James Orr.

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debt, which had dwindled to £15,025, and it now pays £;iaO,000 a year as military
contribution to the imperial exchequer.

In »pltc of the great increase in recent years of the direct trade with the various
treaty porU*, the progress of II. bos been steady, nnd there is every probability of
its maintaining its peculiar position of Influence in the Chinese trade. In 1811 it
was placed in telegraphic communicntion with England, and In its recent legisla-
tive action it has shown vitality and enterprise. The gambling practices which
prevailed here, as tliev still do in many Chlnpi»e towns, have been vigorously sup-
pressed, and the difnculties arising from tlio sudden development of the coolie
emigration kiave been overcome. , ^

nO'NITON, a small market town and municipal borough of England, In the
county of Devon, is beautifully situated in a graceful and highly cultivated valley,
near the left bank of the Otter, 16 miles north-east of Exeter. The old church con-
tains a ligljt and elegant oak screen, erected In \4»i by Courtenay, bishop of Exe-
ter. H. has long been famous for the lace, called from the town In which It Is the
chief branch of manufacture, *' Honiton Lace." This lace is made by hand on a
plUaw; its manufacture was Introduced into England by the Lollsrds during the
reijjn of Elizabeth. The vale of Honiton Is famous for its butter. Pop. (1871)
ZiM. U. was formerly a parliamentary borough, and returned two members to the
House of Commons, but It was disfranchised in 1868.

HONOLU'LU, a seaport In lat. 81<) 18' n., and lone. 197° SS' w., on the sonth-
western or leaward coast of Ooahn, one of the Sandwicn Islands (q. t.), is perhaps
the only spot in Polynesia that can fairly claim to be reckoned as an integral part of
the world of commerce and clTillsatioo. Being the seat of govemmeot, as well ns
the centre of trade, it is. in every sense, the raetropolfB of its own group, which is
at once the largest and the most important of all the kindred clusters. But beyond
this, its intriusic advantages, and the absence, or at lesst the distance, of rivals
along the surrounding waters, in any direction, hove combined to render It an en-
trepot between the opposite shores of the Paciflc Besides attracting numbers of
whalers for repairs and supplies, H. occupies a most qonvenient position on each of
the three great thoroughfares of its own giant ocenn. Though Ooahn, in common
with the rest of the chain, is evidently of volcanic formation, yet the reef, which
forms the breakwater of the harbor of H., is of coral formation. The temperature
of the town ranges between 67°i^ in January, nnd 8S^'8 in Auirnst ; so that, ronglily
computed, the annual mean Is TS^-SS, with a divergence in either direction of only
7***6ft. The tropical heat is modified by perlodiau north-casters. The population,
numbering fully 90,000, consists chiefly of natives, the foreiflm element of it count-
ing about a tenth, and of these a eood mony are uatnralised subjects from the
United States of America. H. is visited annually by about 800 vessels of various
sizes, many of them being whalers. This mart of trafllc has, for seventy years,
nialntaiued the tmity, aucLtfarough the unity, the peace of the once Independent
and hostile tribes of the Hawaiian Archipelago. In H. are to be found consuls
from the United States, Chill, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Germany, Bussia,
Sweden, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Austria, and Pern.

HONORA'RIUM, a term sometimes used to denote the fees payable to counsel
or physicians, because they were presumed to be given as a present and paid bcfore-
hsnd, nnd not on the vulgar theonr of payment for services rendered. The legal
effect which followed was, that neither counsel nor physicians, If not paid tlieir fees
beforehand, could bring an octlon ngninst the client to recover them. This is still
the case In the United Kingdom as to counsel, but not as to registered physicians,
who can now recover their fees by action. The law as to how far a counsel can
validly make a special agreement for a fixed sum, and sne for It, has been fully dis-
cussed in England In the case of Kennedy v. Brown, but has not yet been decided.

nONO'RIUS, Flavins, second son of Tbeodosins the Great, was bom, according
to the best authorities, 9th September, 384 a.d. On the death of his father, the em-
pire was divided into two parts, H. receiving the westeni half, with Rome as his
capital ; but being only ten years old. was put under the gnsrdlanahip of Stilicho
(q. v.), w!io was all his life the de/atio ruler of the Western Empire. H. fin't took
up Ills residence at Milan, where in 899 ▲.!). he married Maria, the daughter of Still-

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wirh the German tnbes who dwelt on the RhlDe aud Upper Dauube ; the risorons

t persecution of pajmnfem iu 399; aud the devastation of Northern Italy bv Alaincnnd
lis Yistigotlis 111 400—403. Stiliclio was then Iu Gennuny, bat ou his return he
epeedily cleared the country of the invadens after totally defeating them at Polleutia
(karch 403). Another irruption of barbnriaus. under RliadaKai0n!>, took pbico in
403—406, which wasagaiu i-epelled by the powerful arm of Slilicho. Nevertheless, this
brave soldier and able minuiter lost the favor of his weak aud worthless master,
and was treacherontsly slain at Ravenna, 406 a.d. Alaric was not slow to take ad-
vantage of the opportunity afforded hlni. In 408 A.D., ho Invaded Italy, and be-

sieged Rome, which only escaped on payment of a heavy ransom; aud in the fol-
lowing year he asuiu besieged and toolc it, raising Attnlus to the imperial pnrpi^
The death of thelnvader in 410 a.d., after having a third time besieged Rome, again
freed Italy. A new champion of the falling empire arofc in the person of Coustan-
tius, who suppressed the rebellions of Coustautlue, Jovinus, aud Sallnstlus in the
uortliern provinces, and of Heraclian in Africa, He was now appointed the col-
leagne of u. In the consulship, and received iu inarriiize the hand of Placidia, sister
to U., along with, a share In the empire, which he did not long enjoy, as his death
took place a few months after. The Gothic and German tribes had for some time
been slowly but steadily encroaching upon the Western Empire, and H.'s reign saw
Snain, Gaol, aud Panuonia, some of the finest provinces, snatched from its grasp.
He died 87th August 423. H.'s character presents few salient points. He Wiis weak
and foolish, and when excited by fear or jealousy, cruel and treacherous, a trait well
brought out in bis treatment of Stilicho and Coustantiuc.

HONORIUS, the name of fonr popes.— Honorius I., has been the subject of
macli coutroversv, not alone l)etween Catholics aud Protestants, but also between
the Qallican and Ultramontane schools of Catholics themselves. He was bom of a
consular family In Campania. Of his early history, little is known, except that ho
took an active part in bringing to a close the disputes which arose iu Northern
Italy about the controversy of the Three Chapters (q. v.). On the death of Boniface
v., in 623, he was elected Bishop of Rome. His general administration of church
affairs has been favorably jpdged by historians; and bis name is especially con-
nected Willi the history of tlie paschal controversy in Ireland, and with that of the
early Anglo-Saxon Church. But his pontificate Is particularly memorable on ac-
count of the Monothelistic heresy. Sea Monothblism. H. Is connected there with
rather ueKativcly. than by any i>ositIve parilclpatlon. In the dissemination of the
Monothente doctrine. While the controversy was yet new In the West, Serglns,
Patriarch of Constantinople, wrote to H., to explain the Monothelistic doctrines in
the most favorable light, and to suggest that It would be most desirable to impose
silence on both parties, In a dispute which really did not affect the substance of the
Catholic doctrine. H., misled it is alleged by this statement of Serglns, consented,
aud even expressed himself In language which would appear to condemn the doc-
trine of two wills iu Christ. The Catholic historians, however, maintain that in
thus diaclaimlus the belief of two wills In Christ, H. merely denied the existence iu
Clirist of two discordant or confiicting wills, that Is, of a comipttmd vinful hutMin
will oppnse<l to the divine wIlL It Is not easy, perhaps, to reconcile this with the
decree of the sixth general council, in which H. is anathematised In company with
many others, ol whose heterodoxy there can be no doubt. But the defenders of H.
reply, that although the sixth council certiiiiily docs include H. In one common cou-
demuatlon with u group of heretical teachers, yet the explanation appended to the
condemuation of tne former, viz., that *Mio had not by the exercise of his apostolic
authority exlingulshc<l the rising fiamo of heresy, but by neglecting it, favored its
progress," clearly alludes to the error of judgment duscribed above, by which, al-
though himself personally orthodox, he enjoined silence ou the controversy at a time
when a more far-sighted ruler would have felt It his duty to Interfere by a clear and
explicit declaration. On the whole, they maintain that, however H. may be his Im-
prudent silence have compromised the Interests of orthodoxy, he did not put forth
any such dogmatic declaration as cjin fairly be regarded, whether by Protestants or
by Galileans, as irreconcilable with the strict ultramontane doctrine of infallibility,
iuasmuch as Uiat doctrine contemplates the pope as ** speaking from the apostolic

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chair.*' H. died In 688. Some letters of his are preserved in Labbe's " ColL Con-
dlioram," vol. iii.

HONOR, Acceptance for, a phrase used iu the law of billo of pxchBus;e, to de-
note that A stranger volunteers to accept a bill ont of respect tu ii foreien party is-
sniiig the bill to persons in this country, who refuse to accept, iu wbicn case the
stiauger accepting, incurs certain responsibilities.

HO'NORABIiE, Right Honorable, and Most Honorable, titles given in the
United KInedom to Peers, their families, and persons holding certoin public situa-
tions. A Marquis or Marchioness is styled Most Honorable, a Peer (temporal) or
Peeress of a lower grade, whether by right or by courtesjT, ts Right Honorable. The
title Right Honorable is also bestowed on the younger sons of Dukes and Marquises,
and their wives ; and on all the daughters of Dukes, Marquises, and Earls ; and Hon-
orable on the vonnger sons of Earls, and all the children of Viscounts and Barons.
Priv}- Councillors, the Lords Mayor of London. York, and Dublin, the Lord Advo-
cate of Scotland, and the Lord Provost of £dinbui]gh, are also entitled to the prefix
Right Honorable ; and Maids of Honor, Lords of Session, the Supreme Judges of
Buglaiid and Ireland, to that of Honorable. Members or the House of Commons,
though Honorable is not prefixed to their names, are dlstingalshed m the ** Honor-
able member for ," and the Bast India Company has been held entitled to the

same prefix. In America, the characteristic love of title has been shewn iu the
practice of attaching Honorable to the names of governors of states, judges, mem-
bers of congress, and other public functionaries.

HONORABLE ORDINARIES, in Heraldry. See Obdikabrs.

HONORS, Military and Naval. See Salutbs.

HONORS OF WAR, the term used to express the privileges allowed to a garri-
son surrendering, either in consideration of a brave defence, or from some other
cause. Many degrees of honor may be paid to a vanquished enemy, accoi^ding to
the generosity or judgment of the victorious commander-in-chief. In some cases,
the garrison is allowed to march out with all its iirnip, drums beating, colors flying,
&c ; at another time, the conquered force will only be permitted to advance silently
to the front of their works, there to ground or pile arms, and then, facing about,
to return to their lines as prisoners of war. Occasionally, the capitulation will pro-
vide that the garrison shall de})08it their arms and warlike stores at some specified
spot, and then march on to their own territory on parole of not serving dunng tlie
existing war against their victors or their allies.

HONTHBIM, John Nicholas von, was bom at Treves In 1701. He was educated
In the Jesuit school of his native city, studied canon law at Lonvalu nnder the cele-
brated Van Espen. and afterwards taught it for ten years at Treves, of which sec lie
became coadjutor in 1748, with the title of bishop in parlilnu inideiitwt. He la the
author of two voluminous works on the history of Treves, ** Historia Trevircnsis
Diplomatica" (8 vols, fol., 1760), and *<Prodromus Hist Trevirensis'* (% vols, fol-
1797). But his literary career is chiefly memorable for a theological essay, which,
although with very mean pretensions to learning, by the novelty and boldness of its
views, created an immense sensation in the thcolc^cul world, llio title of this
work, which was in Latin, and dedicated to Pope Clement XIII.. Is **Ou the State of
the Chnrch and on the Legitimate Anihority of the Roman Pontiff," a work com-
posed with a view to the reunion of Christian sects, 'ilie name of the author was
for a long time unknown, tlie work being published nnder tUs non de plume of Jns-
tinns Febronlus (a name said to be taken from that of H.'s niece, who was called
Jostina Febronia), whence the system of church government which the work pro-
pounds nas been called Febroiiiauism (q. v.). His scheme may be described as a
very exaggerated form of Gallicanism, with the democratic element of congrega-
tioimlisni superadded. The work immediately after its sppearanoe was condemned
by Clement XIIL, as well ns by many individual bishons. It drew forth a number
of replies, the most important of which ni-e those of Zaccaria (1767) and Ballerini
(1768). Pius VL, in 1778, required from H. a retractation of these doctrines. This
retractatk>n, however, was modified by a subsequent "Commentary," published at
Frankfurt iu 1781, to which, at the desire of tb« pope, Cardlool Oeniil replied. H.

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«Teotn«nj mndo fnll mbminion to tbe cbarch. He died )u hf 8 fOth year, at Mont-
giihiten iu Laxcinbarg. Sm)lcinber 2, 1790.— Soa Meuzel's *^ Neaere Qeschiete der
I>ent0cbcn," xi. 456, und foil.

HONVfeD (Land-defenden), th« name gtyen Id Hiroffaiy under tbc eariler kings
to the uational cbainpioDa. With the disappearance of these, tbe word too dirap-
peared ; l)Qt in the eaininer of lS481t was revived, and applied -flrat to thoee Hnuncr-
lan voluutecra despatched to the south againet the Serviaua, and sobeeqaently, when
the war with Austria really commenced, to the whole patriotic army. Biuce the
reconstitotion of Austrian afi&iirs after 18««w the name H. has been given totboLaud-
wchr of the Hungarian portion of the empire. *

HOO'BLY, a town of Dharwar (q. v,), in the presidency of Bombay, stands in lat
15^ 20 n., and Jong. IS*" 18' e. It contains (187^ S7,961 inhabitants, and is one of ibe
principal cotton-marts in that section of India. A good road has been constructed
to the Malabar coast, by which tbe raw cotton of the neighborhood is eaaily and
cheaply transported for sbipmenL

HOOD, Robin, the hero of several old ballads and traditionary stories, which gen-
erally represent him as an outlaw and a robber, but of a gallant and eenerous nature,
haunting the depths of Sherwood Forest, Nottinghamshire, and of ^msdale Forest,
Torkshlre, in an eariy era of Buglisb historr, which it has hitherto been customary
to fix in tbe IS; h century. The earliest authentic notice of him is in tbe ** Vision of
Piers Ploughman," a_poem diiting from between 1855 and 13«5: "rhymes of Kobiu
Hootl and Knndolph Barl of Chester " are there alluded to. About 14»5, Wyukyu do
Worde printed a poem of considerable length, entitled *» Tbe Lytel Qeste of Kobyn
Hood "—apparently a series of rude popular ballads strung togctlier, being prolmbly
a modification of the '* rhymes " spoken of in Piers PlonfrhcinD. Thus we seeevidence
for a considerable antiquity to the ballads commemoratiug Kobiu H., a collection of
which filled two little volnmes printed by Kitson in lT9fi>. It is also certain that, in
tbe early piirt of the 16th c, there was a wide-sproad celebration of annual rustic
sports and masqueradings, under the name of the " Robhi Hood Games," in which the
deeds of the hero, and of his companions, Little John, Friar Tuck, &Cj and of his
sylvan mistress. Maid Marian, were represented. Tliese even extended to Scotland,
where the Beformers had some dif&cnity in putting tlicm down. In the ballads
and games alike. Robin was always exhibited as a valiant man out of suits with for-
tune, u^ving to tno poor much of what be took from the rich, nnost skilful wfth the
long bow and the quarter-staff, and almost uufixiliugly victorious iu personal eo-
couuters with whatsoever opponent.

In addition to these evidences of the existence of such a hcro^ we most remark
that bis grave has for ages been pointed to in Kirklees Park, Yorkshire, marked by
B flat stone on which was carved a flowery cross.

While there could belittle doubt that some such predatory outlaw as Robh> H.
oncaexisted, and that be was of a character toexcite, generally speaking, the affec-
tions rathi'r than the reprobation of the peo[>le, there was a sad want of documen-
tary evidence regarding him, nntil the publication of a tract by the Rev. Joseph
Hunter Jn 1853. In this brochnrt^ it \» first shewn that one of the Itallads represents
Robin as going, by the invitation of *' Bdward, our comely king," to meet him at
Nottingham ; as there accepting service with bis majesty ; and as accompanying him
to conrt ; where, however, necoming sick almost to death with that kind of life, be
did not remain above 15 months ; after which he retired, and resumed his wonted
free and jovial life in tbe forest. Mr Hunter then proceeds to shew that King Ed-
ward II. in 1&28 made a profnness through tbe western and midland counties, hi the
cotu-se of which became (November 9) to Nottingham; that in the exchequer ac-
counts between March and November of the ensnfiig year, among the names of M
**porteur8" of the king, to whom wages were pold, occur those of **Robyn and
Bymon Hod ; " and thai finally, at the latter date occurs an entry—" Robyn Hod,
heretofore one of tt»o pMlears, because he could no longer work, received as a gift,
by command, &«. ;" the name from this time appearing no more. Mr Hunter likewise
ascertained that, at a date six years antecedent to the royal progress above men-
tioned, the name of '* Robertas Hood " is found in tbe court-rolls of tike manor of
Wakefield, as that of defender In a suit regarding a small piece of land. Tbe pro*
babiiity therefore is, that Robin H. lived and acted as tbc ballads represent him only

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a t«w years before the era of Piere Ploughman, and r^Iy paMed from wild fon^t
life Into the royal service for a brief space— au udventaru wliich might uppearos the
most incredible attributed to him, if we did not know something of the whimsical
and puerile character of Edward II., which was such that he dM not disdain occa-
sionally to seetc amusement in playing at chuclc-fartliing uith his servants. Mr
Hanter further deemed it likely that H. was one of the yeomen wlio joined the dis-
contented burons ni'der the Earl of Lancaster, and were rained by tlie failure of
their enterprise. If so» liis life in tlie forest might be rather a sort of guerilla war-
fare tiian a practice of simple rapine; and hence it might, in some measure arise
that the **gi-sts " of Kobin U. became the subject of so much romantic and affec-
tionate sentiment on the part of the community.

HOOD, Thomas, was bom In Loudon in 1796, and after leaving school was placed
in the couutingwhouse of a Russian merchant, but his health falling, lie wtis sent to
Dundee. At the age of 17, he returned to London, and engaged hirastrlf to learn the
art of engraving with his uncle. In 18t{l, he was offered the post of sab-editor of the
** London Magazine,'* which he accepted, and at once entered upon its duties and au
extensive literary acquaintance. Ills first separate pnblicatiofi was entitled '^Odes
and Addresses to Great People." He published " Whims and Oddities" in 1826, of
which s secoitd and lliird series appeared during the two following years. In 1829,
he commenced "The Comic Annual," and continued It for uln« years. He edit<'d
"The Gem" for one year, contri bating to its pages bis striking ).x>em entitled
** Eu<;ene Aram's Dream." In 1831 he went to reside at Wanstead m Esnex, where
he wrote his novel of ** TjTiley Hall ;" but pecuniary difficulties supervening, he re-
turned to London I u 1835. Ill 1888, he commenced the pnblicatiou of *• Hood's
Own," to wliich his portrait was attached. Health falling about this time, he went
to reside on the continent, and remained six years. In 1889, he published ** Up the
Rhine," tlie idea of which was taken from '•Humphry Clinker." On his return to
Enghmd, he bocaine the editor of '* Tlie New Monthly Magadne," and on his with-
drawal from its management In 1843. he iHibllfhed ** Whimsicalities," consistiug
chiefly of his contributions to that serial. In 1844, he started '* Hood's Magazine,"
and contributed to its pages till within a month of his death. During his last illness.
Sir Robert Pt-el conferred on him a iwnsion of XlOO a year, which was transferred
to his wife. Httdied on the 8d May 1845, and was buried in Keiisall Green Ceme-
t«ry. Compare "Memorials of Thomas Hood, Collfcted, Ajranged, and Edited by
his OanghttT, with a Preface and Notes by his Son " (« vols. iseo).

H. takes a high nlace both as a humorist and as a serious poet. He is great at
once in comedy ana pathos, and be sometimes curiouHy mingles and combines both.
Asa pnnstiT, he waB supreme: he connects far-separated words and ideas by the
moj't subtle analogies, and sends tlum loose. Much of his comedy, however, is
verbal and shallow, and wUl be soon forgotten. It Is as a poet that H. will lie re-
membeied. His ** Eugene Aram's Dream," »»Song of the Shiit." and ** Bridge of
Sighs," are among the most perfect ]x>em« of their kind in the English language.

HOOD, Viscount (Samuel Hood), English admiral, was eldest son of the Rev. 8.
Hood, vicar of Thorncombe, Devonshire, at which place he was bom, 1784. At 16,
lie entered the royal navy, was made lieutenant In 1746, and post-captain in 1766.
In 1759, being in command of the VettaU 82 guns, he cuffaged a French 60-guu ship,
which no took after a desperate action of four hours. In 1777, he was made com-
Tiiissloner of Portsmouth dockyard, and next year received a baronetcy. He was
then made rear-admiral, was sent to the West Indies to reinforce Rodney, and com-
mande<l a division in the engagement with the Count de Grasse. April 12, 1788. He
was made a peer of Ireland by the title of Baron Hood. In 1798, he was made com-
mand<T-in-cnief of the Mediterranean fleet and took possession of the poit of Tou-
lon : bnt the French R*pnblican army, in great force, compelled him to evacuate it,
afier dei>lroyiii2 or carryilig away the principal part of the shipping, firing the
arsenal and public stores. He then sailed for Corsica, which, after a cam|)aign, h«
annexed to the crown of Great Brit Ian. In 1796. he was advanced to the rank of a
viscount of Great Britain, and made governor of Greenwich Hospital. He died at
Bath, January 27, 1816.— His younger brother, Alexander Hood, served as rear-
admiral niidcr Lord Howe, was second in command at Lord Howe's victory of the
1st June 1794, obtained a victory over the French fleet in 1795, and was made, iu
1796, Baron, and iu 1801, Viscount Bridport. He died in 1814.

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HOOD-MOULDING. See Dbipstonk.

HOOFS. (See Hornt Tiwubs.) The heaUhy soandncss of the home's foot fa
innliily prenerved by permitting It to t:row anlnjored by the raep and kiiUf (iH'e
Hobsb-shoeino), whilst its totichncss is secured, and andne dryness and evapora-
tion prevented, by smearing dally the cruM, sole and frog with a little glycrrhiy. or a
uiixtare made by melting together n quarter of a pound euch of tar, honey, heej«'-wux
and eiyceriue, with a pound of lard. Suttness and brittlenessof the hoof, which nre

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 132 of 196)