James Orr.

Chambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 online

. (page 134 of 196)
Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 134 of 196)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

has greativ fallen off in trade and prosperity. There are at H. extensive markets for
.butter and cheese, and fishing and commerce are carried on to some extent. Hero
the large nets for herriug-flshiug were invented. Fop. 10,000.

HOP lUumtUua lutnUus^ a pei^unial dicecious xilant of the natural order Canna-
hinacece (q.v.), the only species of its cenus. It has Ion? rough twining stems, and
stalked 8— IS-lobed rough leaves, and is a plant of luxuriant growth and abundant
folioge. The male flowers grow in loose branching axillary panicles, and consist of
five stamens surronnded by a 5-lobed perianth. The female flowers are in strobiles,
or cones, with large persistent, concave, entire scales, which enlarge as the fruit
rii)eus. Tlie part of the hop so much used in brewiuir, nud sold under the name of
hops (q. v.), is llie ripened cone of the female plant. Femule plaiitj< alone, therefore,
are cuuivuted to any considerable extent. It being enough If a few male pktnts are
scattered over a fleld.

) The oil of hops is sedative, nuodyue and narcotic ; and hence the value of pillows
stuffed with hops In cases of mania, sleeplessness, &c. The biiter principle is nut
narcotic, but it is tonic Vhe oil and bitter principle combine to make hops more
useful than chamomile, gentian, or any other bitter in the mauufnciure of beer; iind
hence the medicinal value of extrct-hopped or bitter beer. 1'he tannic acid coutnlned
lu the strobiles also adds to the value of hops, and particularly as causing the pre-
cipitation of vegetable mucilage, and consequently the clearing of beer. The hop is

first mentioned oy Pliny as one of the garden plants of the Romans, wiio, it appears,
ate the young shoots as we oat asparagus ; and in fact many country people In Eng-
land do the same at the present day. It is a native of Bmope and of some parts of

Asia, a doubtful native of Britain and of North America. It is more extensively
cultivated iu the south of England than in any part of the world, but also to a con-
siderable extent in Germany, Franco, Flanders and Southern Russia, and now suc-
cessfuliy In North America and In Australia and New Zealand.

The cultivation of the hop was Introdnced Into England from Flanders In the
time of Henry YIIL, but did not become sufBcient for Ihe supply of the kingdom
till the end of the 17th century. For some time after hops began to l)e used in brew-
ing, a strong prejudice existed against the Innovation, and parliament was petitionrd
against hops as ^^ a wicked weed, that would spoil the tasto of the drink and endau-
ger the people." Above 60,000 acres are now emploved In the cultivation of hops,
chiefly iu theconnties of Keut^ Sussex, Worcester and Hants, the two former counties
producing the best hops iu the world. Fields of hops are to be seen us far north as

The hop requires a verv rich soil, and Its growth Is promoted by the liberal appli-
cation both of organic and mineral manures; although excessive manuring Is preju-
dlciaL It spreads rapidly underground by its roots, and Is not easily extirpated
where it has once been introduced. It is generallv propagated by layers or cuttings,
which usually grow for a year In a nursery before oeing planted om. In the pUiuta-
tlons, they are generally pkced in groups of three or four, at distances of from six
to nine feet. Great care is necessary in fastening the stems to the poles when they
begin to shoot, setting up any that may be blown down, Ac The stalks, or bine^f^
are taken down from the poles after the hop-picking, and cut and removed, to be

Digitized by VjOOQ IC


g?. • 690

Qsed as Utter or as mannre, for whkh parposes they are excellent. The fresh binesi
which are cnt to preront undae luxuriance in summer, are dried for feeding cattle,
and are as good as the best clover liay.

The fibre uf tlie stems is employed to a considerable axtent Id Sweden In the man-
ufacture ot a coarse kind of clotli, which is strong, H'hite. and danible ; but tiie
flbrc9 are so difficult of separation, that the stems require to bo B<eepcd in water for
a whole winter.

The hop-plant often suffers very much, and the prospects of the fnrm(>r arc de-
stroyed by the Hop Mildew, and by insect enemies, the worst of ^^ilich tire noticed
In the following articles.

nop FLEA (Ualtiea eoncinnu), a very small coleopterous Insect, not quite one-
tenth of nil inch in length, wMcli often does much mischief in hop-pliiutatioust in
spring, devouring the tender tops of the young shoots. It i»of the same gnuus with
the turuip-fleii (sometimes called tnruip-fly), teo destructive to turnips.

HOP FLT (A phi* Uumuli), a species of Aphis (a. y.) or plant-louse, important
on account of the injury which f u some seasons it does to hop-plantations. It is,
indeed, thepriuclpal cause of tlie sreut difference between the hop crop of one year
and of nnother, ciiusiiig the variations in price nud the speculations for wiiich the
hop trade is notable. — ^The wioged female is gre^, with a black head, and spots
ana bands of black on the body ; the legs are long. A few winged females appear
about the end of May, and wiugbas nmltltudes are sometimes to be seen by the
middle of June, on the under side of the hop-leaves and on the stems. The fly is
the great dread of hop cultivators, and no means have been fouud of arresting its
ravages. Lady-birds and otiier insects render important service by devourinir the
aphides, and restraining their exces.'iive nmltipllcation. It is proposed in Kirby and
Si>enoe's Entomology, tnat women and children should be employed to pick cm. the
winged aphides ou their first appearance.

HOPE, Thomas, a distinguished author and patron of art, ancient and modem,
was born In Lrnidon ahont ITTO. While still a youth, he travelled over a large por-
tion of Europe, Asia, and Africa, and collected many drawings, chieflr of buildings
aud sculptures. In Euglnnd, he first attracted attention by the splendid decorations
which he bestowed on the interior of his mansion in Duchess Street, Portland
Place, Loudon, a description of which appeared in his book on ** Household Furni-
ture " in 1805, tt work that completely revohit!onis4>d the taste of this country. lu
1809, he published his ** Costume of the Ancients," the Influence of which was un-
doubtedly very great His essay on the " Architecture of Theatres," beionsriug t3
the same year, also deserves mention. Three years afterwards appeared his " Mod-
ern Costumes,*' and in 1819 his ** Anastasius, or Memoirs of a Modem Greek at the

the same year, also deserves mention. Three years afterwards appeared his " Mod-
ern Costumes,*' and in 1819 his ** Anastasius, or Memoirs of a Modem Greek at the
close of the 18th Century." This last work Is his master-piece. It was pabllshed
anonymously, and was said by many people to be a prodnctioo of Lord Byrou*s,
who was greatly flattered by the rumor. It Is certainly a brilliant and erudite per-

a genuine work of genius, and is now hardly if ever read. The only other works
or H. worth mentioning, are his essay " On the Origin and Prospects of Man," a
very heterodox but rather eloquent piece of writing ; and a " Historical Essay on
Architecture," both of which were published posthumously. H. died February
8, 1831.

HOP FROTH-FLY, or Hop Frog-fly {Amblycephoiua intemtptm), a species of
Froth-fly (q. v.) which sometimes appears in great numbers in hop-grounds, and
does considerable mischief. Tlie perfect insect is about a quarter oi an inch long,
of a yellow color, variegated with black. It frequents hedges and grassy places as
well as hop- plan tat ions.

IIOPITAL, Michel do L', was bora at Aigneperse, in Auvergne. In 1505, studied
law at Toulouse, and first made himself known as an advocate in the parliament of
Paris, and after discharging various public functions, l>ecame chancellor in 1660,
during the minority of Fraucis II. France at this time was torn by contending
factions. The Guises, in particular, were powerful, ambitious, aud intensely Catl»-
olic; and when oue of the family, the Cardinal de Lorraine, wished to establish the
Inquisition in the country, H. boldly and firmly opposed him, and may be said to

Digitized by VjOOQ IC


691 IS?.

have Mived France from that detestable tnstltiitlon. He snminoned the 8tate?-prn-
eral, which had not met for eijzhty years, and, belop sapported by the mass of mod-
eruie embolics, he forced the Guises to yield. His speech at the opeoing of the as-
BCDibly was wortbv of his wise and maenaDimoas spirit : ** Let ns do away,'' c aid
be, ** with tfmse diabolical words of Lntneruiis. Hu^cDots, aud Papists— uames of

f>arly and sedition ; d( not iet ns change the fair appellation of Christians.'* He
ndaced the assembly TO pas8 ail ordonnauce abolishing arbitrary taxes, regulating
tlie feudal authority ui the noi)les, and correcting the abuses of the judicial system.
In the following year, he secured various beneflis for the persecuted Hiigueiiott*;
but politico-religious passions were too fierce and yiudictivc in France in those days
to be satisfied with anything but blood ; and in spite of the most strenuona efforts
which U. could make, the nation was plunged hi the horrors of civil war, ending
rather in the success of the Guises, the polltiral vltranumtaw$ of their day. The
old patriot who loved Franco too well to be either Huguenot or ultramontane, went
into retirement, where he licanl the news of the massacre of St Bartholomew', a
crime against lK>th the unity of France and the rights of conscience, which broke
his heart. He died 15th, of March 1573.

HOPKINS, Samuel, D.D.. an American clergyman, and founder of the Hopkin-
sian theology, was bom at Waterbury, Connecticut, Septembei- 17, 1721. Having-

Sadnated at Tale College in 1741, he studied theology with Jonathan Edwards, and
Dm 1748 to 1769 was settled as pastor of Honsatonic, now called Great Barriugton,
llassachnaettf. He tlien removed to NewrK>rt, where he died December 90, 1803.
His writings consist of a life of President Edwards, sermons, addresses, a work on
the millenuinm, and a system of theology, republished in Boston. 1S52. He is said
to be the hero of Mrs Beecber Stowe's^ Minister's Wooing." He was remarkable
for his simplicity, earnestness, and persevering industry, and his peculim* theologi-
cal doctrines have been a source of controversy for a century.— Hopkjksians, those
who adopt the theological opinions of Dr Hopkins, are not a distinct sect, but are
pretty numerous in America, in some of the Qiristian bodies of which the tenets are
generally Calvinistic They bold most of the Calvinistic doctrines, and even in their
most extreme form, butihey entirely reject the doctrine of impntaliou, both the
impotation of Adam's sin and of Christ's righteousness. The fundamenul doctrine
Of the Honkinsian system, however, is. that ail virtue and true holiness consist iu
disinter€8tM bentvolenecy and that ail sin is §e^fi$hne»$^i\\e self-lovo which leads a
man to give his first regard even to bis own vterual interests being condemned as

HOPS. The produce of the hop-plant (see Hop). The fruit is a little nut, not
larger than a grain of mustard-seed, and between its onter shell and the kernel there
is n small quantity of a peculiar granular substance called iMpuHne^ which also ex-
ists as a sort of efilorescence on the surface of the scales themselves; much of the
value of the hop depends upon the abundance of this substance. The lupuline is
not a mere powder, but each grain Is a little organised ceHnlar body, of an oval or
round form* and, when seen under the microscope, bavine a recticnlated surface.
These lupuilnic grains have been analysed by many chemists. The following is the
result of the investigations of Payen, Chevallier, aud Peiletean :

Volatile oil (oil of hops). 8-00

Lupuline (the bitter principle) 10*30

Heein 60 to 56-00

LIgniu M-00

Fatty, astringent, and gummy matters; osmazomc, malic, and car-)

bonic acids, several salts (raalate of lime, acetate of ammonia, >- Traces.

chloride of potassium, sulphate of potash), dbc j

The first year the bines, or stalks are weak, and have to be provided with poles.
When the bines die down in autumn, they are cut off, and the sticks removed or
stacked, and during the winter the ground Is forked over and manured. The ulants
are in pe»*fection the third year, when each requires a pole about 18 or SO feet in
height, to which the young bines are tied us they grow, with rushes or bast They,

Digitized by VjOOQ IC




however, eoon bc|^n to twine nronnd the poles, and then rcqnlre no more tylnfir. In
the English hop-gronnds the picking begins about the nilddltt of September. Tnts la
done by women and children chieflr, some men being necessary to lower the poles
and bring the hops within reach. As the hops are picked they are taken to the wut,
or hop-kiln, in which they are dried, usaalW on horizontal screens of bair-cloth«
throngh which the heat of the kiln passes. This operation requires to be performed
with great care, as tlic essential oil is very liable to be volatinscdf especially as the
hops arc frequently kept from year to year. When fnlly dried, ihey are curried to
the nacking-hoasei ana are thero pressed into the bags or pockets, and sewed up
ready for sale.

Tlie best varieties of hop are, the Hill Goldlng. the East Kent Golding, Golden
Hops, Jones' Hops, Grape Hops, and Fambam White Bine.

The Goldings are the best and richest, and are nsed for the finest ales. The
Jones' are most valued for their habit of short growth, which enables the grower to
use shorter poles. The Colesates are very hardV, and c:m be grown on a i>oorer soil
than the others. The grape hops are also very Lardy, and will do on an indifferent
soli : they are also very prollflc

We also receive them of excellent qnality from Canada and the United States.
Until the year 1S62, hops paid an excise duty, and formed an important part of the
revenue, although a very variable crop, owing to the serious check it is liable to
from insects, f nn^, diseases, and the weather. In 1876, the land nnder hops in
Enzland amonnted to 00,999 acres, of which nearlv 4fi,000 wer& In Kent, and most
of the remainder in Sussex, llereford, and Hampshire. The annual exportation of
hops is al)ont 40,000 cwt. chiefly to tlie United States and Australia.

In a carefully conducted experiment, Dr Ives obtained 14 ounces of lupnline from
6 ponndd of bops ; and as he was sure that he had not removed it all from the scales
and nuts, a fair conclusion was drawn that the lupulino constitutes a sixth of tho
whole weight of the best hops. Both the bitter taste aud the preservative character
of hops are supposed to depend entirelv upon this material, whether in the form of
fully developed lupuliue grains, or diffused in an undeveloped state in the structure
of the scales. It is, therefore, of the utmost importance not only to encourage tho
development of the lupnline by good cultivation, but it is equally desirable to make
the best use oC it when produced. In furtherance of this, many of the principal Eng-
lish brewers now use an ingenious machine made by Mr Handysidc of Derby, which
first shakes off and sifts out the lupnline grains, and then separates tho nuts or seeds
from the scales. The reason for this separation is this: Experience has shewn
that much of t tie aromatic principle of the lupuline is dissipated at a boiling heat ;
therefore only the scales are so treated, whilst the free lupuline is mashed wlw luke-
warm wort, aud the nuts, after being crushed, are treated in the same manner, aud
all are added together when cold. By this means, the aroma is fully developed, and
a smaller quantity of hops is found to answer fully.

There is a narcotic principle In hops as well as the bitter and tonic, all of which
have led to tlieir employment in medicine. Such use is, liowcver, very limited. For
the full deUiils of tlieir employmentin tho process of brewing, see Beer.

HOKA'TIUS FLACCUS, Qnintus. the renown Koman satirist and lyrist, was
born at Venusia, in Apulia— in the country now called the BasUicatOj ktely formine
part of the kingdom of Naples— on the 8th December, 65 b.c. His father, who had
Doen bom a slave, but manumitted before the poet's birth, was a eo(tctor (a collector
of money for tax-gatherers ai>d bankers), by wlilch employment he had become a
proprietor on a m<Mest scale in his native district. Surly seeing the genius and pro-
mise of his son, he resolved to devote his whole means to his education, and re-
moving to Rome for the pnrpose, he gave him the culture usuaDy bestowed on the
children of the hiehest classes. Having finished his yonthlnl studies at Rome, he
was engaged on mglier ones at Athens, when the assassination of Jutius Ctesar
threw the whole lioinan world into coufnsiou, and dragged H. himself— in his Slsi
year— into the civil war which followed. Brutus comine with Cussius to Greece,
made H. a tribune, and he served with the republican leaders In Unit rank until the
fatal field of Philippi put an end to their campaign. Brutus and Cassias destroyed
themselves. H. made his submission, and returned to Home. With what was left
of his patrimony he bought the office of public scribe, and while living by this
humble place, devoted his energy to literary cceation. Thoroughly accomplished in

Digitized by VjOOQ IC




Greek and Roman literature, he set himself to two f^'^fit tasks— the natarallsation
In Laliu of the Greek lyric spirit^ and the perfect development of the old Roman
satire. It Is bis complete artistic success In both obiects wliich has made him
one of the most hiflnential writers of the world, and which will secure his fame as
loos aa order or cnltnro exists apou the globe.

H.'s first known labors were satires and epodes— the epodes being Imitations of
the Greek satirist Archilochn^ Bat it i.^ probable that he early began to imitate the
othergreat Greek lyriif^ts; and It is certain that his first paccess was derived not
from tlie pnblic but the private circulation of hla works. He mnde the friendslilpof
Virgil, whose rise preceded his own, and of Varius; and Virgil and Vnrios Intro-
dnced him to Miecenas when he was about 86 years old. That great Etruscan noble
and friend of Augustus became the good genius of the poet's life. lie endowed
him— at some period not exactly known, but before 88 B.C.— with a farm near Tivoll,
in the Sabine country, established his independence, fostered his fame, sought his
intimacy, loved, honored, and encouraged niin as much as one man conid another.
The friendsiilp of Mecenas led to that of August as, and H. enjoyed all his life (lie
died at 57) the consideration of the greatest persons of his time. He shews his
grutlinde for such favor In many passages of his poems, but he Is never servile, and
he compliments the emperor himself only on those features of his reign which have
tended to secure him the gratitude, or, what was not less needed, the forgiveness, of

Ii 16 impossible. In our brief space, to discuss the ^•excd qnestion of the chrono-
logy of H.'s ))oems, or to notice a flftietli part of what lias been written on It. But
if we cannot lie sure of the chronology of the poems, they give ns themselves ample
means for judging of the ctiaructer of the poet. Even his personal appearance Is
fanilliiirly known to ns. He was a little, round, durk-eyed man, premature! v grav«
haired, and inclined to corpulence; in dre^s somewhat sloven I V, and apt to be ab-
stracted in his gait and manner. He was kindly, friendly, and honorable— irascible,
but easily appeased— of amorous and generally sensual temperament, yet fully sensi-
ble of both the dignity and the prudence of moderation. His philosophy was Epi-
curean, like that of most Roman men of the world of his a^'e ; but he had both
an eye and a heart for the noble in history and in life, and his most disceniing
readers cannot bnt see that there waa a latent fund of eamestnefs and even piety In
his nature, to which his poetry never gave full expression. The real key to his
genius, is to study iilm as esfentially n philosophical wit and moralist, who had an
cxonisite faculty for Ivrical creation, and was a finished artist by dint of practice in
it, bnt who primarily belonged to the philosophical rather than to the poetic class of
minds. Some strict modem critics have doubted Itis being a poet at all, which,
since he could produce all the effects of poetry. Is plainly nonsense. The latest cri-
ticli>m, however, decidedly tends to place his lyrical works— as imitations of the
Greek, and echoes of the natural notes of an earlier and more poetic age—
fartiier below bis *• Satires" and ** Epistles" than it was once customary to rank
them. Meanwhile, this neither robe the •* Odes " of their value, nor of their charm,
nor of their merit Their value, as representing an older literature which only ex-
ists in fragments, is Immeasuranle. Their charm, as breathing now aU the calety,
now all the sadness, of the ancient pagan mind, is irresistible. And their merit, even
as imitations, implies a delicacy of Insight, a fineness of toucli, a power of minuic fin-
ish, which his been exhibited by very few writers In the whole history of art. They arc,
indeed, perpetual models of construction, equally valuable to poets of evenr school,
and were not less carefully studied by Wcrd!*worth than hy Pope. Great, however,
as Is the merit of the *♦ Odes," that of the ** Satires " and ♦• Epistles " is still higher.
The native Roman satire — an indigenous product of Italy, as CasauI>on has Irre-
fnigably established — was developed bv H. into a branch of composition peculiarly
his o^n, and In his own species of which he has never had a rival. He riciicnlea the
follies -of the world from the point of view of a man of the world, playing round
vice like a picador round a bull ; and though his morality does not rise above the
level of a prudential moderation abhorrent of extremes, he enforces this with so
much Bonndness, dramatic liveliness, and gay vivacious humorous wit. that the pul-
pit has profited bv him not less than the author's study, and he has been the favorite
of ecclesiastical dignitaries and statesmen, while also i)elng the pocket-companion
Of men of letters and epigrammatists. The ^* Epistles " con lain the graver element

Digitized by VjOOQ IC


is? 694

of the "Satires" In bHII CTemtcr perfection, and with the ncldftlon of a fine rdn of
pcrfonnl emotion and afitection, tinged occasionully with the nielanclioly of advauo-
ing life, witich, on tlie wliolf, maken them the most valuable of U.'s works.

Tlie literature of H. in modern Enrope is enormous, and can only Ik* clanced at
here in the briefest maimer. The '* Edltio Priuct'ps " nDpean-d at Milan \\\ U70 In
4to, nnd was followed bT along line of editions. In moocm tinioa OrelH has taken
a leadini; place as Horatinn editor, and since iiim DilliMibur^er has bt^ii jnslly popn«
lar: wliilu Eii<;land has contributed to the subject, among many other works, the
valuable "HoraiiUM Uestitutns" of Tate, and tlie sump iions volume of Dean Mil-

man. Among the English translators of U. in the wliole or in p:irt. are fomid Ben
Jonson, Milion, Atternury. Pope, Warren Hasting and Cowper. while Pope's ** Imi-
tations " occupy a distinguished place of iheir own. The best known tnmslation of
the whole of H. in English, is tlmt of Francis, bnt liis day is fast going by. Bxcel-

lont trannbt'ous have been Issued in our own time by MrMartin, Mr Robinson, Lord
Itavcnswortli, Lord Lyttoii, and Prof. Coiiington, and a cnrlou« but powerful one
by Prof. Newman, wlioso theory of tniuslution, however, has led him into frequent
oddities and singularities.

H0'RD£, a town of Prussian Westphalia, on the Emscbe, 83 miles south from
Mi'iuster, witli wliich it is connected by railway. Near it are productive coal-mines,
and the town has recently increased with great rapidity. Nail-making is carried on.
Pop. (1815) 18,85i.

n<yRDEIN. a term that has been applied \o a substance that can be extracted
from barley, but whicli is merely a mixture of starch, cellulose, and a little uitro-
peoous matter of unknown compositiou.


HO'KEB. SeoSiiCAi.

UO'RBITOUND {tfamtbinm\ a genns of plants of the natnral order Labiatm,

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 134 of 196)