James Orr.

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HOWARD. The no'ole House of H. has j»tood for many centuries at the bead of
th-^ Eiurllch nobility. The Howards have • njoyed the dnki*doin of Norfolk since the
middle of th(? ^Sth c. and have contrilmied to the annal.<* of tne nation several per-
sons of tlie most distiugQished character, both hi poliiic<* ai d in literature. Neitlicr
Sir W. Du;;dale i.or Couins. nor .Sir Bernard Burke, claims for the Howards any
more ancient oriiriu than Sir William H., a learned Cliief- justice of tlie Common
Pleas under Edward I. and Edward II.. tlioi.gh Dnjfdale incidontally mentions a
tradition that their name is of 8axon origin, and derived eitln-r fioiu an eminent
ofliCiT under the erown before the Conquest, or from Ilereward, the lewler of those
f«)rce<< which for a titiie defended the isle of Ely so vali.intly against William (he
Couqiicrur. Be thin as it may, it is certain that Sir John II., tiie grandson of the
above mentioned judge, was not only adiidral and capt-dn of the kiinr's navy in the
north of England, but sheriff of .Norfolk, in which county lie hekl exteuf^ivi* |>rrp-
erty, which wassuhseqn«iitly. iiicn>ased by the marriage of his srandr*on, 8irRol»ert,
with the co-heiress of the ancient and noBle House of Mowbray. Dukes of Norfolk.
Tile only sou of thi** union was 8ir John H.. one of the leading supporters of the
Hnu^i»f York, whohavinu gNiiie<l early diet I net ion in the French tvarr* of Henry VI.,
was cou«titiite<l hy Edward IV. co!>stable of the iinportajit castle of Nonvich, and
slieriff of Norfolk and Suffo.k. He subsequently b came trtnisnr«>r of the royal
household, obtained ** a grant of the wliole bein fit Ah.-it i^boaUl accrue to tlie ki«ig by
coinage of money In the City and Tower of London and elsewhere in England ;'* nnd
further, was raised to the peerage as Lord Howard and Duke of Norfolk. Wc find Ulm



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In 1470 TDade c«B(aiD-cenoni1 of the king*? forcet at set, and he was moat streuoons in
that capacity in lii« reelstiince to the Honse of Lancaeter. Finally he was crouted Eari
Marabttl of EiiKlaud, au honomry di«tlaction still borue by hie de8ceiidant«>. nnd in
1484 waa conetitiitcd Lord Adiuinil of Bnglundf Ireland nua Aqnitaiue. He fell next
year, however, on Boswurth Field, and after his death liln honors were attainted, as
ali*o were those of hit* eon Thonmi>, who had been created Earl of Surrey. The lat-
4er» however, after suffering throe years of iniprisonraeutin Ibe Tower of London, ol)-
taiued a reversal of his own and his father'8 attainders, and being tesfored to his don-
ors accordingly, became distinguished as a general, and is more nnrtlcolarly cele-
brat<>d in liistoi-v fur his defeat uf the Scotch at Fiodden in 1518. His son Thomas,
third Dnke of Norfolk, was attainted by Heniy VIIL, thongh afterwards restored
in blood, and by his marriage with a daughter of King Edward IV., became t lie
father ot tlie ili-fated and accomplished Earl of^orrey, whose exei ntion was the Insl of
the nmny acts of tyranny whicli disgrace the memory of Henry VIII. Eminent as a
stutesmnu, a warrior, aitd a poet, Surrey is thus described by Sir Egertou Brj-dges:
"Excellcut in arts and in arms; a man of learning, a genius, and a hero; of a gener-
ous temper and a refined mind, he united all the gallantry and unbroken spirit of a
rude ag«) with all the elegance aud grace of a polished era. With the greatest splen-
dor of descend in posi'ession of the highest honors and unbounded wealth, he re-
laxed not hisefforti* to deserve distinction by his personal worth. Conspicnonsln the
rough exarcises of tilts and of toumamentcL ana cominandiug armies with skill and
bravery in expeditious against the Scots under his father, ha still found time, at a
fwriod wlieu our literature was rode and barbarous, to cultivate his mind with aU
the exquisite spirit of the cbolcef t models of Greece aud Rome, to catch the excel-
tonces of the revived muses of Italy, and to produce in his own language composi-
tions which, in simphcity, perspicnity, graceful ornaineut, and just and natural
tiionglit, exhiUt a shining contrast to the works of his predecessors, and an exam-
ple whicli his saccee»ors long attempted in vain to follow."

The Earl of Surrey was executed during the lifetime of his father, on whom the
same seuteuce luid been passed, when the death of the royal tjraut saved him froui
the block. His grandson, Thomas, fonrth Duke of iNorfolk, in like manner
suffered attainder, aud was executed on Tower Hill for high treason, for his com-



munication with Mai7, Queen of Scots. The family honors, however, were again
restored, partly by James I., to his trrandson and partly by Charles II. to his
great-great-grandson, Thomas, who thus became eighth duke, and whose cousin



and successor, Charles, nintii duke, was tiie direct ancestor of the present Duke of
Nortolk.

It would be impossible here to give a list of all the honors wliich from time to
time hnvo been conferrred on various branches of the ducal House of H. ;
it is sufllcient to say, that in one or other of their widespread branches, the How-
ards either have enjoyetl within the last tliree centuries, or still enjoy, the etirldonis
of Carlisle, Suffolk. Berkshire, Notthampton, Arundel, Wicklow, Norwich, and
Efflngbain, and the btironiee of Bindou, Howard de Wulden, Howard of Castle Kis-
iug, aud Howard of Kffingliam.

It wjll be seen from tlie almve remarks, that the ducal House of NoKolk is one
wliose fate it has l)e«u, beyond all others among the English nobility, to find its
name iuterwoven with the thread of English history, and not rarely in colors of
blood. The accomplished but unfortunate Surrey, and his scarcely le»«8 unhappy
fnilier, Thomas H.— whose head was only saved from the block on which his son so
nobly tiufffrcd by the death of tlie eightli Henr>— are "household words" in the
pages of Engli;ih bifitory : and readers of Shaksp{>are will have other recollections of
the sam^ name allied with other historical events ; while those who arefumtlur with
tlie writings of Pope, will not have forgottou how tersely and pointedly ho typifies
the glory of ancestral pedigrees by

** All the blood of all the Howards,"
Other members of the House of H. have gained a place in the pages of Enclish Iils-
ton'. Sir Edward H., K.G., brother of the first Earl of Surrey, was made by Henry
Vltl. the kingV standard-b<>arer and admiral of the fleet, in which capacity he lost
his life in boarding a French vessel off Brest in action in 1514; his brother, Sir
Edmund, acted as mm-shol of the horao at Fiodden; aud mis holf-brother, Sir



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Howard ^QO

Howitt <^-^

Thomas H., was nttnlnted, and died a prisoner in tiic Toti«r, for avptrintr to the band
of the Lndy Margiiret Douglas, danghter of Margaret Qne-m c Scotland, and nlwce
of Hoiiry VIII., one of whose iH-fated consorts was the Lad> Cathariue Uoward.

HOWARD, John, "the phllauthronist," was bom at Hackney, near London,
about 1726. From bis father, who hod oeeu engaged 1u trade, H. inherited a con-
siderable fortune. In 1766, the year of the creat earthqnake at IJslxin, urged br
motives of benevolence, as well as of cariosity, he set sail for that city. Ou thft
voyage ids vessel was t^iken by a Fronch privateer, and he was carried Into the Interior,
wlieu he suffered Imprisoumeut for some time. The hardships which he here under-
went, coml)lued witli the knowledge of prisons and the miseries of pri$on-life which
lie acquired as a county sheriff in 1778 and afterwards, determined him in devoting
liiuiself to prison ruform. His life horcaCter is but a chronicle of Ids jounie^-s
tlirougliout the Uuited Kingdom and the continent. In which he visited the principal
prli>ous and hospitals. His chief work Is ** An Account of the Lazarettos in Europe,
&c., with Remarks on the Present State of the Prisons In Great Britain and Ireland "
<17S9). Ho died January 20, 1790, at Kherson, in the south of Russia, from having
cangiit Infection from a fevered patient for whom ho bad prescribed. The fame of
H. IS peculiar. He is remembered not so ranch for bis talents as for that devotion
to his suffering fellow-men, in which he expended his fortune and his life.

HOWB, Earl (Richard Howe), British admiral, was the second son of Emanael
Srrope, second Viscount Howe of the Irish peerage. He was lK>rii in 172S, and
educated at Eton. Having a boyish passion for the sea, he left Eton at 14, and
went to the South 8ea%) In the squndron nnder Anson. He was with Admiral Ver-
non in 1745, and at the time of the Scottish rebellion, beins in C4>mmand of tke
Baltfmore sloop, took part in the sie<jce of Fort William. He also, with another ves-
sel, beat off two French ships conveying troops and aramauition to the Pretender,
for whicli lie Wiis made post-captiln. In 1755, his ship, the Dunkirk^ captured tlie
Aleide, a French 64. off Newfoundland. He next served under Sir E. Hawkein the
expedition against Rochefort. He was ordered to attack the fort on the isle of Alx
with his ship the MagnanimA, compelled it to surrender after an hour's ctmnoinide,
and achieved the only material success which attended the expedition. He was
commodore of the squadron which sailed in 1T63 for St Malo. The troops were
landed and re-eml>arked without loss, after di^stroylng all the magazines and sliip-

Sing in the pori, to the number of 1^) sail. In the same year he took Cherboorg.
fearly 200 pieces of Iron cannon and mortars were herereudored unserviceable; the
brass cannon were brought to En};land ; the celebrated basin was destroyed, and
27 s!ilps and vessels were burned or sank. A second attack upon St Malo was less
successful. The French troops assembled in force at tlie Bay of St Cas, and it
was only by the Intrepidity of H., who went In his own barge into the centre of the
enemy's Are, that tlie re-embarkation of the rear-gnard was effected with great loss
of life. In 1753, he succeeded to the Irish title of viscount ou the death of his
brother, the brigadier-geneml, who was killed before TIconderosra. He took part
in tlie. defeat of the fleet under the marouis de Conflans, and captured the atro.
74 guns. In 1760, he was made colonel of the Chatham division of inariues, ana
afterwards a Lord of tlie Admiralty, and lYeasurer of the Navy. In 1776. he com-
manded a fleet on the American coast, when the conquest of New YorK, Rhode
Inland, Philadelphia, and every settlement within the reach of a naval force, tes-
tified to his skill and energy. In 177S, he defended the American coast against a
superior naval force rnder DTBstjiing. He was made a viscount of Great Britain in
1782. and sent out with a fleet to relieve Gibraltar. He succeeded In disembarking
troops, ammunition, and sujiplies, and then offered battle to the combined flceis
of France and Spain, which de<-I{ned an engagement. He was made First Lord of
tlie Admiralty in 1783, and received an Engnsli earldom In 1788. When war with
France broke out in 1793, he took the coroniandof the Channel fleet, and next year
gained the victory wliich will long bo known as that of " the glorious fU^sl of
June." The French fleet consisted of 26 sh'ps of the line, and the Euglinh of 25.
IL, ill his flug-shlp, the Qtieen CharlotU^ engaged in the Bay of Biscay, off Ushant,
the French admiral, who in less than an hour crowded all the sail he could carry,
followed by as mdliy of ills ships as could get awav. Tlio £ngli.<«h captured two
ships of eighty gnus, and four seventy-fours; another seventy- foar sank Immed-



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fatelj after she was taken poMeation of. London was Hlnmlnatod three ulffhts fn
honor of the victory. The thaukfl of parlinment were TOted to Howe. George
III. vlsiled him on board tlie Quean Charlotte^ cave him a sword, and made biro a
Kuislit of the Garter. His la«i service was in bringing back the nintinoas seamen
at Fortsmooth to their dnty in 1707. He died Aognet 5, 1799, aged 74, leaving a
name high in the rOle of Bugliah naval worthies.

HOWE, John, who has been callod the Platonic Puritan^ was born 17th May
l<ao, at LonghboroDgh, in Lelce9terj«b!re, to the Hslng of which parish hie futlier had
been presented by Land. He i«tndied both at Cambridge and Oxford, and after
preaching for some time at Wiuwick, in Lancashire, and Great Torrington. in
j)evon!>hlre, he was appointed domVetic chaplain to Croiuweli in 1656, in wliicli dlf-
ficnltsitnation.his condact was such as to \vln praii«e even from tlie enemies of his
laity. At the' Restoration, ho returned to Torringtou, where the position he hnd
leld during tlic Common wealth mnde him au object of close saspicion to the govern-
ment. The Aet of Uniformity^ however, ejected lilm from his parisli, 24tli Augnst
'9662. and lie wandered about preaching in Hecret till 1671, when he was invited by
Lord Massarene. of Antrim Custle, in Ireland, to l)ecome hi$t domestic chnplnin.
Enjoying there the friendsliip of. the bishop of that diocese, and liberty to preach in
all the churches under his jurisdiction, lie wrote his " Vanity of Mon as Mortiil,"
and began bis greatest work, **Tlte Good Man the Living Temple of God** (1676—
1702), which occupies one of the highest places in Puritan tlieology. In 1676, he
was called to be pastor of the dissenting congregation in Silver Street, London, and
went thither hi tlie beginning of 1676. Inl67The published, nt the request of Mr
Boyle, " The Reconcilableness of God's Prescience of the Sins of Men witli tiie
Wisdom of His Councils and Exhortations;" in 1681, »• Though tfu'ncss for the
Morrow;" in 1688, "Self-dedication;" In 1688, •* Union among Pi oteptants;" and
in 1684. "The Redeemer's Tears wept over Lost Sonls." In 1686, he was invited by
Lord Wharton to travel with liim on the continent; and after visilivs the principal
cities, he resolved, owing to the state of Bughind. to settle for a time at U trecht.rhere
bo was admitted to several interviews with tne Prince of Orange. In 1687. the'* Declar-
ation for Liberty of Conscience" induced him to return to England, and at liie
Revolution next vear lie headed the dtjputation of dissenting clei-gymeu wlien tlier
brouglit their address to tiie throne. Beiddes smaller worlcs, he published. In 1693,
"Carnality of Religious Contention ; " In 1694 — 1696. several treatises on the Trin-
ity; in 1699, •* The Redeemer's Dominion over tlic Invisible World ;" and he con-
tinued writiiig till 1705, when he published "Patience in Expectation of Patnre
Blessedness."^ He died 2d April 1706.— See Henry Rogers'a " Life apd Character of
John Howe, witti an Analysts of his Writings."

HOWE, Samuel Gridley, M.D., an American physician, was bom at Boston,
November 10, 1801, and educated at the Boston Latin School, and Brown University,
where he graduated in 1881. He then studied medicine. Being an admirer of Lorn
Byron, he wished to join him In aiding the Greek revolution, and embarked from
Boston for Greece in 1884; volunteered ak a surgeon ; served two years as a guer-
rilla; organised the medical staff of the Greek army, and was appointed Its chief.
The Greeks were sntfering for sirpplies, and even for food ; and lie went to America,
and rnisetl large contributions. Ketnrning with food, clothing, 'and supplies, he
formed the colony of Corinth, In which he tilled oil offices, from governor to con-
stable. Taken down with the swnmp-fever In 1880, he went to Parip, wliere he at-
tended medical lectures, and in 1888 returned to the United Stntes. Having bcconie
interested In the education of the blind, he was sent to Europe, to examine The best
institutions, but volnnti?ered in the Polish insurrection, and spent six weeks in a
Prussian prison. On liis return, tlie Massachusetts Institution for the Blind was
estulilislied, and placed under his nmnagemcnt. He also established a schpol for
idiots, and in 1S2S published a "Sketch of the Greek Revolution." He revisited
Greece in 1S67, bearing supplies to tiiu Cretans, then sti'uggling for their inde-
pendence. *

HO WITT, William and Mary, two English authors that may most property be
treated together. William H. was bom in 1796 at Heanor, in Derbj'shire, and was
educated at various scliooln in connection with the Society of Friends, to which per-
suosiou ills family belonged. In his youth, ho was fond of outdoor sports, and h«



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celebrated In verfle the scenery with which ho was fMniliar. In 1828, he rearrled
Miss Mary Bothnm, a lady of literary taste and ac^jniremeiits, and whose fnmily,
like his own« was attached to the principles of Qnakerisnu '* The Forest Miii-
Btrcl," with their joint names on the titie-psige, was pnblislied dnrlngr the vear ia
which they were innrrled. For three or f onr vcars there:»f tei% they employed theiiv-
selveH iu contribntions to annuals and maffannes, and in 1837 a S(>lcct1on from these
fugitive pieces appeared under the title of '*The Desolalion of Eyaw." From this date
up till ISST, William H. wrote *' The Book of the Seasons," "Popular Hiplory of
Priestcraft." and ** Tales of the Pantika." Dnriug the same perlcxl, Mary H. pro-
duceU **Thc Seven Temptatious," and a country nov«l entitled '* Wood-Lttighton.**
In 183T, William and Mary H. removed to E!<lifr,"in Surrey, and at that place Wil-
liam H. wrote "Rural Life in England," " Colonisation and Christ ianiiy," " Boy's
Countrv Book," and " Visits to Remarkahle Places." fli-st i .. ies. Mary H. at the
same tfmo omploywl herself in writing "Tales for Chi.drt 'many of which are
popular. In 1840, WUliam H., with liis wife and family, lemoved lo Heidelberg,
where they resid^ two years. The influence of this residence has been visible ou
both. Mary H. made herself mistress of tlio northern languages, and translated tho
works of Miss Bremer nnd Hans C. Andersen. These translations appeared be-
tween 1844 and 1853. William H. was also busy dnfing the same period.. He wrote
and tninslated novels; he published a political work, entitled "The Aristocracy of
England;" and the "Homes and Haunts of thu British Poets." In 1352, he went
to Australia, where ho remained two years, and since his return he has pnblislied
the following works: "I<aw, Labor, and Gold, or Two Years iu Victoria, with
Visits to Sydney and Van Diemen's l^and:" " The Illnsi rated HIsloi-y of Eu'/lnnd," 6
vols., completed in 1861; "History of the Supernatural in all Ages and Nations"
(1863); "Discovery in Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand" (1865); and "The
Mad War Planet and other Poems " (18T1).

HOWITZERS are guns which came into nse onrly in the history of fleld-artil-
lery, as portable Instrnments for discharging shell into a hostile force. As, for this

Rnrpose, no great range was necessary, a small charge of powder sufflced; and the
owitzer could be made, in proportion to it^ large bore, extremely light. It com-
bines In some degree the accuracy of a cannon with the calibre of a mortar ; and
while equally effective at siiort ranges, is far more portable than either. That the
powder, on its expansion, may act with full force on the shell, it is confined in a
hemispherical chamber of smaller diameter than the rest of the l>ore. the mouth of
which is completely closed by the shell when rammed home. The Coehoni howit-
zer, much used in India for mountain-service, is a small gun, liglit euongh to be
borne by a horse up hilly defiles, <S^

HOWLER, Howling Monkey, or Stentor {Mifeet£»\ AUntatis ofthe French, a go.
nns of American monkeys, remarkable for the dilatation of the Hyoid (o. v.) bone
into a hollow drum, which communicates witli tlie larynx, makes a conspicuous ex-
ternal swelling of the throats and gives prodigious power to the voice, enabling these
animals to emit hideous sonnds, whicii are heard miles away, and to which all tlteir
names refer. They live chiefiy among the branches of trees, and take, extraordi-
nary leaps from one to another, taking l>old by the tail as readily as by the hands,
and often swinging by it alone. They are grcgarions, and unite their voices in con-
cert, so as to produce a most deafening notse. Tlie monkeys of this genus are re*
garcled as in their low intelligence and their fierceness of dl^'position American rep-
resentatives of the baboons, whilst in many of their habits they more nearly accord
witli tlie gibbous of the Old World. They inhabit the north-eastern parts of Sontii
America. Ttiey are the largest monkeys iu the New World. There are not many
species.

HOWTH, a small peninsula on the east coast of Ireland, forms the north shore
of the«Bny of Dublin, and is two and a half miles long by about two miles broad,
with an area of about 2600 acres. H. is connected with the mainland by a low and
narrow isthmns, and its insular appeoraaoe gt^eatly enhances the picturesque effect
of Dublin Bay.

HOY, a small vessel differing little, if at all, from the sloop or smack. Its ordi-
nary employment Is in carrying goods or passengers coastwise from one place to



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'TQfC Howitzers

• "^^ Hubcr '

another, and partlenlariy In inletp, Ac., where longer Ughters and other vemols
conid mauteavre only with difflcalty.

HOT, one of the Orkney Islands, lien 0outh-we«t from Pomona, or UicMalnlnnd.
from which it is separated by a pasf>a(re ;;boat % miles in widtli. It is 14 miles long, mid
6 miles brond, and its popalation in 1871 was 1S66. Unlike tlie mo9t of the Inlands of
its group. Hoy rises abruptly from the sen, with predpitons cliffs 1600 feet in bt^ight
fronting the west; ttie higheHt entineuee. Wart Hill, is 1565 feet above sea-levol. It
liaH in tho south the harbor of Long Hope, said to be the flnetit in the Orkneys, and
di-fended by a fort and two ujnriejlo towers. Among Iho cniio5«itlt»8 of the island
is the Dwnrfle Stone, a block of sandstone, S2 feet Toner, 17 feet brond, and 7 feet
high. One end of It has been hoIk>wed out by Iron toou>, the marks of which are
Mill visible, and a kind of apartment formed. In the sooth-wetit of the island is
the Old Man of Hoy, a pillar of rock 800 feet in heiglit

HO'YA, agenns of tropical plants of the order AseUpiadaeffr, having aS-cIeft
whecl-slinped corolla, and a 5-lenved spreading fleshy corona. Some of the t-ppcles
Arc common in hot-hoascs, and from the appearance of tlieir flowers they arc called
Wax-plants.

HrAHEl'Nfe, the most easterly of the Society Islands (q. v.).

HUALLA'OA, a river of Pern, rises on the east side of the Andes, near
lat. U* B., nt an elevation of 18,V0O feet nbovo the sea. After a northerly course
of abont 500 miles, during which it presents many couiildcrublo falls, It enters the
Amnison.

HUAMA'NGA (now called Ayacncho), a city of Peru, in the department of Aya-
cncho, stands on un nflluent of the Apnrimac It was founded by Pizarro in 1639,
on the route iK'iwcen the old and new capitals of the country, Cuzco and Lima. It
has a population of about 23,000, with a cathedral and a university. Near H., In
1894, was completed the independence of Spanish America, by the decisive victory
of General Socrd.

HUA'NACA, or Goanaco {Auehenia Huanaea ; see Auchvkia), a species of the
same genus with the lluina and alpiicn, of both of which some naturalists snppose
it to be the wild original. It Is found not only on the Andes; but throughout great
part of Patagonia. It Is of a reddish-brown color, the ears tiiid hind-legs gray. It
jrenerally llvi*s in herds of ten to forty, and Is very qnick-slghted ana wary ; al-
though, such Is tho strength of its curios! ty,4hat hunters attrtict the lierds within
easy reach of their rifles by lying down on the ground, and kicking their feet in the
air. Like its congeners, the IL Is extremely sure-footed ou rocky ground.

HUANCAVELI'OA, a town of Peru, about 80 miles to the west-north-west of
Hnamansra, staiuls. at an elevation of 11,000 feet above the f«a, on the east declivity
of the Andes. Its inhabitants, said to be about 10,000 in number, are chiefly engaged
In the working of the neighboring mines of gold, sliver, and quicksilver.

HUA'NUCO, a town of Pern, on an nflluent of the Huallnga (q. v.), which bears
its own nnme, Is situated on the east declivity of the Andes, nt a distance of 180
miles to the north-north-east of Lima. It contains 7000 Inhabitants, and is one of
the most ancient places in the country.



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