James Orr.

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osophy of Dngald Stewart-, conceprion Is applied to the cape of our realising any de-
scription of actual life, as given In history or in poetry. Wiieu we conipleteiy enter
into a scene portrayed by a writer or speaker, and approacli the situation of the act-
ual observer, we aro often said to conceive what is meant, and also to imaglns it ;
the best word for this signification probably Is •* realise,"

2. It \* further essential to Imagination In Its ptrlctest sense that there should bo
some original construction, or tliat what is tmiigined should not be a mere picture
of what wo have hcen. Crcativeness, origination, invention, are names alpo desig-
nating the pamo power, and excluding m«re memory, or tlie literal reproduction of
past experience. Every artist is saidto have imngination according as lie can rise
to new combinations or effects different from what he has found in his actual ob-
ser>'ation of nature. A literal, matter-of-fact historian would be said to be wanthig
in the faculty. The exatt copying of iiatnro mny be very meritorious m an artist,
and very agreeable as an effect, but wo should not designate It by tho term imagi-
nation. There are, however. In the sciences, and In all the common arts, strokes
of invention and new constructions, to which It might seem at fin*t sight unfair to
refuse the terra In question. If originality be a loading feature in Its definition. But
still we do not usually apply the term Imagination to this case, and for a reason that
will appear whf-n wo menlfon the next peculiarity attaching to the faculty.

8. Imaginatiou has for Its ruling element some emotion of the mind, to gnatj

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2m«rltU 856

which all its coDttrnctlons are gnlded. Hore lies the great contraiit between it and
the creativeneea of science and mechanical iuvention. These last are iustmroeutal
to remote objects of couvouience or pleasare. A creation of the imagination comes
home at once to the mind, and baa no ulterior view.

Whenever we are under the mastery of some strong emotion, the' corrent of onr
thoughts is affected and colored by that emotion ; what chimes in with it is retiiined,
and other things Icept out of sight Wc also form new constmctions that suit tbe
state of the moment Thus, in fear, we arc overwhelmed by objects of alarm, and
even coniure np spectrea that have no existence. But the highest example of all is
presented to us by the constmctions of line art, which are determined by those emo-
tions called €BatheHe. the eensc of beauty, the pleasures of taste ; they are sometimes
expressly styled ** pleasures of the imag^oatiou.'' The artist has in himself those
various sensibilities to an unusual degree, and he carv^ and shapes his creatioBS
with the view of gratifying them to the utmost Thus it happens that line art and
imagination are related t(^ether, while science and nseful artare connected with onr
reasoning faculties, which may also be faculties of invention. It is a deviation from
the correct use of language, and a confounding of things essentially distinct, to saj
that a man of science stands in need of imagination as well as powers of reason ; he
needs the power of original eonttructionj but his inventions are not framed tosattsfj
present emotions, but to be instrumental in remote ends, which in their remoteness
may excite nothing ttiat is nsnallv nndnrstood as emotion. Every artist exercises
the faculty in question. If he produces anything original in his art.

The name •' Fancy " lias substantially the meanings now described, and was origi-
nally identical with Imatjrinatlon. It is a corruption of fantasy, from the Greek /an-
tasia. It lias now a shade of meaning somewhat different, i)eing applied to tltom
creations that are most widely removed from the world of reality. In the exerciae
of onr imagbiatlon we may Iceep close to nature, and only indulge the liberty of re-
combining what wo dud, so as to surpass the original in some pointa, without fore-
ins to«^ther what could not co-exist in reality. This is the sober style of art Bat
wiien,ln order to gratify the unbounded longinss of the mind, we constmot a fslrr-
land with characteristics altogether beyond what human life can furnish, we are said
to enter the regions of fancv and the funtasticaL

The ^ ideal," and " ideality," are also among the synonyms of -Imagination, and
their ufeual acceptation illustrates still farther the properly now discussed. The
'* ideal " is somethinc that fascinates the mind, or gratifies some of our strong emo-
tions and cravinc^ when reality is insnfficient for tnat end. Desiring sometliSng to
admire and love bc];t>nd what the world can supply, we strike out acombination free
from the defects of common humanitv, and adorned with more than human exoei-
lenco. This is our " ideal," what satisfies onr emotions, and tbe fact of its so doing
is the determining influence in the construction of it.

IMAU'M, the appellation given to the most honored teachers of Motiammedan-
ism. The word is Arabic, and signifies a director or teacher. It Is commonly em-
ployed to designate any of the persons belonging to the Mohammedan (Jlema (q. v.).
or priestly body. They are distinguished from tiie laity by a turban somewhat
Iiigner than usual. They are held in great revorcnce by the i>eople. The sultan him-
self has the title of Iroauin, as the spiritual chief of all Moslems. Tbe word is some-
times incorrectly written Imaun.

IBCAUa See HuTDfj-K^sH.

IMBA'TTLED. See Embattled.

IMBECI'LITY must not he confounded with idiocy. In the former, there is the
imperfect development of mind ; in the latter, there is the non-development of mind.
In the feuble intellect, there may be present every faculty which distinguishes the

most gigantic understanding, and these mav act under orainarj' laws; but they are
dwarfed, incapable of continued growth and training, and arc exercised and applied
under the gniuauce and assistance of others, or of external circumstances. There

arc large numbers of weak-minded, useless persons in every commnnitj, who differ
from the more robust intellects solely in decree. But the more marked and recog-
nisable imbecility, aa transmitted congenitallv, as following dentition, chorea, con-
vulsions, and diseases which retard vigorous bodily development, or as induced br
the great constitutional changes at puberty, is characterised by all or man j of the foP*

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lowlnff ermptoms. The expresrion is Tacant, the senaesare dnll ; the bead is tmaU, the
body aefomied ; the gait is raciiluting aud restless ; tlie head i» pendent, thrown Iwck,
or agitated ; the saliva escapes ; the iau<;uagt; is limited and infonUlc ; the ideas are
few, n!id consisit of mere sensooa? impressions ; the temper is timid, facile, and vain ;
and the passions are liitle sasceptlble of control. The affection has been regarded
AS genernl, or iiivoiriug the whoie mind ; or as partial when the Intellect only, or
the sentiments only, or n pnrticnlar faculty may be feeble and ineducable. In a legal
Tiew, snch persons have l)ccu divided Into those who hare, aud those who have not,
a moral perception of right and wrong. It Is, liowever, worthy of consideration,
that while tliey may Icnow right from wrong in tlieir ordinary aud habitnal range or
dntles, and within the scope of their own capacity, they mav fall to do so lM*yoi»d
tliese narrow limits, and where qaestions of property, propriety, or abetract jnsttce
are concerned. M.iny imbeciles are maf*cnlar, capable of performing acts requiring
strength and endnrance rather llian dexterity; and in this coanlrr, as vffXi as many
others, they are not merely the ** nalarals," who run everylwdy's messages, but
ttiey are conveiled into the domestic drudges of the homestead, the white slaves of
the farm. From the more clever aud canulnz of the class were tiie professional
foots of former ages aelecied. Imbeciles are otien confounded with senalne idiots,
aud their partial edacability has exaggerated the snpposed sncceas m the attempts
to elicit aud mature the embr>-o mind. However for this train ins may l)e carried.
and even when the snhiect has become self-maintaining, it may ue safely aesertra
that lie is never self-gniding nor self-governing, nor capable of an independent cz-
i«fcncc.->Howe, **On the Caosea of idiocv;" Reports, Idiot School, Karlswood;
•«X)e ridlotie ches lea £ufaut8," par Felix Volsin.

IMBECILITY, in point of law— I. e., something short of idiocy or lanacy>-Is no
ground of relief in England against a con tract, though relief is always granted in
case of fraud, aud the imbecility of one of the parties may form an element of the
fraud. Nor does the law of England in any pccuhar wav protect an imbecile person
or ills property ; for so long as a person Is noi actually iuMinc or an Idiot, he cau
do what he likea with his own. In Scotland, however, an imbecile person Is to a
certain extent i>roiected against being imposed upon, as regards his heritable prop-
erty, by a step called intcraiction, which consista in either the imbecile, who Is con-
scious of his wealiucss, executing a bond of interdictiou, by which he puts him.«cif
under trastees, whose consent is in future made necessary to render valid his con-
tracts, or he may !» judicially interdicted by the Court of Session, at ihe instance of
bis next ot icin, with lilce effects. The trustees or guardians in such cases are called
the intcrdicters. See Lumact.

IMBBR, or Immer. SeeDiviR.

I'MBROS, an island of the iBgean Sea, about 11 miles nortb-eoat of Lemnoa, and
the same dlstanc*? from the moniu of the Dardanelles. It it 18 miles iu leugth, and
has an area of 116 square miles. The island la mountainous, its highest summit
inking 1845 feet above sea-level, and ia covered with wood. Com, wine, and cotton
are aonudantly grown in tlie valleys ; oil is also {Nodnced. L contains four villages^
the chief of which called Imbro, is built on the site of au ancient town of the same
name. Pop. of entire island about 4000.

IMBRU'ED, or Embrued, an expression used In beraldry to signify bloody^ or
dropping with blood. Weapons thus blazoned are drawn vnth drops of blood fall-
iug from them.

IMERI'TIA, formerly an independent Trnnscancasian territory, now part of the
government of Kuutls (see Transcaucasia), ia bounded on the u. by the Cauca-
sian mountains, and ou the w. by the districts of Ghuria and Mingrello. Area,
4040 sq. m. ; poiK 100,000. Its history as an independent dominion commenced from
about the beginning of the 16th c, and was long marlsed by intenial dissensions. In
1746, Salomon I. was procUilmed, but his nobles revolting shortly after, and aided by
the Tnrlus dethroned him. Salomon applied for help to Itu8.-la, and in 1T«», Count
Todtleben, at the iilead of a Ruaeiau force, entered L, restored the king, and drove
back the Turks. The civil dlasensious of this pruvince, however, continued, and at
last, in 1810. after having long acknowledged allegiance to Russia, it was formally
Uicorporatcd in and procLdmwi a province of that empire.

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ImmovtaUtj 858

IMIDB& See Osoakxo BAtn.

IMITATION. See Stxfatht.

IMITATION, in the science of mnsicol coinpoiKftfon, Is the repeating of the f
passage, or tbe foUowloK of a passafire with a similar one, in one or more oC the
oUier ports or voices, and it may be eilber strict or free. Wlien tbe imitated pas-
sage is repeated note for note, isA every interval is tbe same, it is called strict, and
tt may take place ic the^nlson or octave, or iu any other of the degrees of tlie scale,
either above or below Uie original passagje. The progression of a (la^sage mav also
be imitated by an inversion, or by reversing the niovemeut of the original ; also by
( notes of a greater or of a lesser volne. 8ce Double Codhtebpoixit. Fuoite, and
Canon. Imitation iu com|>08iiion is one of the most important means of nrodoc-.
ing nnity and animation in tlie progression of the piirttf, and is nsed in a wtrict, and
also in a free manner, iu the iustmmeiital works of flaydu and Beethoven, and also
by Moaart in ills easier operatic works. Many composers, however, resort to imitac
tion improperly, and goueruUy from poverty of utuaica] ideas, or from pedautqr.
No fixed roles can be givou fur its use.

iniflTATIVB INSA'NIIT. There are many mental diseases, especially those
marked by erotesqno external manifestations, bv geeticnlations, and noavnlsive
seisores, which appear to be propngatt^^d by imitaUoo. In the tieaitby and natvraUy
constitoted, there existo a tendency to copy and reprodoce, or represent what power-
folly impresses the imagination ; and dnring the excitement of individoals or com-
mouitiee, this indinatiou is more iufloentiiu, and passes bayood tbe control of the

will. Great caotion, iiowever, mnst be exercised in dlstingoiahing between what is
epidemic and depends upon aturaspheric or external monu canses, from the resnits
of strong or morbid states of the mind itself. An Idiot is mentioned by Gall m ho.
having seen the slnnghtcr of a pig, killed a man after the same fashion. A child of
seven years okl snffocuteda yoauger brother on the snggestio'i of the strangling of
Pnncb at tbe bands of the devil. The example of suicide by han^ug having been
set by a pensioner in the HOpital dee luvalldes, six similar deaths rollowed, and by
sospension from tlie same lamp-post. After the retom of the Boorbons, there ap>
peared iu soccession seven female claimants to the parentage of Maria Antoinette;
and pyromunio, progagated by t*ympatby, is well known to nave existed in Norman-
dy Iu 1830.

of, a festival celebrated on the 8th of December iu tiie Latin, and on the i^h in the
Greek Chorch, iu which latter church it ts held under tho namo of ** The ConceptfMi
of St Aune," the mother of the Virgin Mary. The festival of the Couceptiou itself
U traceable in the Greek Church from tbe eud of the 6th c, and in the Latin dates
from the 7th : hot a great controversy prevailed for a lomr time in the West as to
wtiether and in what sense the conception of the Blessed Vli^^n Mary was to be beM
Immacniate, and in what sense the Blessed Virgin herself was to be held conceived
withoot sin. It was believed to be a conseqneuce of the doctrine of tbe divine om-
temity, and a necessary part of the honor due to the lucamatlou, tliat the Blessed
Mother shoold bo held to have been at all times free from the stain of sin. This
might have l)eeu, either by her having been, like tbe prophet Jeremiah (Jer. I. 0),
or the Baptist St John <Lnke I. 85), sanctified before her birth— that is, pnrifled in

her mother's womb from tlie stain of original sin ; or by the still higher sanctifica-
tion of having been eutirely exempted from the stniii or sin, either— for the discus-
sion was carried to all these subtleties— before the formation of the embryo in the

womb of bcr mother, or at least before its animation by onion with the sonl. The'
actool controversy in the Woat may be said to have commenced with St Bernard,
who not ouly remonstrated with the canons Of Lyon in 1181 fur their onanthorlsed
introdoction of this festival iu their cathedral, but rejected the opinion of the B le ss e d
Virgin's having been conceived free from original sin, though he admitted her sanc-
tlflcation iu her mother's womb ('• Epist. 1T4, Ad Canon. Lugdnnensfs*^. Tlie dis-
cussion thos raised led to a protracted controversy in the school^ The great master
of scholastic subtle! V, John Dons Scntns, in a disputation held before the onlversity
of Paris in 1807, maiittained the dncti iiic of the Immacolalc conception in its highest
seusc ; tmd the eutiro order to wliich be belonged, tbe Franciscan, as well as the school

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to which he bns given his name, the ScotlBts, aftcrwardp zcalonsly defended U. On the
other hand, the Thomiat school, which was that of the Dominican order, liaving denied
the immacalate conception, ninch division for a time existed ; bnt tho prc-vnillug ten-
dency was at all time* towards the Scotlst opinion. The university of Purls, in 188T,
condemned the Thomlst doctrine. The counsel of Busef— nltliough, it is true, at tho
time when it was in conflict with the pope — declared tlie doctrine of tlic immncnlate
conception to be n Catholic dogma, and reprobated in the strongest terms the opposite
opinion. Sixtus IV.. however. Imposed on the defenders of botn opinions, in 1470, tho
obligation of mutual tolemtlou and chariiy,und renewed this constitution in 1488 ; but
in the end of tlie same centnry, ttie universitv of Paris required, as a condition of
the doctorate, an oath on the part of the candidate that he would defend the dogma
of the immacnkte conception. The Ck>uncll of Trent, without discussing the scho-
lastic dispute, merely declared that ** in its decree on original sin it did not compre-
hend the blessed and immaculate Vii^n Mary," and renewed the constitution of
Sixtus IV. already rt-ferred to. This iicstinence on U>e part of the council led to a
further renewal of the dispute, which reached such a pitch towanls the close of the
16th c, that I'ius V. not onlv prohibited either side from stigmatising the opposite
with the name of heretical, hut forbade all public discussions of the subject, except
in theological disputatious in theprcseucc of a learned auditory. In the poutin*
cates of Paul V. and Gregory XVT, earnest iui'tances were made by the Spanish
crown to obtain a definite declaration in favor of the doctrine of the immaculate
conception ; but the pope again refused, contenting himself with repeatlnjrtbe con-
stitution of Sixtus IV. He added, however, certain new provisions: l.That dis-
putants, in asserting tho doctrine of the immaculate conception, should abstain from
assailing the opposite doctrine ; S. That no one except the members of the Domi-
nican order, ana others specially privileged, should presume to defend, even in
private disputation, the doctrine that the i^lcssed Virgin Mary was conceived in
original sin. 8. Tlmt, iieveitheless, in the public mass or office of the church, no
one should introduce Into the pmyers or other formularies any other word than
simply conception without adding any epithet involving either doctrine. At the same
time, opinion was setfintr steadily in favor of the doctrine of the immaculate con-
ception. Alexander VII. and afterwards Clement IX., added new solemnity to the
festival. Clement XL ordained that it should be obsei-ved as a holiday of obliga-
tion, and at Icngtii Grcirory XVI. permitted that the epithet immaculate should 1)0
Introduced into the public service. In the end, at the instance of bishops in various
parts of the church, the present pope, Plus IX., addressed a circular to the bishops
ot each nation, calling for their opinion, and that of their people, as to the faith of
llie church on the point; and on the receipt of replies all bnt absolutely unanimous,
he issued a solemn decree at Rome, in a numerous council of bishops, on the 8th
December, 1864, declaring the doctrine to be an article of Catholic belief, and pro-
posing it as such to the universal church. This decree has been implicitly accepted
throughout the Roman Church.

IMMORA'LITT, hi point of law, Is a good defence to actions and suits, but it
must he some Immorality which runs counter to the well-known policy of the law.
Thus, for example, if a man gave a bond, or granted a deed, giving to a wonniu
some annuity, with a view to induce her to live m concubinage, this would be a good
defence against the bond or deed being enforced, for the law discountenances his
conduct; wllerefl^ if it were merely a bond, or a gift, in consideration of something
Of the same icind past and ended, the deed would be good. So the keeper of a house
of ill-fame is not allowed to sue, and has no legal remedy against her guests for any
sura agreed to be paid for immoral purposes. In most other respects, the mere per-
sonal Immorality of the parties who are litigants makes no difference whatever as lo
their respective remedies, for the law protects the bad as well as the good, the unjust
as well as the just

IMMORTA'LITY Is the continued existence of the human soul In a future and
invisible state. •♦ If a man die, shall he live again ? " is a question which has natin^
ally agitated the heart and silmnlated the intellectual curiosity of man, w herever he
has risen above a state of barbarism, and commenced to exercise Ins intellect at alL
The religion of all civHised peoples may be said mure or less to recognise the affirmp

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ntlyo of the qnoetlon/ Although oftcm tinder very Tagne and maferialiatic forma. Id
the nnciuut E^yptlau rellgiou. the idea of inimortaltry flrglasimmea a deftuite ahape.
There is a clear recognition of a dwelling-place of the dead and of a fatare yoA%-
mcut Osiriti, the beneficent god, jadgea the deud, and ^* having welched their heart
in the scales of justice, he vuds tbu \vickcd to regioofl of darkui«s, while the joec ara
sent to dwell with the gud of li;{ht." The latter, we read on an inscription, ** fonnd
favor before the grecit God ; they dwell in glonr, where thev live a heavenly Ufe ; the
bodies they have quitted will for ever repoa;: in their toniDs, whilst they rejoice iu
the life of tlie sapreiue God." IminortaUty is plainly taaght, but bonnd np with tlie
idea of the perservation of the l)ody, to which the Egyptians attaciied great import-
ance, as a condition of thesours contiuned life; and hence they built Ta»t toiubsi,
and emlulmed their bodies, as if to last for ever. In the Zoroastriau religion, the
fniurc world with its governing spirits, plays a uromlnent part. Under Oriuoa ax^
Ahrimau, there are ranged regular hierarchies of M)irits engaged in a perpefaal con*
flict ; aitd tlte soul passes into the Iciugdom of liffht or of darlcuess, over whicn th^ae
spirits respectively preside, according as it has lived on tlie earth well or ill. Who-
ever lias lived in purlly, and has not suffered the dxw (evil spirlti^) to have any power
over him, iia.^ses after death into the realms of light Iu the early Qreciau pagan-
ism, Undes, or the naluis of the dead, is the emblem of gloom to the Hellenic im-
agination. *' Achilles, the ideil hero, declares that he would rather till the ground
than live in pale Elysium." This melancholy view of the future everywhere per-
vades the Homeric religion. With the proj'ress of Hellenic thought, a higher idcA
of the future is found to characterise both the poetnr and philosophy of Greece, till,
in the Platonic Socrates, (he conception of immortauly shines forth with a clearucsa
and precl-ioo truly impressive. In the " Apology " and the •* Phaedo," Socraten dis-
conrses of the doctrine of the soul's Imraortality, in ianznagc at once rich in faith
and In beauty. ** The soul, the Immaterial part, being of a nature so snperior to the
bodv, can it," he aslcs iu Ibe •* Phaedo,** ** as soon as It is separated from tlie body,
be di!tpjriu>d into nothing, and perish T Oli, far otlicrwlse. Rather will tliis be the
result. If it. take its departure iu a state of purify, not carrying with it any cling-
ing impurities of tlie body, imparities which durmg life it never wiUiogly shared
in, but always avoided, gathering Itaclf into itself, and making the separation from
the body Its aim and stod^—that is, devoting itself to true philosophy, and studyhig
how to die culmlv ; fur this is true pldloaouhy, is it not?— woU, then, f>o prepared,
the soul dep:irts into that invisible region wnich is of its own nature, the region of
the divine, the immortal, the wise, atid th3n italot is to be happy in astute in which
it is freed from fears aud wild de9ires, and the other evils of humanity, and speudj
the rest of its existeuca with the gods."

It is only in Christianity, however, that this higher life is clearly revealed as a
reward not merely to the true philosopher, but to every humble and pions aoaL
Christ ** hath brought life ainl immortality to Ikht by the g08)>el." ** According Iq
his abundant mercy, God hath begotten us agiiln unto a lively hope by the resnrrec-
tlon of Jesus Christ from the dead, to an inheritance IncorrnptlDle and nndeflled,
and that fadeth not away, reserved in inaveu." It is nndonbtedly owing to ChrL^-

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 166 of 196)