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fruitful sources of cracks and Corns (q. v.). may be remedied by the ivcular use of
duch drt^ssings, by placing tlie feet for hcverul hours dally in thick woollen swnl)s,
kept cool and moist by frequent applications of cold water, nud by eucuuraffiug a
more healthy growth of born by occasional mild blisters round the coronary oand.
Cnick», or sand-cracks as they are termed, mostly occur omonget hordes much upon
tlie road, cause lameness, anct constitute nnsoundueso. When serious and recent,
poulticing, thinning away of the crust at)out tlie crack, and perfect refit are eosential.
After the earlier heat ana tenderness are removed, a hot iron should be drawn at
right ang'es to the crack, ))oth alx)ve and below, so as to separate the disea.«ed from
the sound horn. Waxed thread or fine wire should be wound round the hoof, and
a f>onnd growth of horn stimulated by a blister round the corouet. The horse's hoofs
are too hard and coarse to lie employed for the making of thel>etter class of coinlM
and buttons, for which purpose the hoofs of cattle, to the value of nearly i^fiOUO, are
annually imported. They are, bowevcr, largely used by inaiiufucturerB of prussiate
of potash and artificial manures.

HOOFT, Pieter, a Dutch liistorian and poet, was bom at Amsterdam, 16th March
1681, studied at Leyden aHd travelled in Fraucc. Germany, and Italy. He died at
the Hague, May 21, 1647. The chief historical works of H. are *• llet Leven van
Koning H^'iulrlk I v." (Amst. 1626— 1C52), aud **Nedcrlund«:he Hlstorien" (S vols.
Amst. 1642— 1654 ; most recent edition, 1820—1828). The latter of thej-c is still of
the greatest value, and is considered one of tiie classics of Dutch literature. H.
also translated Tacitus into Dutch. As a poet, his "Mlnnedlgte" have not been
surpassed, if oven equalled, as spcciuieQ!i of the liirht Anacn»ontlc muse. His
** Lettei-s" were published by Huydecooper In 173S. H. has exercised an important
iufluoDce on the developmeui of the Dutch language.

HOO'GHLY, a river of Bengal Proper, is formed, in lat 28^ 25' n., and long.
8S'22'e., by the junction of the first two offsets of the Ganges, the Bhagmtti
and the Jelunghi. From the point in question, the stream, strictly so called, Is 126
miles long; the estuary, as far as Snngor Roads, measoring 85 miles more. Of ail
tiie channels by wliich the Qangcs reaches the sea, ttie H. Is the roost avaiUible for
navigation. In the dry season, the tide is felt nearly up to Cbandernagoro, 17 miles
al>ove Calcutta. During the south-west monsoon, the 11. is subject to the phenome-
non known as **TueBore " (q. v.). Un to Calcutta, the draught is seldom less than
17 feet ; but the bottom is said to bo silting up. At itseutiauce, too, the U. is much
eucuiubercd with shoals.

HOOQHLYy a city of Bengal Proper, stands on the right or western bank of the
river Hooghly. 27 miles north of Calcutta, in lat. 22^ 54' ii. and long. 88° 22' e. It
is estimated to contain (1871), along with Chinsnrafq. v.), 84,761 iniiabitants. Hero
is a college for Bngllsh and AMntic literature, which owes Its existence mainly to the
munificence of a native; it has sevi>ral schools allied with it. The district of
Hooglily, with Hownih, contains 1424 square miles, and a pop. (1871) of 1,488,656.

HOOK, Theodore Edward, a celebrate<l novelii«t and dramatic writer, was bom
in London, Septemlmr 2S. 1788. and educated at Harrow. In 1805, at the age of 17,
he produced an operatic farce collel the *' Soldier's Return," which was very suc-
cessful ; and between that year and 1811, he wrote twelve other operatic pieces oml
farces, all of which were popular at the time. His ready wit, sparkling hnmor, and
wonderful powers of improvisation, made him the delight of society ; and ha\ing
pleased the Prince Regent by his feata of mimicry, he was appointed (1818) acconut-
aiit-general and treasurer of the Mauritius, with a salary and allowances amounting
to nearly X2000 u year. Tliese offices he held till 1818, when the discovery of a con-
sldemblu deficiency in the military chest caused him to 1>c arrested and sent to Eng-
land, and ilia effecta seiised and sold. The peculation, it afterward* appeared, bad

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been committed by his deputy, who destroyed himnelf. Ou obtaioiDg hia Ubertr,
H. supported himeelf by writing fertile newspapers and magazines, and od the estab-
lishment of the ** John Bull," weelcly Tory newspaper, in 1820, he was appointed
Us editor. From hisi connection with this bo!d, clover, and at that time, viralent
print, he derived, during its prosperous state, fully jCSOOO a year. In August 1823,
for his debt to the government, amounting to about X12,000, he was arrested under
an Exchequer writ, snd his property sold. He remained within the Rules of the
Kihg*8 Bench till May 182S, when lie was released from cnstody. In 1824 appeared,
in 8 vol?. 8vo. the first series of his *^ Sayings and Doings,'* which yielded hiui X2000.
A second series followed in 1825, and a third in 1828, for each of which he received
1000 guineas. Several other tliree-voinmed novels were published by him in rapid
Buccet<8ion, such as ** Mnxwell," ISW) ; **Love and Pride." 1883; "Gilbert Gur-
ney," which contains a sort of antobiogranhy of himself, 1885 ; "Jack Brag," 1887 :
** Births, Deaths and Marriages," 1899 ; "Gnruey Married," 1889; &c He died
August 24, 1841.

HOOK, Rev. Walter Farquhar, D.D., son of the Rev. James Hoolc, Dean of
Worcester, uas born at Worcester about the beginning of the century, and educated
atChrist-Otinrcb, Oxford, where he graduated Tn 1821. After holding some minor

Erefenneuts in the church, he was appointed Vicar of Leeds in lS87,aud in 1869,
tean of Chichester. In 1850, tlie Bisbou of Ripon, on taking leave of the clergy
of his diocese, stated that 20 cburclies hau l>een built in Leeds through the exertiouH
of Dr H., while school-rooms had i)een provided for more tiiau 10,000 children.
Among his works ore " An Ecclesiastical Biography, containing tite Lives of Ancient
Fathers and Modem Divines" (8 vols. Lond. 1845—1852), *VA Church Dictionao' "
(Bih ed. 1359), ** Sermons Suggested by the Miracles of our Lord and Saviour Jesus
Christ " (2 vols. 1847), " On the Means of Rendoring more Effectual the Education
of the People " (10th ed. 1861), and ** Lives of the Archbisiiope of Canterbury." on
which he was working to the last, the eleventh volume, containing the lives of Lsnd
and Jnxon, appearing immediately after his dcatli, which took place in Oct. 1875.
He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1862.
HOO'KAH. See Pipb.

HOOKS, Robert, an English natural philosopher, born at Freshwater, Isle of
Wight, July 18, 1635, was edncated at Westmnister school, and at Christ-Cliurcb,
Oxford. In 1662 he was appointed curator of experiments to the Royal Society,
and In 1677 became its secretary ; in 1664, professor of geometry in Gresham College,
London ; and in 1666, surveyor for the city of Loudon, a most lucrative appoint-
ment. He died at Gresbam College, Marcii 8, 1708. H. was a man of extraordi-
nary inventive genius, and has justly been considered as the greatest of philosophi-
cal mechanics; the wonderful sagacity, nay, almost intuition, he shewed In deduc-
ing correct general laws from meagre premises, has never before or since been
equalled. There was no Important invention by any philosopher of that time which
was not in part anticlpatea by Hooke. His theory of gravitation subsequently
formed part of Newton's ; he anticipated the invention of the steam-engine, and
the discoveiy of the laws of the constrained motions of planets. Among iiia own
completed discoveries are. the law of the extension and compression of elastic
bodies, *' ut (en«ie sic iris ;" the simplest theory of the arch; the balance-spring of
watclies and the anchor-escapement clocks; the permanency of the temperature of
lioiiing water. The quadrant, telescope, and microscope are also materially in-
debted to him.

HOOKER, Richard, author of the Books of Ecclesiastical Polity, and one of
the most iilustrions of English theologians, was bom in the city of Exeter, or its
neighborhood, abont the year 1654. He was early distinguished for his " quick ap-
prehension of many perplext parts of learning," and attracted the notice of Jewell,
Bishop •f Salisbury, through whose influence he was sent to Oxford al)out his ISih
year. He was placed at Corpus Christl College. He was advanced first to the dig-
nl^ of scholar, and then of fellow of his college. After about tliree years' residence
in his college as fellow, he entered into sacred orders, and ere long was appointed
to preach at St Paul's Cross. Hither all the power and eloonence of the church
found their way in tlie 16th century. To H., nowever, the trial of such a pnblic ap-
pearance was evideutl;^ considerable, occordmg to Walton's account ; and the more

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M the weather proved Tonr nDfavorable for his joamey ; '* bat awftrm bedaod reet,
Aud driuk proper for a cold, given blm by Mrs Ghnrchman, and her diligent attend-
ance added nnto it, enabled him to perform the office of the day, which was on ortiboat
the year 1681.'! Mrs Chnrchman's kindness proved too mnch for the sinipio-miuded
theologian. He was led, evideutlv without dno consideration, into a marringe witli
her danghter. This marriage of li., as is known to all, was for from proving a sonrco
of happiness— n result that conid scarcely have been expected from lis coramence-
meut. Walton's description of the visit of his two old pnpils, Edwin Sandys and
George Cronnter, and ** Ricliard calh^d to rock the cradle ** from their compiny, is
among the most characteristic sketches of this fluo old writer. The visit
was made to Drayton-Beanchanip, in Buckinghamshire, where H. had settled
Jn 1584, as a country priest, after his marriage. He was transferred ere
Jong to the mastership of the IV-raple, by the patronage of Archbishop Whitgift; and
here he was plnnged Into the controversy with Parittinism, out of which bis great
work arose. Travers, one of I lie most zealous of the Elizabethan Purititus, was his
colieagne in the Temple. Travers was the more attractive and popahir orator, if
the less profound thinker. The union was not a bappv one. The congregation
** ebbed In the forenoon,'' Fuller tells ns, ** and flowed in the afternoon." **Pnro
Canterbury" was in the .nsccndant in the morning, ** Geneva" in the afternoon. H.
soon tired of the contention In the consrcnition, and the indifference of the majority
to his ministry. He accordingly applied to the archbishop, who presented him. in
the year 1691, to the rectory of Boi*cnm, in tlie diocese of Salisbury, and six miles
from that city. Here he remained for four years, busily employed with liia great
work, which his experience In the Temple prolrably prompted. The first four books
of the Ecclesiastical Polity appeared in 1694. lu the same year, ho was transfcnvd
to the living of Bishopshonie, near Canterbury, where he spent the few remaining
vears of his life, and gave to the world the flftii book of the Polity. The remaining
three l)00ks were posthnmons. About the year 1600, in tiie 46th year of bis at^, he
caueht cold in his passage from Loudon to Gravesend, aud gradually sunk under the
woaRness which followed.

H. will always l>e esteemed one of the most illnstrious thinkers and writers, not
only in English tlioology, but in English literature. Ho is alike comprehensive and
profound, tranquil audeloquent Ho is speculative without mysticism, and earnest
without declamation. He searches ail the depths and rises to all the heights of his
subject, vfithont ever forgetting the simplicity of the Christian or breaking the
charm of catholic association that binds all Its parts together. More than anyniing,
he is wise and iudieUnis in the highest sense of thai word ; and it is the light of lofty
and calm wisdom, shining through his pages, that continues to make them a de-
lightful and excellent study, when most of the contemporary thco'.ogtcal works are

HOOKER, Sir William Jackson, F.R.S., a celebrated English botanist, was bom
at Norwich in 1786. His first work was a ** Journal of a l^ur in Icclana " In 1811,
winch attained such popularity that a second edition was called for in 1813. From
that time to his death in 1866, he was almost incessantly engaged in the publication
of botanical works. His invest Igatiotis on tlie British Juugermanniss and Mosses
led to his appointment to the chair of botany in the universliy of Glasgow, where
be lectured with great success till 1841, when he resigned his professorshin on I>eing
chosen director of the Royal Gardens at Kew, an office which he filled in a most
efficient manner. His name was enrolled in the lists of all the scientific societies at
home and abroad ; and he was knighted in 1886, on account of his high scientific
acquirements. The following are some of the most important of bis works : 1.
" Monograph of tlie British Jungermannite " (181S— 1816). %. " Muscologia Britan-
nica," containing the mosses of (Jreat Britain and Ireland (1818) ; 8. ** Icones Pili-
cum " (in association with Dr Oreville), (2 vols. fol. 1886—1837) ; 4. •' The British
Flora" (1880), a work thot has gone through seven editions ; 5. ** A Century of Orchi-
daceous Phints" (4to, 1848) ; 6. " The Victoria Regla ; " 7. ** Icooes Plantarum *» (10
vols. 1887—1860) ; 8. " British Ferns " (1864) ; 9. •'Garden Perns " (1862).

HOOKER. Joseph Dalton, M.D., C.B., P.R.S., was bom at Glasgow in 1816, and
Is the only surviving son of Sir W. J. Hooker (q. v.). He was educated for the
medical profession, and graduated as M.D. at Glasgow in 1889. He immediately
thereafter renounced the pursuit of medicine for that of boteny, and joined the ant-

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arcllc expedition of i\\eEr€ifyM and Terror. When he retarned in 1848. ho bronght
with him 6340 Bpocles of plants, which, with tlie discoveries of Captaiu Cook and
other yoyases, were pabtished In six quarto TOlotnes, under the title of ** Botany of
the Antarctic Voyage^ (1847—1860). This great work save him at once an eminent
position In science. In 1847, he undertook an expedluon to the Himalayas, which
occupied lilm for three yenrs. The lurge collections made at this time were joined to
those of his friend, Dr Tliomas Thomson of the Botanic Gardens, Culcntta, and
numliercd in the oggregate nearly 7000 species. His ''Himalayan Journals" (2 vols.
8vo, 1854) contain the narrative of tiiis expedition, and tlie "Rhododendrons of the
8iklcim-HImaiaya'' (1840— 18l»l) illastrate the roost renoarkable additions which he
made to the ornamental plants of our gardens on this occasion. With Dr Thomson
be undertook a " Flora Indica " (vol. 1., 8 vo, 1866), the first volume of which, con-
taining onlT a few orders of plants, remains a fragment The half of the volume is
occupied wTih a valuable dissertation on botanical geography, a department of the
science wliicli has received special attention from Dr H. in iiis various works. He
afterwards again undertook a flora of British India, which was completed in 1874.
In 1871, he made an expedition to Morocco, ascended the Great Atlas, the summit
of which had never before been reached by a European, and bronght back a valuable
collection of plants.

Dr H. was appointed Assistant-Director at Eew Gardens in 1866, and on the
death of Ills father In 1866, he succeeded him as director. He was president of the
British Association in 186S, was appointed Companion of the Bath in 1860, and
etected president of the Royal Society in 1878.

In the list of scieutiflc memoirs published by the Royal Society, he is recorded
as the author of 68 independent memoirs, and the joint author of 18 more. He has
prepared a valuable "Students' Flora of the British Islands." chiefly characterised
by the record of the geographical distribution of the species. His great work,
which he has undertaken in conjunction with his friend Geon^e Beiitham, is a
*' Genera Plantarum,'* the first part of which appeared in 1869; and the first part
of the second volume, bringing down the work to the " Coupositie," was published
in 1878.

HOOKS AND EYES. These small articles are largely used in millinery for
dress-fastcnerti, and are of great utility. Formerly, they were mode by hnnd, the
wire of which they are formed being bent into the proper shape with pliers ; now,
however, they are entirely made by machines of great simplicity and beauty. With
a pair of them it Is possible to make 800 hooks, and the same number of eyes, in one
minute. The operations of the machines are, first, to draw the wire forward from
the supplying reel, then cnt off the length required for hook or eye, as the case may
be ; a sinker then descends and forces it into a slot, bv which it is bent, and two
projecting cams, acting at the same time on the two ends, bend them over so as to
form the lateral loops used for sewing the hook or eye to the garment; then, In the
case of the hook, it is passed under another sinker, which forces the doubled wire
into another slot, and forms the hook part ; one side of the slot, being mov-
able, is made to strike the bent portion of the hook sufficiently to flatten ft. It is
then complete, and drops out, to make room for another.

H(X)K-SOUID, the name commonly given to cephalopod molluscs of the
genera OnychoUxUhis and EnoploteuthU^ allied to the cojnmou squids or Cahtmaries
(q. v.), but having the eyes destitute of any covering of skin. The arms have two
rows of suckera ; the tentacles much exceed them in length, and are furnished with
hooks at their extremities. Hook-equids are found in the Sargasso Sea, in the
Polynesian Seas, &c Thev are much dreaded by swimmers and divers, being often
of hirge size— sometimes six feet long or more— whilst their hooks, their many arms,
their very numerous suckers, and their strong, sharp mandibles, entitle them to a
place among the most formidable monsters of the deep.

HOOP ASH. See Nbttlb-trbb.

HOOPER, John, an English prelate and martyr, was bom In Somersetshire
about 14»5, and educated at Oxford. By the studv of the works of the Gknman Re-
formers, and of the Scriptures, he was converted to Protestantism, and about 1640
he went to the continent, and spent some time in Switzerland. At the accession of
Edward VI., in 1647, he returned to England, and became a preacher in London.

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Hoopia, 688

In 1650, ho was appointed Bishop of Gloacesteri bat bis objections to trearing: the
Episcopal vestments caused some delay in bis consecration. In 1652, he receiTed
the bishopric of Worcester in eommendam. On the commencement of Mary's
reign, in 1658, he was committed to the Fleet, where he remained for 18 months,
beftig frequently examined before tlie council ; but continuing; firm in the Pro-
testant fauh, he was condemned os a heretic, and burned at the stake at Qloa-
coster, February 9, 1566. He was the author of numerous sermons and controrcr-
shU treatises.

HOOPING-COTJOH, or Pertussis, is an infections, and sometimes epidemic
disease, mostly attacking children, especially in the spring and autumn. Its earliest
^mptoms, which usiuiily appear five or six days attcr exposure to infection, are
those of ft common cold, as noarseuess, a watery dischai^e from the eyes and uo^e^
oppression of the chest, a short drv cough, and more or leas feTcrishness, This
stage, which is called the ecUarrhal, lasts a week or ten days, when the fever remits,
and the coneh begins to be followed by the peculiar whoop which characterises the
disease, ana whicn is caused by the inspiration of air through the contracted cleft of
tlie glottis. See Labtnz. The disorder may now be regarded as fully de\-eloped,
and consists of paroxysms of severe coughing, which usually terminate in the ex-
pectoration of glairy mucus, or in vomitlug. During the fit of coughing, the face
becomes red or livia, the eyes project, and the chila seixes some person or object,
near him for support. These paroxysms occur at uncertain intervals, but usually
about every two nours, and between them the child n'tunis to his play, takes his
food with good appetite, and exhibits little or no sign of illness. The disease
reaches its height at about the end of the fourth week, after which the paroxysms
diminish iu firegnency, and the patient shews signs of improvement. The second
stage may last from two to eight weeks, and is succeeded by what may be termed
the convalescent stage, the duration of which is very variable.

This is one of those diseases which seldom occur more than once in a lifetime ;
and hence it probably is that, as few children escape it, it is comparatively rarely
noticed in adults. Morbid anatomy has failed to throw any direct light upon its
special seat. The proportion of deaths to recoveries in cases ot hoopiug-congh has
not been satisfactorily determined, but when there is a severe epidemic, the mor-
tality due to this disease is often very great ; the deaths, however, in the great
majority of cases, occur amongst the poorer classes. This niortiility is, in reality,
due rather to the bronchitis and pneumonia (or inflammation uf the lungs), which are
frequent complications of hooping-cough, than to tlie disease itself.

The treatment of hooping-cough, as long as it is uncomplicated or simple, should
not be meddlesome. Nothing that con l>e prescribed iu the early stages will check
its natural course, and the object of the physician should be to word off complica-
tions, and to conduct the disease safely to its natural termination. The diet should
consist of milk and mistimulating farinaceous matters. The bowels should be kept
moderately open. If the weather is cold, the child should be kept iu the house with
the temperature of the room at about W°, A grain, or a grain and a half of ipe-
cacuanha may be given three or four times a day. Slight counter-irritants may also
be applied to the surface of the chest; Uoche's Embrocation, which consists of
olive oil, with half its quantity of the oils of cloves and amber, is extensively used
for this purpose. Nothing is so serviceable in the last or convalescent stage as
change of air, often even when from a pure to a comparatively impure atmosphere;
and next to this, the internal use of a solution of biuoxideof hydrogen (see Htdbo-
OBN, BiNoxiDV or) seems most worthy of trial.

HOO'POE (CTpuno), a genus of birds of the order Inseaaoren^ tribe Tenttirottrttf
and family UpuptdcB. To this family are referred also the genera Ptomercpt*
EpivMbehiu (Plume-birds), &c., natives of vraxm parts of Asia and its islands, Aus-
tralia, and Africa, some of which are remarkable for magnificence of plumage. In
the whole family, the bill is long and slender, the wings of moderate size or short,
the legs short, the toes long, and the claws strong and curved. There are among
them, however, great diversities, which have led some to divide them into two families,
Uvupida and PromtropidcB, The genus Promerops and its nearer allies have a close
relation to the MdiphaaidM, which they resemble in partly feeding on the sweet
juices of plants, in order to which the tongue is extensile and divided at the tipw

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The hoopoes, on the other band, exhibit many points of resemblance to the crow
family, witli which tliey are connected by the chonghs, and some points of resem-
blnuce even to lioinbills. The tongae is short, and not exton&ilc. The Coxmon H.
(CT. epops) is nu African bird, a snmroer visitant of most parts of Europe, found alM)
in some parts of Asia ; not of f rcqneiit occurrence iu Britain, althongh sometimes
seen in amnmn, very seldom breeding in any part of the Island. ItisalK>iit the
size of a mi seel- thrash ; its plumage exliibits a fine mixture of white, buff, and
black ; and it has a largo crest of two parelicl rows of feathers. The H. derives its
name from its very frequent utterance of a low soft sound resembling the syllable

HOOPS. Sec Cbinolike.

HOORN, a decaying town nud seaport of the Netlierlands, In the province of
iNorth Holland, is ngrecSibly situated on a bay of tlie Zuider Zee, 20 miles nortli-
north-east of Amsterdam. It was at one time one of the most flonrishiog towns of
4ts province ; but, like all the towns of North nolland situated on the Zuider Zi^e, it

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 133 of 196)