tbo tme site of the Holy Sepalchre can be accurately deter-
miited, and that it is no other than the Moaqae of Omar, or, as the Mohammi'duna
call it, the ** Dome of the Rock." Thin he holds to be the ideotical cliurch which
Constantino erected over the rocic which contained the tomb of our Lord. Dr Stnii-
ley, a late biblical traveller in Palestine, left the qocstiou nndecided. Wc can here
do nothing more than refer the reader to the cliief antboriilea on eaoli side of the
controversy. See, on tlie one side, Robinson's ** Biblical Researches in Pulesline : "
Smith's *♦ Dictiouaiy of the Bible," article ** Jcrosolem " (Fergupon) ; *• E*<8ny on the
Ancient Topoinrapby of Jemsalem," by the same author. On the other, WUiiams's
»* Holy City ; '^Kanmer's ** Beitrfige «ur Bibl. Geograpliie;" Sepp's •*For8chungen
eiues Dentschen Reisenden in Jemfalem ; " Schaffter's '* Aechte Lage des hellieen
Grabes." Under the aospiccs of the Palest idl Exploration Faud, diligent re»earchcf
are now 1>eing carried on nt Jernsnlem, and i^everal important discoveries have t^Nm
made. See an account of the excavatiCMis in ** Underground Jeinsalcm," by Cap-
tain Warren, R.B. (London, 1870).

HOLY SEPULCHRE, Knights of the, an order of knighthood iustitnted, pn>-
bably by Pope Alexander VL, for the guardianship of ihe Holy Sepnlclire, and tlie
relief and protection of pilgrims. The pope was originally the grand-master, but
lie enbeequentlv ceded his nghta to the Guardian Father of the Holy Sepulchre. The
knightA must, by the mles of the order, be all of noble descent; thev were hound
to hear mass daily, to fight, to live, and to die for the Christian faitli, kfu In return
for these duties, the knights hnd the roost nnnsnal and extraordinary privileges con-
ferred on tliem ; they wero exepipt from taxation, conld mnrrv, and yet pot^Mss
church property, legitimise bastards, and cut down and bury the oodiea of criminals
who had been hanged. On the recapture of Jerusalem by the Turks, the knights
retired to Italy, and settled at Perngin. After a temporary nnion with the Hoapi-
tallers, the order was reconstructed iii 1814 l>oth iu France and In Poland, and isptlll
in existence within a very small circle of kniglits elected by the Guardian Father
from the most respectable pilgrims who come to Jerusalem.

HOLY WATER, in the Roman Catholic, as also in the Greek, Russian, and Ori-
ental churches, slgniflus water blessed by a priest or bishop for certain religious
uses. Water is, almost of its own nature, a fitting nrmbol of purity ; and accord-
ingly, in most of the ancient religions, the nsc uf lustral or purifying water not only
formed part of the public worship, but also entered largely Into tlie ]>ereonal acts of
sanctiflcation prescribed to individuals. Tlie Jewish law conUiined many provisious
to the same effect ; and our Lord, by cstablisliing baptism with water as the neces-
sary form of initiation into the religion institute by him, gave his sanction to the
nsc, which, from its universal acceptance among mankind, appears to be a relic of
the primeval natural revelation. The usage of sprinkling the hands and face with
water before entering the sauctnary, which was proscrilxS in the Jewish law, wns
retained, or at least Very earlv adopted, in the Christian church. It is expressly
mentioned by Tertullian In the end of the 8d century. And that the water so em-
ployed was blessed by the priests we learn, among others, from St. Jerome, and
from the apostolical constitutions. Although it u difflcull to fix the precise time,
it cannot be doubted that the practice of mingling salt with tlie water Is of very nn-
ciout origin (see Canon 20 '' l>e Consecr. Dist. iii.")* In the Western Church, lliere
is a solemn bles^gof water In the service of Holy Saturday, but the ceremonial 1 «
repented by the priest whenever it mav be necessary to replenish the fountain. In-
structed Catholics regard the use of holy water chiefly as a means of suggesting to
the mind the necessity of internal purity : und although it Is supposed to derive from
the blessing a special efiAoacy for this end, yet this elncacy is hehl to be molnly sub-
jective and of a character entirely distinct from that ascribed to the sacramental
rites of the chnch. In reformed chnrehes, the use of holy water is regarded as un-
acriptnral and superstitions.

HOLY WEEK, the week Immediately preceding Easter, and roeclally conse-
crated to the conunemoration of the Passion of our Kedeemor. In En^^hiliiue, it is

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Hulfrood "^^

al80 called " Passion Week '* (a name appropriated, f n Roman use, to the week bo-
fore Palm Sauday). This imititatiou is of very early origin, and ttie name Holy
Week is but one of many by which its sacred character basbeeu described. It was
also called the '* Qreat Week,'* the *< Silent Wee)E,» the *'Week of the Holy Pas-
sion," the '* Vacant Week/' the ** Penitential Week." In the Roman Catholic Chorch,
tlie special characteristics of the cclcbrntion of the Holy Week are increased solemnity
and gloom, penitential rigor, and monmins. If any of the ordinary charoh festi-
vals fall therein, it is transferred till after Baster. All iustsamentai music is sus-
pended in tlie churches, the altars are stripped of their ornaments, the pictures and
statues are veiled from public sight ; maniud labor, although It is no longer entirely
prohibited, is by n)any persons voluntarily suspendtnl : the rigor of fasting is re-
doubled, and alms-deeds and other works of raerttv sedulouslv enjoined and practised.
All church services of the week, moreover, breathe the spirit of monmine, some of
them l>c>ing specially devoted to the commemoration of portlcnlar scenes In the Pas-
sio* of our Lord. The days thus specially solemnised are Palm Sunday, Spy Wednes-
day, Holy (or Manndv) Thursday, Good Friday (4. v.), Holy Saturday. Holy Thurs-
day (called also Mauudr Thnrsaay, from Jfamtatum, the first word in one of tlie
church services of the day), in the Romau Catholic Church, is specially designed as a
commemorat Ion of the Lust Supper, and of the institution of the Eucharist Bat there
are several other services annexed to the dar, as the solemn consecration of the oil or
chrlem used In baptism, confirmation, orders, and extreme unction, the washing of
pilgrims' feet, and the tenebne. To Holy Saturday belongs the solemn blessing of
fire and of the water of the baptismal font; and from the earliest times, it was set
apart for the baptism of catechumens, and for the ordination of candidates for llio
occlesUstical ministry. From the fire solemnly blessed on this day is ligtited the
Paschal Light, which is regarded as a symbol of ^hrist risen from the dead, litis
symbolicaUignt is kept burning doring the reading of the gospel at mass through-
out tlie interval between Easter and Pentecost See Wetser's ** Kirchen-Lcxicon,**
art *' Charwoche." It must be added, however, that in many instances the primi-
tive institution of the Holy Week was perverie(i, and that the suspension of labor,
which was originally desired for purposes of devotion and recollection, was turned
into an occasion of amusement not unfrequentiv of a very questionable character.
Such abases are now universally discountenanced by the ecclesiastical authorities.

In the Protestant communions there is no special solemnisation of the lioly
Week, with the exception of Qood Friday (q. v.), which Is observed In some cd

HO'LTHEAD, a seaport, parilamentary boroogfa, and market-town of Nortli
Wales, in the county of Anglesea. is situated on a small island of the same name,
S43^ miles west-north-west of Baneor, and 27S miles north-west of LondoOk
Although recently much improved, it is still a primitive, irregalarly bnllt town. It
is the station of the mail steam-packets to Dublin, from which it is distant aboat
09 mile!*. The harbor of H.« which is almost dry at low tide, is formed bv a pier
about 1030 feet in length, running north-east from an islet called Salt Island, which
is connected with the mainland by a swivel-bridse. Few manufactures Are carried
onliere. Pop. (1871) 5916, who are employed in the coasting- trade, and in shin-
bnildiug and rope-making. The fine harbor of refuge enck>ses an area of aboat 4M
acres, and Is protected by a breakwater 7860 feet in length ; seven million tons of
stones were used In this work. H. nnites with Amlwch, Beaumaris, and Llangefni
in sending a member to the House of Commons.

HOLYHEAD ISLAND, a small Island of Korth Wales, lies vipA of the island of
Anglesea, and forms part of the county of that name. Its greatest length is -seven
anda half miles, and its greatest nreadth about three and a half miles. Area,
about 6000 sq. acres; pop. (1871) 8596. H. I. is separated from Anglesea lur a nar-
row sandy strait crossed by the Holyhead Road and the Chester and Holyhead

admit of the passuse of the water. Tlie island, which comprises some good
posiure-Kronnd for slieep, as well as a proportion of arable land, is for the most
part rocKy and barren. On the north-west coast are two Islets, the Nortli and
"" t twenty


Sonth Stacks, the latter with a light-lionse, the light of which Is visible at twenty
miles' distance. The South Stock is connected with the island of H. by a «

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661 S°!^'»~5

^^* Hoi} rood

slon-brldge. The Stacks aod the nonn coast ot the Island of 11. are hollow^ out
br the action of thu sea into maffniflcent caves, which are the haont of iiinninera-
blc sea-fowl. Friucipal town, Holyhead (q. v.).

UOTYROOD. Ill the year 1188, King ^avid I. of Scotland founded nt Edin-
burgh an abbey of canons reguhir, of the order of St Angnnthie. It was dcclictiicd
in honor of the Holy Cro9s or Rood, which was brought to Scotlnnd bv St. llur-

Siret about the year 1070, and became one of the hdrlooras of the kingdom. Thb
LACK Koou OP Scon^KD (q. v.), as it was culled, fell into ihe hands of the Bug-
Hull ut the battle of Neville'n Cro(*s in 1846, and tis Its history passed from remero-
bnince, a fable spmug np telling how King David was prevailed upon by hin young
nobles to go a hunting on the solemn festival, by which the church yearly com-
memorated the fludiiig of the Holy Cross at Jcrasiilem ; how the chase Iny tiirougb
the forest, whicli in those days encircled Arthur Scat, and stretched almost to tlio
gates of Edinburgh ; how the king, in ptirsult of a wild hart, outrode all his com-
panions: how at the foot of Salisbury Crags the hart turned to bay, and overthrew
the king's horm;; how as it rushed ut the kinff, threatening him with instant de:tth,
a cross, as if from between its antlers, miraculously slid Into the king's hands ; how
at the sight of It the hart fled and vanished ; and how the kinjr, warned py a vision
in Ills sleep, resolved to build a monastery in honor of the Holy Rood on the spot
where his life had been so ])reternatun»lly saved. When tlils legend wos invented,
apparently about the year 1420, it had been forgotten that the flrt^t site of the abbey
was not ai the foot of Salisbury Crags, but within the walls of the castle, whence It
wns not flnally removed until after the year 1174 to the eastern extremity of the Canon-
gate, as the little buruh came to be called, which the canons erected between theif
abbey and the king's* burgh of Edinburgh. The abbey was burned by the English
in 18S9. In 1644, and in 154T. Before it could be restoied after these last conflngra-
tions, the Reformation arrived, when the ruins of the choir and tninsepts wire
taken down to repair the nave. Tliirt was used os the parish church of the Canon-
giite from about 16iM till 1678, when It was tnmcd into the chapel-royul. In 168T,
King James VII., having built another parish church for the Canonrute, set thu
nave of th« abbey clinrcu apart for the Roman Catholic service, and had It fitted up
with stalls for the Knights of tlio lliistle. It w as plundered and burned by the moo
at the Revohitloo in 16S8, and remained In neglect until 1768. In that yeor It was
repaired and rpofedv but the roof was too heavy for the walls, and it fell In 1763,
crushing the pillars of the north aisle, and otherwise injuring the buildinfr.

The abbey of H. early became the occasional abode of the Scottlsii kings. John
Belliol held a parliament within its walls in 1S96. James II. was b«)ni In it, crowned
in it, nMiirlefl in it, buried In it. The foundations of a ]>iilace, apart from theab1>ey,
were laid by James IV., whose splendid nuptials with the Princess Margaret of Eng-
land were celebrated in 1608. Edinburgh hnd now become the acknowledged cnpltul
of Scotland, and U. henceforth was the chief seat of the Scottish sovereigns. Queen
Mai-y took up her abode in the puluce when she returned from France In 1661.
Here, in 1566. Rizzio was torn from her side, and murdered. Her son. King James
VI.. dwelt much in H. before his accession to the throne of England in 1608. He
revisited it in 1617. It was garrisoned by Cromwell's troops after the battle of Dun-
bar in 1650, when the greater part of It was burned down. It was rebuilt by King
Charles II., from the designs of Sir William Bruce of Kinross, between ltf71 and
1679. In 1746 and 1746, it was occupied In succession by Prince Charles Edward,
and by the Duke of Cumberland. It sheltered the Count d'Artois (aftenvaids King
Charles X. of France) from 17»6 to 1799, and again from 1831 to 1886. King George
IV. held his court in it In 1822. Since that time much has been done to make it a
suitable residence for the sovereign, and until lately Queen Victoria visited it almost
erery summer.

The oldest part of the palace Is the north-west tower, founded by King Jiimes
IV. about 1300. and completed by his son. King James Y., who died in 1642. It was
somewhat mooemised In 1671—1679; ana the roofs. If not the floors also, were re*
pewed by King Charles L (1626—1649), whoso cipher they bear ; but otherwise tlic
disposition of the rooms seems to be much the same as in the days of Queen Mary.
It need scarcely be adde<l, that the furniture is much more recent, and that the arti-
cles shewn 9m relics of Mary and her court are wholly spurious.

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The palace, with M% precincts and pnk, is a sanctnary for debtors. In Bngtand,
t]ie same privilege extends to roynl palaces to thin extent, that no writ of leffal pro-
cosB cau lie executed witliin tlieir bounds; bat this practically is only a protection
to tho^ewaots of the pulaco; and no means exist for insolrent persons taking lodg-
ing In a priyileged place there or elsewliere, and avoiding imprisonment, in so sys-
tematic a way as is competent to residents within the precincts of Holyrood Pfthice,
where there is ample accommodation. The precincts comprehend the adjoining
park and the hills of Arthur's Sent and Salisnnry Crags. Refugee debtors mns^t
procure a certiflcate of protection within twenty-foar boars from the proper official
within tiie bounds. Taking refuge within U»e SBBctuarv is considered disreputa-
ble, and from this cause, as well ns from recent meliorations in the laws affecting
debtors, the practice is grentlv fallen off. It is to be added, that the sanctuary of
Holyrood shelters debtors to the crown.

nO'LYWBLU a municipal and parliamentary borough, and market-town of
North Wales, in the county of Flint, and Ayi miles north-west of the town of tliat
name, is situated on an eminence on the line of the Holvhcad and Chciiiter Railway,
and near the south-western shore of the estuary of the Dee. It is the centre of an
Immensely valuable mineral district and is the seat of numerous establishments for
lead and copper smelting, mauufuctnrlng shot, zinc, Ac There are also manufac-
tures of cottons, flannels, and galloons, paper, and Roman cement; coal imd lead
mines, and limestone qua^rie^ are worked. This boroueh nniics with those of
Flint, Mold, Ac, in returning a mem<>er to parliament Pop. (1871) TiHil.

H. is now one the moat Important nud llonrishing towns of North Wales. It
owes its origin to the renowned Well of St Winifred, which is estimated to
deliver twenty-one tons of water per minute, and is said to be the most copious
B!)ring in Britain. Its waters were at one time believed to be efficacious in curing
diseases, and wore visited by great numbers of pilgrims.

HO'MAGB is the service or show of respect dno from a knight or vassal to his
lord in feudal times. The word is derived from the form of expression used in doing
the Rervicc. which was-^ao deoeigne voatre Aome—I become your roan. Since the
a>K>'itlon of tenures, the word lias no substantial legal meaning in the law of
England, except in a limited sense as to copyholds, to denote the kind of acknowl-
edgment made by a tenant to the lord of the manor. The homage jury consisted of
the tenants who did homa:;e, and their presence was necessary to attest some acts.
Homofjinm reddere was the expression, now obsolete, signifying a solemn renuncia-
tion of liomage or fealty to the lord, and a defiance of hiin. The word homage Is not
use<l in Scotcli law, though the feudal system is not olMK)lcte in Scotland m many
other respects.

HOMALCPTERA (Gr. level -winged), the name given by some entomologists to
a smal! order of insects, which has oeen more generally regarded as a division of
the order Diptera, The H. have also been called Pitptpara, from the remarkable
circumstance that the larv« are hatched within the body of the mother, and remain
there till they have passed into the nupa stale. Some of the H. are wingless. Ex-
amples of this order are found in the Forest Fly (q. v.), and in those extraordinary
parasites of bats called Nycterihia. All the H. are parasites.

HO'MBURG VOR DER HOHE, a pleasant little town In the province of Hesse-
Nass m, Germany, is situated at the foot of the Taunus Monntalns, nine milea
north-west of Frankfurt-ou-the-Main. It has beautiful environs, and is much fro-
qnented on account of its mineral waters and, until recently, gambling-saloons.
The waters are considered very effective in coses of disordered iTver ana stomach.
They arc live In numlier, and one of them, the Elizabeth^ contains more car-
bonic acid than anysuline spa known. About 400.000 bottles of the " waters " of
H. are annually sent away. Pop. (1871) 8626; (1876) 88M.

HOME, Henry (Lord Karnes), an eminent Scottish lawyer and author, was bom
in 1696 at Kames, In Berwiclcsldre. Destined by his friends for the Isw, he was
apprenticed in 1718 to a writer to the signet; but he afterwards decided on adopting
the highest branch of his profession, and qualified himself for it mainly by private
reading and attendance at the courts. Entering the bar in 17S8, he was raised to the
bench in February 1762, assuming the title of Lord Kames^aud was made one of the

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"^^ Homer

Lords of JnstfclRry In 176S. He died «Tth December 1T82. In 1728, he pnblfphrd
•' Remarkable DcclsJons of the Court of ScspIod from 1716 to 1728." The mnteri::)s
of this work were in 1741 embodied in his ** Dictionaiyof the I)eclf>ionB of tlie Court
of SeMion '* dnriug its whole hiatory, which, thongh now unper&eded, >ras of erent
life to lawyers at the time, and was thon^lit worthy of being continnod by Lord
Woodhouselee. He Is best known, liowever, by bis **E}»8ays on the Principles of
Jdoiality and Natural Religion" (1751), containing a solution of the qneKtIon of
human freedom, which brouglit on him the suftpiciou of inlldelfty, and rniscd consid-
erable controversy In the courts of the chnrch and through the press; his " Introdnc-
tion to the Art of Thinking " (1761) ; and- abore all, his celebrated " Principles
of Criticism," the work on which his fame now cliiefly rests. In 1773 Appeared his
••Sketches of theHlstoryof Man,'* which may be found entertaining, but are now
of very little scientific value. Thongh thus husily occupied i*ith judicial and literary
labors, he took a very active interest in agriculture ard commerce, and wrote a use-
ful triict on the former, entitled **Tho Oentlemnn Farmer, being an Atrempt to
improve Agriculture by subjecting It to the Test of Rational Principles.'' His
lafet work, '* Loose l^ionghts on Educntion" (1781), was written in his 86th year.
Sec Lord Woodhouselee's ** Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Home " (2 vols. 4to,
Edln. 1807).

HOME, John, a Scotch clergyman and dramatist, was bom In 1722. He studied
for tijo chnrch, and was appolnled to the parish of Athelstaneford, where he wrote
his tragedy of " Donglas," which was acted in Edinburgh.and received wllh the utmost
«nihntiasm. The production of this piece gave great offence to his clerlcnl brethren,
and he was finally compelled to retire from the ministry. He retired Into England,
where he obtaiuetl the protection of the Earl of Bute, and received a pension. His
other dramatic works are ''Agis," "Aquileia," "The Fatal Discovery^' and.
♦* Alonao." every line of which has departed from the memory of mankind. He'
died in 1808.

It is difficult now to understand the enthusiasm with which *♦ Doucrlns" wns first
greeted. It wns praised by men of ail ranks, and Burns— who should have known

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 128 of 196)