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deavored to avoid employing the word, but other writers on mental philosophy
have fnely adopted it lu the above acceptation. See also Gbmebausatiom and

IDBLSR. Christian Ladwifr, an eminent astronomer snd chronologist, was bom
91st SepU'moer 1766, at Gros-Bresc near Perlel)crg in Pra«sia, and, after holding
variou** offlces, received a professorship at the uuIveniiW of Berlin in 1821. He dii-d
AngU8t 10, 1S46. L's roost important works are, *' lIlstoriK-he Untei-suchungcn
liber die Astronomischen Beolmchtungen der Alten " (Lein 1806) ; ** Untersuchung
tiOer den Ur*nrnng uud die Bedoutnug der Sterunaraen" (Berlin, 180^) • "Hand-
bucb der Matheniatischcn und Tcchnfrchen Chronolo'de " <2 voU. Berhn, 1825—
1826), the lost of which was the flnst work that presented a clear view of the reckon-
ius; of time among Uiu ancients and*' Die Zcltrechnuug der Chiuescn " (Berlin,

TDEM SO'NANS, a term sometimes used in English law, where a mistake as to
a surname is mude in a legal document, to denote that the name used by mistake
was of a similar sound in which case the mistake is generally ti-catcd as immaterial.

IDE'NTITY of person in point of law must often be proved in leiral proceedings,
as In proving a marriage, ]>roving a pedigree, proving a tlilef. &c. The usual {iroof
is the oath of some one who knew or was cognisant of the tacts at both the timi*s
referred to. A favorite defence of thieves und persons accused of crime is, that it
is a case of mistaken identity, in wl.lchcase the prisoner mast generally establish an
alibi— \. e.. that he wan in some oUier place ot the time in question.

IDENTITY, Contradiction, and Excluded Middle. It has Ixcn common to look
upon some truths as necessary, In oii|K>sition to others that, although certain to all
intents and purposes, are not necessar}', but contingenL Thus, it is considered n
iiecessarv truth, that two straight linrs cannot enclose a spare; that the less cannot
include thegreater; that a man cannot bein iwoplacesat the same time. On tlie other
hand, it is not neecss:iry that uold shcmld bu yellow, or water transparent : thc^c
fact*, we conceive, nilfrht hav" been otherwise arranged. There has been n»ueh ct>n-
trovcrsy as to this character of n«"cessity tinit distinguishes some of our beliefs from
others. 8ec Nkoessitt. Tbetclioolni«Mi laid down tliroc principles, involvin*; what
they considered the widest jroneralisai ions of our necessary beliefs: these are the
laws of Identiry. Contradiction, and Exclnded Middle.

The law of Identity is expressed thus: *' Whatever Is, is;" a proposition justly
considered as irr^•si^tll'le. If any olijcction lies against It, it is, that nothing apptars
to bit pot by Jiftlrmiu}^ It. When wc say that •* Water freezes a» 32o," there is a pit-eo
of n«-w information conveyed ; by nienJv knowing water In its liquid state, we should
not know that at 32^ it iceanK- sold: the afflrmation is something real. But wlien
wc say that *' Water Is water." there is the form of information, but nothing is ccm-
vcjed; the proposition beloiigs to the class ttrmed** identical." Wc merely rc-afllrm
what is alnady affirmed. The law of identity can only mean that we are to adhere
to the meaning of a word as once given ; that is to say, we should he con>i.''trui in
tl>e use of teruis. It is a law, not of things, but of the employment of language to
detiOte things.

The law of Contnidiction Is, that "the same atlribnte ainnot be both afBrmed
and denied of the same snl)jeci ;" or that n thing cannot be and not lie at the same
time. In other words, two affirmations that contradict eacli otlier cannot be both
true. We cminot say both that the **Sun has risen," and ih«5 ** Sun has not ris'ii ;'*
*^ Gold is licavy," and ** Uold is not heavy.'' Uvre, also, one might saggest the re-

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mark, that the proposition Is an Identical one; for the naie of the word *^ not " cao
only mean that the proposition to which it is cooplod cannot be held along with the
proposition to which it i^ not coupled. That if the niflrmativc be tme the negatiTo
must be false, and if the negative l>e true the affirmative must be false, are bat tbo
same thing differently expressed. The word **uot" is an abbreviation for what
wonld otherwise bu a more rouudalM>ut expression. Instead of saying: *'I disbe-
lieve and deny that gold Is white," wo say : '* Gold Is not white." So far, therefore,
the principle of contradiction, like ttiat of identity, is not a law of things, bat of
tlie use of language; implying simply, that when wo have affirmed a fact iuone
i form of wonls, Nk^c mnst, in varying our terms, adhere to the same affirmation.
1 But this remark does not cxluiust the scope of tlie principle. It has already been
observed (see Conditioned), tiiat our knowledge can never be confined to one ab-
Boiato propcrtv; in other words, to know a thing, we must know something dlflfer-
ent from it. We cannot even be conscious of one unvarying impression ; animals
that live in total darkness are not conscious of the darkness, ihey would become so
only in passing into light It is true that we arc constantly in the habit of roentioQo
ing a single property, and leaving out of account the relate<l fact but for which the
ilr:)t would have no existence ; we may talk of llgiit without alluding to darkness.
But it is not tlie less certain that the altematlvo circumstance, for the time sup-
pressed, is a real part of tlie case ; and there are many occasions, when our meau-
ing cannot be fully imparted without actually quoting the alternative; and to be
l(^ically or formally complete, we ought at all times to state the two.

There are many qualities, the very mention of which brings vividly before the
mind an opposed couple : os, up, down ; straight, crooked ; desire, aversion, Ac
Bnt beyond these cases. It is a tenable assertion that every fact or property rcec^-
uized by the human mina mnst be recognized with relation to some other fact or
property, its contrast or opposite, but for which as an alternative, the mind wonld
not have that opportunity of traiMsitiofn essential to consciousness itself. Take rti-
ne^ which does not suggest to the mind an opposite in the same manifont form as
In the above instances. If all li^ht were red, there wonld be no designatiou of mi-
ness : the only terms wonld bs light and dark. Bnt as there are varieties of light,
tliat is. as we experience mental shocks or impressions by transitions occurring
under tlie Inininons ageucy, we are made alive to subordinate differences, which we
mark as so many distinct properties. When white and red arc presented to the eye
In succession, there is imparted a shock of diffei*ence, developing an item of knowl*
edge, which to be fnlly expressed, would bo ** white-red." While wonld then mean
the opposite of red, and red the opi>osite of ubite; to the affirmation, '*Snow is
white," there would correspond as an essential aiid inseparable |>art cf the same
fact, ** Snow is not red." Bnt as therj stte a great many transitions of color tiiat
make the mind scnsiWc to differmce, the menlion of oue color is attended with, not
one simple denial, bnt many denials. We have red-green, red -yellow, red-bljc, &c;
and moreover, when these couples pass in succession before the view, we are farther
struck with the fact of agreement In tlie con;moii effect ** redness." Tims the fact
or property '* redness," is the name for the common elcMueut in certali: conples,
which eiomcnt it affirms, while denying in each case the contrasting element; ii U
not-white, not-^reen, not-yellow, not-l>lne, and not every other color, wliich placed
side by side with it made the mind alive to difference. When, by differences and
agreements as now described, a class of colors is constituted, the mention of one is
tiio denial of eveiy other member of the cla^s; and the denial of one is the meiniou
of some other or others, provided we are keeping our attention couflned to that class.
Professor do Morgan introduced into logic the pTirasj ** univorseof the proposition,"
t^ intimate the class of objects implied when an affirmation, with its corresponding
denial, is given forth. Thus, *• Such a thing is red," implies as the universe of tiie
pro|>osition the class of colors ; *' A rose smells sweet," is in the universe *' odors."

Many other examples might be quoted in illustration of the general principle, and
also to shew that, in the case of ambiguity or uncertainty in the meaning of a poi«i-
tive term, the proper remedy is to demand an explicit statement of the quality, or
qualltici), denied. Thus, if a thing is spoken of as *' beautiful," which cout.ast is
intended? lor tliere are several implied in the name. Is it ** beautiful, not ugly or
deformed," ** not indifferent or insipid," ** not sublime 7" &c The impurlant function
of defining terms is thus, iu the last resort, to bring Into open etatemeot, what is

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idiots was made in the BicAtre mt Paris many rears a^ A magnUKoeikt trainhiK-
Kchool, uow Duinberiiig ubont 600 Inmates, has boeu some time iu operatiou at
Barlswood, Beigate ; aud there is a similar institution at Larbort, Stiriin^ahire,
while a souUler schuol exists at Baldoran. Forfarshire. — Segniu, **Traitemeat
Moral, itc, den Idiots ; " Art. '' IdioUsme," '^ Diet, de M6deciiie ; " Abbotcs ^ f iaud-
Vook of Idiocy;*' Buckiuiuster Brown, ** Treatment aud Cure of Cretina aud
aud Idiots.''

IDIOSY'NCRASY (Gr., n peculiar temperament), the iiarao giTen to any consti-
tntional peculiarity. Thus there are persons who have a great clisiike to'iMuiicalar
kiudeof food, smello, sounds, Ac, which to most persousaro agrecal>}o; and on
the other hand, a desire is sometimes manifested for things gcnemlly disliked. In
particular individuals, again, an ernptiou of the skin will be caused by eating straw-
Derries, or swooning by the Hmell of a rose, and that quite unconnected witti any
liking or dislikiu]; ; and such effects are produced when the person is unaware of
the cause. Idiosyncrasies also occnr, in consiquenee of which certain medicines
become inoperative, or certain poisons harmless. Idiosyncrasies are either perma-
nent or temporary, sometimes arising from mere morbid conditions, aud disuppear-
in}r along with them. — The term is also employed to denote mental^ as well asphptt-
col peculiarities.

I'DOCRASE. See Vbsutian.

IDOL {Qr.'eiddUmy an image), Ido'latry (worship [tefripi'a} of tmages). By the
name idol is meaut an Imago iuteud.'d to represent u divinity, and to be adored aa
such. The act of worshipping sncU an object as a divinity is called idobitry. Al-
tlioogh the ftrsl princi|>lu8 of reason suggest to man's mind the Idea of one Supreme
Being, the source of atl existing things, aud the origin of all good (see Qoo), yet the
very earliest historical records, sacred aud profane, teem with evldenc«« of tbe
errors into which men quickly fell tlirongh ignurunce aud pus^tion. changing ** the
glory uf the nncorntptlDlo God into an image mode like to corruptible man. and to
birds aud four-footed beast, and creeping ihit'gs" (Itom. i. %i). To the»e Inures,
as well as to the images of inaulmiiie obj^i^, or of the ideal powers or forces »up>
posed to be embodleit iu such objects ;— as the sun, the moon, tlie stars, air, water.
Are. and otlier uaturul elements— divine honors were paid bv most of the
ancient nations; to which houors the namv' of idolatry lias been gtven. Hence, as
each of these corrupt worshi ts had its owu peculiar symbols, the idolatry ot the
ancient Gentile religious may be r.*duced to four classes: 1. The idolatry of u^
tnre-worsliip, wliicU wuh of two kmd^— first of inoiwaulc natore, whicli consh^ed
chiefly in LilhoUUry^ or the wor^^hip of stones or pillars, mentioned In Lcvitinna,
xxvi., and in Number:*, xxxlii. 6i; ilie second of organic nature, or of the powers
of nature, as Vendrolatry, or the worship of tre^»s— under which fi»rm were sy
bolised the productive or generative powers of nature, and to wlijch tbe must mod;
investlgaturs of PhoBtiicInn antiquities trace trie origin, as well of the grossly I
moral worship of the Atthtaroth of the Phoenician^ as of tbe phallic worship, which
found its way, under various forms, throngii all the kindred races, both iu llie West
and iu the S-isC. 2. ThJ idolatry of animal-worship, wliich we find ns well in the
(perhaps onginallv symbolical) wonthip of the racred oxen, the crocodiles, aud ser-
pents among the K.ryptians. a« In that of the still more degniding forms of aninial
life which constituted the obju»ct of .-idoratiou with other nations. 8. A lii;;lier form
of idoUtiy, wliicli prevailed among the races of CbaldeHii ori^n, was Attrofattjfj or
stur-worsnip. whicli is often d3si<niatecl by the name of Sab^eimn. Ttiere was one
form of SdbtBism whicli cannot strictly be called idolatry, as It did not Involve the
use of idols, but addressed Itsi*lf directly either to the lieavenly bodies themselves,
or to the element of fire, with which they wer^ asi^ociatod. But the same object of
religions worsliip, conph-d with the use of idolatron« r<•preseulatlon^is found In the
wor2>liip of Baal, of Moloch, aud of Tammnz, th j rhaenleinn Adonis (Bsekiel, viii
14). 4. 'Viw. last form of Idolatry, and thnt which prevailed in the later period of tbe
ancient Gsntile rellzions, ua^ Anthropolatry^ or the won*hip of representatious of
ttie huiiuMi form. It is chiefly familiar to us through the mythology of Greece and
Rome, (Nit it also found a place in most <if tlie other rilis^ons syi^tems. In some of
which the representations of the hnman form %vere varionsly modifled, soasto sym-
boUse those special attributes wblcli formed the peculiar objects of the wonhlppeni,

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adoration. Of this there are many cxamplea in the niTthologfcal rcprewjDttitlonii of
the Sjryptians and of the luditins. In tlie Egyptian religion, Indeed, and in the Inter
Grecian, many of the idohi were representations of pnre abstraclioim, aa of certain
faculties or affections of the mind, of virtnous desires, or of evil passions. Kor can
It be doubted, that among the more cultivated classes, there were individuals by
, whom these abstractions were fully understood, and by whom the cmde idolatry of
the multitude was regarded solely as a device adapted to their more tn^sa and mate-
rial conceptions.

Tlie Jews, notwithstanding; the many Bafei<:nards Viy which the belief of the one
Supreme Belnir was protected in their religious system, were frcqnei^ seduced
Into the idolatrous worship of the Gentile nations amons which they were thrown.
It h* one of the most remarkable among the anomalies of the liislory of this siiuni-
lar pe<ip)e, that the great and radical nurifkation of their faith In the unity of God
dates from their protracted Babylonian captivity, from which time it was main-
tained, notwiihstandiug the effort of Antiochns Epiphancs to introduce the Greek
Idolatry (I Macch. I.), down to the coming of our Lord. The idolatry into which
tlie Jews fell at different periods was chiefly of the first and the third forms de^
scrilHK) above.

The idolatry of the savage tribes of the African and Occanlcan races is for the
most part of the class described under the head Fsticuism.

TDRIA, a small bat important town of Austria, in the crownlandof Camlola,
celebrated tor its quicksilver mines (discovered in 14971.1s situated in a deep, cal-
drou-sbapod valley, on a river of the same name. 82 miles west'South-west of Lai-
bach. The descent to the mines Is by 787 steps, hewn in the rock, and is easy, and
free from danger. They are said to be the richest in Europe. Upwards of 880 tons
of quicksilver are here produced annually, and about 60 Ions of cinnabar (red sul-
phnretof mercury). Pup. (1869) 8960. about 400 of whom are regularly employed
as miners, the others chiefly in the manufacture of liueu and silk fabilGg and bone-
lace ; and in dislilliug spirits.

IDUME'A. See Edom.

IDUN, or Idana, the name of a goddess of the northern mythology. She was
the daughter of the dwarf Svald ; but being received among the jEnir, she became
the wU0K>f Bragi. L possessed a precious apple, by the use of which the gods pre-
served their perpetual youth. She was carried off by the giant Thiassi, with the
assistance of Lokt ; bat the gods sent the latter after her, to bring her back, which
be did, after changing himself into a falcon, and I. into a nut.

I'DYLL (Gr. eldullifm^ Lat, idyUittm, a little Image), a term generally used to
designate a species of poem representing the simple scenes of pastoral life. It is,
however, an error to suppose that the idyll Is ezclnsively pastoral ; certainly, there
Is no wnmint for such a notion In the usage either of the ancients or the moderns.
Of the thirty "Eldyllia" of Theocritns, not more than one-half are pastoral in their
character. After the use made of the word by Tennyson, in his ** Idyhs of the
Kink,'' which are epic in their style and treatment, and romantic and tragic in their
Incidents, It becomes very dlfflcult to say what is not an idyll.

I'GLAU, a very old walled town of Austria, in the province of Moravia, Is situ-
atetl on the river Iglawa. close to the Bohemian boundary, 49 miles west-north-west
of Braun. It consists of the town proper and of three sqbnrbs. In the midst of the
spacious and beantiful town square, stands the guard-house. L carries on spinning,
dyeing, and brewing, as well as extensive manufactures of woollen goods and u£
machinery. Its trade, especially with Poland, is very important. Several very pro-
ductive stiver-works are in operation here. Pop. (1860) i£0,112.

IGLOO'LIK, an island of some historical Interest, lies near the east end of the
Strait of the Pury and Hecia, In lat. 69° 21' n.. and long. 81® 68' w. It was named
after an intelligent Esquimaux woman, Parry's guide and pilot on his second voy-
age; and hero thatniavigator passed the winter of 1828—16^8, from 30th October to
ifth August. During this time, the temperature ranged between - 46o and 69® of
P., thus yielding a mean of 7° above zero.

IGNAT'IUS, St, Bishop of Autloch after 69 A.D.. Is said to have been a disciple
of St John, and is reckoned one of the apostolical Fathers. He bore the surname of

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Thtophww—\. e., one who carries'God [Or as I. explained iti " Chrirt"] in bbhecrt:
or, at^iu, ns some (Jerome ninongst tltem) wrongly aupposed, *'*' one who was carrkti
by God^'—i. c, Christ (cf. Murk, ix. 86)— whoui. however, according to St ChiTaos-
torn, I. never »uw. This legend that he was the little child whom JeMis ftet in the
midst of lils dlscfpieS; may, nowever, like the other tradition of his relatioiMibip to
St John, be taken as symbolic of his winning, affectionate nature. L was a inie
shepherd of his people, one of thotic meek, earnest, loving spirits to whose beauti-
ful nnobtrusive piety Cbristiauitv owed its first and best triamphs. Domitiau'to per-
secution of the cliuixh of Antioch proved lilm to be no less conrageoos tbAupioos,
and wlic ii^ at storm liad passed over, the second and fiercer perescotion of Traian

f ratified l% wish of l)eing saciificed for his fiock. The story of his interview with
'ra]an has come dawn to as. That strong ruler, full of worldly sogacitv, just and vir^
tuons after his fashion, could not understand a man so utterly unworldly as Ignaiiiis.
He contemptuously called him a kakodaimon^ or, as we should say, ** a poor devil,'* and
in the end condemned him '* to be led as a prisoner to Rome, there to be uwde th«
food of wild beasts for the amusement [ad deiectatiotiem] of the people. >* The sen-
tence was executed 107 ▲. d., or, according to others, : id a. d. In the Church of
Rome, his martyrdom is commemorated on the 1st of February ; in the Greek Charch
on the 20th December.

The eenninenesa of the writings (a Liturgy, and a little work entitled '* Didacb^"

Saoted by Chrysostom) and epistles ascribiH to him— of which fifteen (twelve In
reek and three in Latln^ are now extant— and some of which are quoted in the 2d,
Sd, and 4th centuries, and were widely read in the ancient chnrch, has been eagerhr
di&cussed and much disputed since the 16th century. The common opinion of schof'
ars (until perhaps the last twenty years) was in favor of the genuineness of seven
of the Greek epistles, which are extant in two redactions of different length, and in
two corresponding ancient Latin translations— those to the Ephesinns, Magiiesians,
Philadelphians, lirallians, Smymteans, Romans, and to Polycarp, liis contempofary;
but even these were regarded as spurious l)y Daille, Semlcr, Hermann, Emesiti, and
others, with whom in the main I^eandcr concurs. The controversy received a new
impetus by the publication of Bunseu's ** Ignatius uud seine Zeit" (Harab. 1847),
in which that writer endeavored to establish the genuineness of three of the seven
epistles, and the spurionsness of the otliera; his conclusions were, however, assailed
by the great leader of the Tfibiugen school, F. C. Baur. in his *^ Die Iguatlaniscben
Brlefo-undibr ueuesterKritikeP' (T" "" *

, rab. 1848). The most probable view of the i
epistles is that which conceives them to have a basis of genuineness, but to have
Buffered extensive interpolation. The reason wliy these epistles have excited so
keen an interest, especially among ecclesiastics, is, that the question of cbnrrh
government is believed to hang very much upon tnem ; they are, in fact, a batUe-
eround between Episcopalians and Presbyterians ; and as they seem to favor the
hierarchical system of the former. Episcopalians have, as a nile, been strennous in
defence of their Iguatian origin, while Presbyterians have as warmly attacked it
The discovery, in an Egyptian convent, of a Syrlac version of three of the epistles—
those to tlic Konians, the Ephesians, and to Polycarp (publislicd by tlie Rev W.
Cureton, formerly of the British Museum, under the title of " The Ancient Syrlac
Version of the Epistles of St Ignatius," &c, Loud. 1645), has, on account of Its p(»-
sessing higher claims to be considered genuine than any Greek MSS., led to the
conclusion that the common Greek text lias been very seriously tampered with — the
interpolations consisting often of passages enforcing episcopal authority, and as-
serting tiie deity of Jesus Clirist

The best edition of the writings ascribed to I. is contained in the ** Patres Apos-
tolici " of Cotelerius (2d edit Amst. 1724) ; of those commonly held to be genuine,
by Jacobson (Oxford. 1838) ; various translations of the seven epistles have been
made into Englisii— tlie l>est known is that by Archbisliop Wake.

IGNATIUS' (St) BEANS, the seeds of the Ignatia amara formerly Strpehn<m
IgnatiL a tree of the natural order Loganiacetje^ and nearly allied to that which pro-
duces Sux vomica (q. v.), a native of Cochin-China and of the Philippine Islands.
The fruit is of the size of a large pear, and contains about twenty brownish seeds, of
about the sixe of olives, rounded on one side, and somewhat anguhu* on the other.
Those seeds came into the Dutch shops under their present name about the end of
IbP '^ c, but there is some reason to think that they are the nux wmwa of eailier

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writers. They contain vtryeKniat and their medicinal QBes are BinUlar to those of


I'ONEOUS ROCKS are thoee which have heen prodaeed from materials fnsed
bv heat They differ from the sedimeDtary rocks in their orlfflOf stractarct and po-
sition. They invariably come from below upwards, breaking throagh the older
rocks. The materials of sedimentary strata are fragments of pro-exuting rocks,
worn, by tlie action of water, either into a fine mad or into ronnded parucles, of
greater or less size ; whereas igneons rocks exhibit either a vitreons stracture, as
when they have been qnicldv cooled ; or a granalar stractare, composed of more or
less miuate crystals, accoraing to the rate of cooling; or a vesicnlar strnctnrc,
when Uiey have l>eeu expanded by the contained gases, or by being brongtit into
contact \nth water. Some rocks are erroneously called igneous, whose materials,

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 163 of 196)