James Orr.

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Clirinnel. at the cast end of Romncy Mar-h. Lympne or Limne (the Partus Lent'
anis of the Romans>, the ancient castle and harbor, about 8V milss west of H., is
now about two miles from the coast, the sau having irradnally retired, first, to West
Hythe, and then to the present haven, whicli is still silting up. The town stands
chiefly at the foot of a cliff, and couslstn of one main stre<rt, running parallel to the
sea. with smaller ones braucliing oflF. It has an interesiing church, pnrtly Nonnim
ancl partly Early English. Under tho chancel of the church is an extraordinary
collection of human ^k^Ils and l)oneB — many of the skulls having d'^ep cuts in
them— the age and origin of which are altogether nncertain. H. is now a ptace of
great resort in the bathing season. The parliamentary borough of IT. includes
Folk^tone, SandgiUe, and some smiiilcr places. Pop. of mnniclpal borough, which
includes West Hytbo (A8711, 8383. H, ie about a mile from the Folkstoue and Dover

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ttu 824

If the uioth letter In the alpbabeta of Western Earope, was called by the Greeks
Jota, after fts Sheinltic name (Ueb. Jod), which sjgulfles " huud." The oldest
forms of the letter, as seen iu the Phoeuiciau and Sumaritan, have a rude rcsum-
blauce to a hand with three Augers : but with gradual eimpliflcatioii, the character
came to bo the smallest in the alphabet, and **• iota " or ** jot " is a synonym for «
trifle. The original sound of the letter, and that which Is considered Its proper
sound iu all languages except ED<;liBh, Is that given to Eng. e iu mt; with this
power, it forms one of the fundamental vowels UfJ^^^ (see A and Letters). What
IS called the long sound of i in Eug. is really the diphthong ai r.ipidly pronounced.
The power that the vowel t, followed by another vowel, hus of turning tue preceding
consonant into a sibilant, has been noticed in regtuxl to the letter C. (q. v.) : further
instauces may be seen in sncli French words as rage^ singe, from LaU raliiea, 9imia.
In Lat., there was but one cliaracter for the vowel land the semi- vowel now denoted
by the character j. See J.

* lA'MBIO VEllSB, a terra applied, in classic prosody, and sometimes in BngUah,
to verses consisting of the foot or metre called /am5tu, consisting of two syllables,
of which the first is short, and the second long (^ -). Archilocnaa (q. v.) is the
repnted inventor of i.-imbic verse. The English langnnge mns more easily and nat-'
orally iu this metre than in any other. See Mbtbb, Verse.
TliS stag I it eve I hid drunk | his nil.

Lady qf the LaJ^

lA'MBLICBrnS, the proper name of several persons in classical antiqnity, as — ^1.
A king of Eme^a. who, in the civil war, took the part of Antony.— 2. A Syrian
freedman, who flourished at the end of the rei^n of Trajan and beginning of that of
M. AuroIinsdlT— 169 A.D.). Uewas instructed bv a Babylonian in the laugaa<re,
manners, and literature of B ibylon, and wrote the *^BubyIonica.** or Loves oi Rho-
danes aud Sinouis, in 16 or 39 book^ which has been preserved by Photlns, c zciv.,
and Leo Alhiiius. It is the oldest of the novels of autlqaity which has reached tiie
present day, but Is not of any i^reut merit either as to style or plot.— ^. A philosopher
who flourished under Constautine about 310 a.d., bom of an illustrioos and we Irhy
family at Ciialcis, in Ccele-Syria, pupil of Auatolius and Porphyry, and of the Neo-
Platonlc school of Plotinus, whose doctriues be extended. Little is known of his
life ; but he wa<i followed by a numerous school, who listened with enthnyiuein and
res|>ect. and who tlionght tliat he was inspired, had interconrse with the god», and
coald divine and perform miracles. This gave him immense credit Uis doctrines
werea syncretic mixture of Pyllmgoreaii and Platonic ideas, mixed with snpersti-
tlon and magic, and the i^npposed manifestition of Ood by ecstasies, anda conunii-
nication with the spiritual world bj% ceremonies. One of his £:reat works; On
the Choice of Pythagoras C'Peri Aireseos Pytliagorou'*) consisted of ten books, of
which there remains the 1st, A Life of Pythagoras,fllled with prodigies, aud evidently
written against Christianity. 2. An Exhortation to Philosopliy ('* Protrcptikoi Logol
els Pliilosopiiiun "), an ill-arrang(Hl introduction to Plata So, On the Common Knowl-
edge of Mathematics (*' Peri K()inesMathematikesBpi!«teine8'0f full of fragments
of Pythagoras, Piiilolaus, and Archytift. 4th, On the Arithmetical lutrodnction of
NicomacTius. The 6th and 6ih hooks are lost. The Tib, The Theology of Arithme-
tic C*Ta Theologonmena tes Arithmetikes'*); the 8th, The History of Music; the
9th, Geometry ; the 10th, On the Study of Ueaveniy Bodies. Ue also wrote a work

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on the Soni, commentflries on Plato and Aristotle, another on the complete Chal-
diean Phllosophyf another on BcsnnuJngSf and one on Sacred Images, in which he
affirmed that the gods re^idod iu their statues. His celebrated work on the Myste-
ries (" Peri MnsteriOn '*) is, however, dispntcd ; it is supposed by Meiners not to be
written by I. : but is asserted by Tennemanu to be the work of this author. It is
drawn up as the answer of Abammon, a priest, to a letter addressed to his pupil,
Anebo, bv Porphyry. It contains many Bcryptian doctrines, and esoterical explana-
tions derived from the Hermetic Books, the writines of Bitys and others, mixed
witli Pythajrorean and Neo- Platonic ideas. The style of I. is not careful, and infe-
rior to Porphyry'. I. is supposed to have died at Alexandria, 833 a. d.— Jieveral other
%vriterB of this name are know, as a younger philosopher of the Neo*Platonic school,
born at Apamea, and supposed to be a nephew of the preceding, praised by Libanins
to Julian tlie Apostate; another, son of Hiroerius, mentioned oy the same author,
and a physician at Constantinople.

Eiulocia, *'Violetum,'»p.244; Eunapius, *• Vit Pbilosoph.," p. 20 ; Hebrcnsbrcit,
««DeIambllcho,"(Leip. 1774); Brucker, "Hist. Crlt. PhlL," iL p. 260; "lambli-
chus," a Gale, fo. (Ox. 1«78).

IBA'RRA, or San Miguel De Ibarra, a town of Ecuador, South America,
in the dcimrtmcnt of Quito, and 60 miles north-east of the town of that name. It is
situated on the northern base of the volcano of Imbaburu, is well built, and carries
on manufactures of wool and cotton. Pop. estimated at about 10,000.

IBE'UIA. See Hispania and Osoboia.

IBE'RIS. See Candytuft.

I'BEX, the ancient name of the Bouquet in (q. v.), or Stienbock of the Alps ; and
now, accordiujir to some zoologists, of the genus of the goat family, or sub-genuB of
goat, having the horns flat, %i]d marked with prominent transverse knots in front,
whereas those of the true goats are compressed and keeled in front, and rounded
behind. The species are all inhabitants of high mountainous regions. The I. of
the Caucasus and the I. of the Pyrenees differ a little from the I. of the Alp& and
from oue another, but the differences may perhaps bo regarded as those of varieties
rather than of species.

The conventional ibex represented In Heraldry resembles the heraldic antelope in
all respects, except that the horns are straight and serrated.

IBICUI', or Ibcuy, an important affluent of tlie Uruguay (q. v.).

I'BIS, a genus of binls of the family Ardeida^ or according to some ornitholo-
gists, of ScMopacidcB^ and perhaps to be regarded as a connecting link between them.
The bill is long, slender, curved, thick at the base, the point rather obtuse, the upper
mandible deeply grooved throughout Its lenpth. The face, and genemlly the greater
part of the head, and sometimes even the neck, arc destitute of feathers, at least In
adult birds. The neck is long. The legs are rather long, naked above tlie tarsal
joint, with three partially united toes in front, and one behind ; the wings are mod-
erately long, the tail is verv short. The Saored I., or Egyptian I. (/. relr'giosa), is
an African bird two feet six inches in length, althongh the body is little larcer than
that of a common fowl. Tlie Glossy I. (/. falcineUiM) is a smaller species, also
African, but migrating norihwanls into continental Enro]>e, and occasionally seen
In Britain. It is also a North American bird. Its habits rewmble those of the
sacred il>ex. It<* color is black, varied with reddish brown, and exhibiting fine pur-
ple and green reflections. It has no loose iicndcnl feal hers.— The White 1. (/. alba)^
asiwcies with pure white plumage, abounds on the coapts of Florida. Audubon
saw multitudes on a low islet, and counted 47 nests on a single tree. Tim Scarlet I.
(r.rttber)\» a tropical American species, remarkable for its brilliant plnmage, which
is scariet, with a few palches of glossv blaclc. The Stuaw-necked I. (/. or Oeron-
tints spinit^ollia) is a large Australian bird of flue plumage, reniarlcablefor stiff nalced
yellow fenther-slinrts on the neck and throat.

The Sacred Ibis, one of the birds worshipped by the ancient Egyptians, and
called by them Hab or Ht6, and by the modern Egyptians Abu-Hattnes (I. e.. Father
John), is a bird \vilh long bealc and legs, and a heart-shaped body, covered with
bicck and white plnmngo. It was supposed, from ttie color of its feathers, to sym-
bolise the light and sbs^e of the moon, its l)ody to represent the heart; its legs de-

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Ibrahta. 326

Bcrfbcd a triangle, and with Its beak ft performed a medical operation; from al)
which CBOterical Ideas It was the uvamr or th^c:od Tholh or Hermes (see Hermcs),
whoeaciipH in that »»h:ipethc ptirsait of Tjrpnou, as the hawk was that of Ha, or
Boms, the nmi. Its feathers were snpposed to scare, and even kill, the crocodil«%
It appcai-cd in E^pt at tlie rise, and dinappeared at the iuaudatiou of the Nile, and
was thoni;hr, at that time, to deliver Ej^pt from the wiujsed ami other serpents
which c:in)e from Arnbhi in certain narrow parses. As it did not make its nest in
£{^ypt, it was thonxlit to ))e self-engendering, nnd to Iny egv^ for a lunar month. Ao
cordnig to home, the basilisk was engenderwl by it It u us celebrated for Its pnrity,
and only dnuik from the purest water, and the roost strict of tlie prlesthoo<l only
drank uf the poob where it had b;'en seen : besides which, it was fabled to eut^Ttaiu
the most Inviiiclhle lovo of Egypt, aitd to die of self-starvation if transported else-
where. Its flesh was thought to l>e Incorrnptlhle after deiith, and to kill it ti-aspaii-
ishablewith death. IbiH<!s were kept in the temples, and unmolested iotiie nelghliur-
hood of cities. After death, th -y were mnmimcd. and there is no animal of which
so many rLMnains have Ixjen fonnd at Thebes, Memphis, Hermopolis Magna, or E!»h-
mun, and at Ihia or IhtMim, louileei miles north of the same place. They are niad«
np into a conical shape, the wings flat, the le^^s bent back to the breast, tlie head
placed on the left side, and the beak nnd.T tlie tail ; were prepared another mam>
niies, and wrapped np in linen bandai:c9, which an: soiuutlmos plaited in patterns
externally. At Thel>es, they are found in liiuMi bandages onlv ; well preserved at
Hcnnopolis In wooden or stone boxes of oblong form, sometimc(< in fonn of the
bird Mm If, or the god Tliotli; at Memphis, in conical sag tr-loaf-shaped red earthen-
ware j ir.<, the tail downwards, the cover of convex form, ceinentiHi by lime. There
appears to lie two sorts of embalmed iblMits— a smaller one of the sixc of a com-
cnike, very hi ick, and the other black and white— the JMs Sumeniua or /W» reli-
ffioaa. This la-'t is a^tially fonnd soni times with its eggs, and with iU insect food,
thii Pimelia pilo9a, Alnsrejlexa^ uud portion-* of snake-, in the stomach. It is said
torej^enible the 1. of India rath.-r than Africa. By the Jews, it was held to be an
unclean bird.— Wllk'n-'on, "Manner* mid Uus«tom"*," v. 7, 21T; Pass diogna, ** Cat-
alogue Rai»ouu6," p. '/55: Fettigrew, ** History of Mummies," p. 206; "Horapollo,"
i. c. 30, atS.

IBUAIIIM PASHA, the adopted son of Mohammed AH, the viceroy of Eiypt,
was l)orn in 1789, and g ive tlie first pniofs of Ids gillantry and gcneraNliip iu 1819.
in quelling tlie iusnrreeiion of the Wahabi.-*. He afterward* pai»dued S Minaar and
Darfnr. He invadvjd the Morea at the head of an Egyptian army in 18:i5. with tno
view of reducing It nirler the po\v.*r of Mohammed Ali ; bnt the intervention of the
great powers in the affairs of Gr ;ece compel hnl him to abandon this enterprise iu
1823. Mohammed All having conceived tn- d nign of addln-i Syria to his do ninions,
Ibraiiim crossed tiie Egyptian Iwrdir with an army in Ocfo')er 1S31, took Acre l»y
storm, and quickly made nimi"elf master of the whole of Syriiu A p ace wa** co.i-
cliided on 4Ui May 1833, the Turks not only consi'ntmg to iriva up Syria, but al?«o
making over Adana to Ibrahim personally, on a kind of Icjise. Wh«»n war broke
out ttg:iln l)elween Mohammed All and the sidtan in 1839, Ibrahim w.is again snc-
cespful, t »lally routing the I'nrks in the great bittl ' f)f NIsIb on «4t'i June. The in-
ttTferenci* of the great power:*, eveiitn I y compelleil him to relinquish all his Syrian
conquests, and to return to Ejypr, suff ring, durimr hix p;ia«*ag.» tlinmgh the d serr,
till* mO't terrible liard.^hips and IO"*ses, whil-t the attempt '0<'levate Egypt to com-
pile IndepiMidence came to an end. In 1S4S, wiieii the ag >d pacha had t^nnk into
ab«olnt.«' dt)tage. I. w«nit to Constantinople, and wa-« install-dby tliePortea? Vic«*n»y
of Effvpt: bnt on 91 li Novonib-r i84S. he died at Cai o. He was snceeed^tl, not by
any of hU own children, but by Abbas Pasha, the favorite grandson of Mohamintd

IBRAI'L. Sec Brahilov.

ICE is water in the solid form. It Is spcclficnlly lighter thon water which Is jnst
about to fre-ze, and therefore swims in it. Water, In becoming solid, ex|>aitd^ nltont
l-9th of Its volume or bulk. Theforination of ice takes place generally at the sur-
face of wnt r. Thin is owing to the iiecnliariiy, that when water has cooled down
to within 7<''4 of frc zing, it ceases to contiict, as b.'f(»rc with iiKrea.««e of cold, and
begins to expand until it freezes ; which caoses the colduat portloua of the water to

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be alwayH float4ng on the sarface. In some clrcumBtancep, however, not very well
explained. Ice forms at the bottom of rivers, and la called groniid-lcu.

Water in ordinary cases freezes at Ihe degree of lieat marked 39° on Fahren-
heit's tliermoiueter, and 0° on the Centigrade and Rt^anmnr's ; but if it is kept per-
fectly still, it may be cooled to nearly 2»« F. below freeziug, and silll rcmnin liquid.
The least shjike, howevt-r, or the throwing in a eolid body, makes « portion of it
freeze instantly, and its temperataro rises iinmediattly to 82*. Sen-wnter and snlt
water in general, freezes at a lower tempar.iture than pure water; in doing which,
part of the salt separaie.^, ami the ice, when melted, gives water thnt is fr«sTier than
Ihe original. The color of pnre ice is deep blue, which is only discernible, however,
when it is in large masses. It is best seen in the clefts of a gincier or an iceberg.

In the neighborhood of the poles, and on mountains of a certain height in all lati-
tudes, there exist immense masses of permanent ice ; and even in tome disiricts of
Siberia, where a kind of culture is practicable in summer, there nre found nt a cer-
tain depth Ih-Iow the surface of the earth strata of ice mingled w5th tand. In sink-
ing a well at Yakutsk, the soil was found frozen hard to the deptli of 882 feet, and
con!«istiug in some parts entirely of ice. Tliese permanent mafses of ice must he
classed with rocks and mountains, as among the solid constituents of the globe.
In ihe lower regions of the torrid zoue there is no ire, and in the temperate zones, it is
a passing phenomenon. From the i>olar ice-flelds and glaciers which arc always
protruding themselves into the pea, great floating masses become detached, and
form icebergs, floes and drift-ice. These boi^s or mountains of ice are sometimes
more than 260 ftot above the sea-level. They present the appearance of dazzling
white chalk-cliffs of the most fantastic shnpes. Fresh fractures iiave a green or blue
color. From the specific gravity, it is ciilcuhited that tlie volume of an iceberg be-
low the water Is eight times that of the protruding part. Icebergs, and flows or ice-

fields, are often laden with pieces of rock and masses of stones and detritus,
which they have brought with them from the coasts where they were formed,
and whirli they often transport to a great distance towards the equator. These
floating masses of ice are dangerous to navigation.

Tlie hardness and strength of ice increase with the degree of cold. In the
severe winter of 1740, a honse wns built of the ice of tlic Neva at St Petersburg 60
feet lone, 18 wide, and 80 high, and the wnlls supported the roof, whicli wns also of
Ice, without the least Injury. Before it stood two ice-mortnrs and six ice-cannon,
made on the turning-lathe, with carrlager* and wheels also of ice. The cannon were
of the calibre of 6-ponnders, but they were loaded with only ^Ib. of powder, and
with hemp-balls— on one occasion with iron. The thickness of the ice was only
four inches, and yet It resisted the explosion.

About twenty-four years ago. Faraday culled attention to a remarkable property
of ice, since (incorrectly) called Regelation. He endeavored to account for the fact,
that two slabs of ice, with flat surfaces, placd In contact, unite into one mass when
the temperature of the surrounding air is considerably above the freezing-point, by
assuming that a small quantity of water, surrounded on every side by Ice, lias a nat-
nral tendency to i>ecoi:;ae ic«; and the fact, that two blocks of Ice placed In contact
do not unite unless they are moist seems to bear out this idea. But J. 'I'honiFon
gave a totally different explanation of this phenomenon. He shewed that the
capillary force of the film of water l>etween the plates issufllcient to account for a
very considerable pressure between them ; so that from his point of view the phe-
nomenon would be identical with the making of snowballs by pressure; and the
formation, by a hydraulic press, of clejir blocks from a mass of pounded Ice, an
observed fact, the explanation of which irflo be found in the property of Ice men-
tioned below. See "Proceedings of the Royal Society," 1860—1861. Faraday,
taking up the question again, shewed that the (so-called) regelation takes place itv
footer as readily as in air, a fact quite Inconsistent with the action of capillary forces.
To this, J. Thomson replied, shewing, very Ingenlonsly, that the capillary forces he
at first assumed are not necessary to a complete explanation of the observed phe-
nomena. See reference above.

Other views of the question are nnmerons, for Instance, that of Persoz, adopted
by Forbes, in which Ice is considered as essentially colder than water, and as passing
through a sort of vl:<cou8 state before liquefying, as metals do during thebroccFS
of melting. This idea, however, haa not oi late found much support ; and it u prol>

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able that the tree solntion of the qneetfon Is, as J. Thomson has lately pointed out,
to be foand iu the analogy of the cr}'9taUisatiou of salts from their aqaeons

However that may l)o, there is no doaht abont the following property of ice, theor-
etic;»IIy predicted by J. Thomson from the exporimcntal fact of its expanding in .the
act of freezing, and demonstrated by means of the Piezometer by Sir W. Thomson
—viz., that the freczlng-polnt of wnter. or the melting point of ice, is lovoered hg
preiuture ; and the brothers have, with lingular ingenuity, applied this to the expla-
nation of the motion of glaciers. That a maps of clacler-lce moves in its channel
lilce a viscions flnld. was lln*t completely established by Forbes. Thomson's expla-
nation of this motion is of the following nature: In the immense mass of tlie
glacier (even if it wore homogeneous, much more so wlien full of cracks and fis-
sures, as It always i?), there are portions subjected to a much greater Ptrain than
others. The prt^ssure to whicli they arc eubjected is such as corresponds to a melt-
ing-point coiiplderably below the tempeniture of the mass— aud therefore, at such
points, I he ice mt'ltf, the etniin is relieved, and the whole mass is free for an in-
staut to move nearly as a fluid would move in its place. But the strains being thus
for an instant removed, the tcm|>eratnre and pressure of the water are again consis-
tent with freezing— the thin layer of water quickly solidifloH, and then matters pro-
ceed as before. Thus at every instant^ the strains at diiferent parts of tlie mass
melt It at tho*e places where they are greatest, and so produce the extraordinary
iLht^nonienon of a mass which may in common language be termed mlidy and even
rt{;i'i^ slowly creeping down its rocky bed like a stream of tar or treacle.

Ice-trade and Manufacture. — The tnide in ice i$ now cue of great and increasing
importance. Ice has always been esteemed as a luxury in warm weather; aud this
early led to the storing of it in winter and preserving it for snumier use. The
Greeks, aud afterwards the Romans, at first preserved snow, closely packed iu deep
underground cellars. Nero, at a later period, established ice-houses in Rome, simi-
lar to those In use In mo?t European countries up to the present time. But these
means were not enoagh to supply the luxurious Romans with ice for cooliug bever-
ages, iind they actuulTy established a trade in buow« which was brought to Rome
from the summits of distant mountains.

The Irade in ice in this country has, until lately, been very limited, having
been chiefly confined to the supply required by a few of the first-chiss fl?li-mon-
gors and confectioners— the private retfideucos of the more opulent families being
furnished with ice-houses in which n sufficiency is kept for private use. But Iho
North Americans have stjirted a trade iu this article in their own cities, which lias
extended to Europe and A*la, and has, in an incredibly short space of time, at-
tained a sni-prljjing magnitude. The cx|)ort of ice from America was commenced
alK)ul 1820, by a niercTiant named Tudor, who t?ent ice from Boston to the West
Indies. After |)erscvering agaln.^t many loi«ses, he succeeded in estabUuhing a
trade with Calcutta, Madras, aud Bombay : and now not only is it sent in v;:st

2u intitics to those places, but also to Hong-lcong, Whampoa, and Batavia. About
ftecn years cince, the Wenham Lake Ice Company commenced sending ice to this
country from Boston, which is the great Amcrieau port for shipment of tliis m:ile-
rial; and since tluMi, not only has there b^cu a continually increasing supply, but
the success of the Conii>any has been so great as to leinpt others into the markit,
and tlie supply for great Britain now comes almost wholly from Norway ; JS4,02l
tons having bi-en imported thence in 1876, of the value of Xl 07,092, whilst only 10
tourf were received from other countries. Fifte<'ii or twenty years previous, Amer-
ica hail sent to Qreat i^ritaln on an average 20,000 tons annually, costing as many
lIio;isa:Kl pounds.

In Anvri' tt, tlic ice is chiefly collected in the neighborhood of Boston, Phila-
d-^lphia, Baltimore, Washington, and New York, and !!i»» lake.-* which supply It form
iiortm,:!l part of the property of tho^o whose lauds border i hereon ; thej«o'havo all
1) >pn rarofuily marketl out. and the right secured, so that, when the winter come^
nmt I he ico is f«irnicd, the harvest lK»;:ins with great regularity. The ice i« cleared
from snow by means of an Implement called the plane. An ice-plough, drthvn liy
hor.scs, and driven by a man riding upon it, is then made to cut deep ]iarallcl
grooves In the ice, and these are again crossed by oilier grooves at right andes, so
that the whole of the surface is deeply marked out into small squares, measuring a

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829 ?c2S[

little moro tbnn three feet. A few of these sqnnre blocks being detached by hand*
BawB, the remainder are easily brokmi off with crowbars, and floated away to the
lce-storehoa«efs which are usunlly bailt of wood, on the borders of the lake. Some

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 160 of 196)