James Orr.

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tiunlty that the doctrine of the sonPs immortality ha« become a common aud wtsU-
recognised truth — no mere result of speculation, nor prodtict of priestly invention— >
but a light to the reason, and a guide to tlie conscience and conduct. The aspira-
tions or philosophy, aud tlie conceptions of mythology, are found in the gospel
transmuted into an authoritative iuflaonoa, governing and directing the present

IMMORTELLES. See Everlasttno Flowbb.

PMOLA (auc Porum CornoUl, or Forum Syllre), a town of Italy, in the piovloco
of Bologna, stands in a fruitful plain ndjoinlug picturofquo hills, close to the rivcf
Santeruo, and 24 miles weat-sonth-wcst oC Ravenna. It contains some fine palaces,

* Some of the most widely spread forms of belief in the world would seem to be
exceptions to this statement ; for iu Hinduism the goal sought is absorption into the
Universal Spirit ajid therefore loss of individual existence ; while the pious Bt^d-
hist strives for Nirtana^ or complete extinction. Yet even here the belief In a Itt-
toro life exists In the form of the Trausmigcation of Souls (q. v.).

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chnrcYies, theatren, and beneyolent InstUntions. L poesessea some good mannfnc-
tnrcs of wux, oil, mnjollca. silk, and gla^a, besides ezteiisire leatbcr-curlng e«tab-
litilimciiis^aud hrlr.k and tile works. From a species of white grape grown in the
▼Icinity, the delicious wine kuowa as vin tanto is maoafactured. Pop. (1372)
18,896. ,

IMO'SCin, a town of the Anstrinn tmplre. In DalmatiOf in n. lat. 43O80', e. long.
1T> 15'. It has markets twice a week, which are umcb frequented by Turks. Pop.
(probably including a district) 82,000.

IMPOO^N (AntUope or Cephahpus mefyeru). a Bmnll species of antelope, very
pleniifnl in South Africji, in wooded districts. Ii is about 21 inches high nt the
slionlderf of a brown isli-yellow color, with white belly. The horns are short and
conical, set far buck, and inclluod backwards. It lives solitary, or in pairs. From
its habit of plunging amongst bushes when pursued, standing on its hind Irgs at
intervals to observe Its pursuers, and disappearing again, the I. is oilled Dttykrr-hok
(Diver-buck) by the Dutch colonists of South Africa, among whom its flesh is in
great esteem.

IMPA'LE, In Heraldry, to arrange two coats of arms side by side In one shield
divided per pale. It is usual thus to exhibit the conjoined coats of husbund and
wife, the husband's arms occupying the dexter side or place of honor, and the
wife's the sinister side of the escutcheon. When a man marries a second wife,
heralds say that be may divide the sinister half of the shield perfess into two corn-
pan ments, placing the family arms of his deceased wife in chief, and of his second
wife In l)ase. A husband impaling his wife's coat with his own, is not allowetl to
surround the former with the collar or insignia of any order of knighthood to
which he may belongi Bishops, deans, heads of colleges, and kings-of-arms, im-

Falc their arms witli their insignia of office, giving the dexter side to the former,
n earlv hei-uldry, when two coats were rciiresentcd In one shield side bv side, only
half or each was exhibited, an arrangement which has 1>een called dimidiation,
BometimfS the one coat only was dimidiated. A rcminiicencc of dimidiation is
preserved In the practice of omitting bordures, orles, and tressures in impaled arms
on the side bounded by the line of finpalenient.

IMPANA'TION (Lat. in, and paniU, bread), a technical word employed In the
Enchnrisiic controversies to express the peculiar opinion proponnded by Lutlier aa
to the nature of the presence of Christ in the Eucharist. Dlflfering from t lie Ro-
man Catholics in denying the transnl>stantiailon of the bread and wine, and from
the Sticramentariaiis in denying that our Lord's presence was* merely typical or
flfirurative. Luther contended that the body and blood of Christ were present in, or
along with, the elements of bread and wine ; in a manner analogous to that In which
the divinity of Christ co-exists in the same person Mith his human nature. Hence,
by an analogy with the word incarnation, he devised for the Eucbarisik; union the
tfrm impanatlon. This doctrine was the subject of a lengthened controversy with
Zwhigli at Marburg in 1529. which left each party unconvinced ; and this tlieory
Bttll continues to be the received one in the orthodox Lutheran schools.

IMPEA'CHMENT, tlie name given to an accusation and trial of a peer or mem-
ber of parliament, or, indeed, any other perK>n, before the High Court of Parlia-
ment, for treason, or some high cilme or mIsdemeancH'. Thbi is a kind of trial
which is reserved for great and enormous offenders, partlcularlv in matters affect-
ing the constitution, for tlie ordinary tribunals generally suffice for all cases of
crimeH. Im|ieflchraeut, accordingly, is of rare occurrence^ the last instance Iwing
that of Lord Melville In 1806; but as ii is one of the high prerogatives of parliament
to try offenders in this way, it is still competent to use It. The proceedings nearly
re^mble an ordinary trial at law. A pardon by the crown is not pleadohle In bar of
i\\e prosecution, though, after aenieuce, the crown may pardon the offender. 8ee
May, **On Parliameuia.^'

IMPEACHMENT OF WASTE, an expression in English I^w, Used In deeds, or
willa. When an estate is given to a p rson for life, or for a term of years. vsithoxU
imtpeaehtnent qf waste, the tenant Is entitled to cut limber, and do many things on
the estate which otherwise he would be unable to do. Still, he Is not allowed to do
what be likes, for if he abuses his power, and attempts to cut down ornamental tim-

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bcr, for example*, or delace Ihe famjly mansion, the Conrt of Chancery will Inter-
fere by injunction to prevent this. The phrase is nut a:»cd in Scollaiid, bat the law
is not materially diffv'rcut

IMPfiNKTRABI'LlTY, one of the essential proper1i«» of matter, implies tliat no
two bodies can at tlie same time occopy llie same [^)mcc. If a nail be driven into a

Slece of wood, it does not. properly speaking, T^netmU the wood, for the fibres an
riven a**lde before the nail can enter. If a vessel be filled with floid, and a solid
body be then placed in it, as much water will rnn over as is cqnal in balk to the
solid body, in this way making room for it. The lightest gasfs are roally aj« impene-
trable as the densest solid ; altbou}(li, owing to their compresHibllity, it is not
readily made apiMureut.

IMPE'RAtiVE, Categorical. According to Kant (q. v.>. man, In the conscions-
ncss of his moral liberty, recognizes two great laws regulating liis will ; the first
prompts him to seek his own well-being, the second commands him to bj virtoons,
even nt the sacrifice of that. Prom this opposh ion in Ida moral nature between
dcHlre and conscience, sprlnirs up the Idea of duty, which in the Kantian termiaolosy
is called the *♦ moral imperative," to which Kant atlds the epithet oatot^rtco/, to indi-
cate that its commands are absolute and auconditional.

TMPE'RIAL CROWN properly slRnifles the crown borne by the German emperor;
lu form, a circle of gold, adorned with precious s»tones and. /curs-d«-/ic liordered and
seeded with pearls, and raised lu the form of a cap voided at the top Uke a cn^soeot.
From the middle of the cap rises an arched fillet enriched with pearls, and sur-
mounted by a globe, on which Ls a cross of pearls. The name Ini)>erinl Crown is,
however, in Eiulish henildry, applied to the crown worn in times pi!«t by the kius;9
of England. Prom the 12th century onwards, the crown of tlij^ Kugjlsh sovereign*
miderwcnt repeated changes in form and enrichment. That of Edward IL was
formed of four large and four small strawberry leaves, rising in curves from the
jewelled circlet, and liavin^ eight small flowers alternating with the leaves. la
Henry I V.*s crown, eight f trawl>erry leaves, and as vmxxs f^ixn-dt-lU alternated with
sixteen small groups of )>e!iris, three in each. Under Henry V. the enriched circlet
was for the first time arched over with jewelled bauds of gold, and tlie apex of the
arches surmounteti with a mound and cross, while crowtea pi%U«s were solmtitnted
for the strawberry leaves, and ra««es or flenrs-de-du for the clusters of pearls. The
arches, at first numerous and elevated to a point, liecame in later times restricted to
four, and depressed in the centre. The imperial crown cf he-Tildry as now nuder-
stood, is in point of fact the form of crown worn by the English sovereigns from
Charles II. to Wiinam IV. It has four erowtt* paUes and tour Jtsttn-de-lvt set alter*
Dately on the circlet, while four pearl-studded arches, rising from within the crosses,
carry at their intersection tlie mound and cross. The state crown of Queen Victori.t
differs considerably from this, having a far more enriched character. It is covered
with diamonds and studded with gems, and the arches are wrought Into wrettth<« of
rose, thistle and shamrock, formed of brilliants. A charge, crest or sapporter,
crowned with a regal crown, is said to be impcriallp crowned.

IBfPE'RIUM is a word used in the Roman law in various senses, the mo^t im-
poriant of which is that which it benrs wlieu applied to constils and jproconsols —
thence called Imperatores. Most of the snpenor magistrates were also introsrrtl
with the imperium, which meant a sovereign authority. It is of very little practical
Importance in modern times to trace the extent or precise natoro of the authority
thus designated, as the subject has no bearing on modem law.

IMPE'RTTNENCE. in Englloh Law, means some irrelevant matter introduced in
an affidavit or pleading ; and the court will generally order it to be struck out, and
the offending party to pay the cost of doing so.

IMPETI'OO, a disease of the skin. It consists of crops of pustules, which maj
either be scattered or collected in groups. These pustules burst, dry np, and become
covered with sc^bs or crusts of a yellow color, not unlike little masses of candled
honey. From beneath these crusts, a purulent discharge commonly takes place-
the crusts become thicker and lanjer, and the skin around and beneath them is red
and raw. The disease may be either acute or chronic lu the former case, it is at-

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863 SSSf""*^


tended wlt)\febrne Bjmptoms, wblch mnst be combated \rf the Internal admlnletra-
tlon of pnrgatives 8ud olIcnHes, ptrfct attention to diet, aiid weak alkaline lotions.
In ctironic cnws, the discharge may be cbeckeil by a totiou contatnlDS ten or flfteeu
grains of oxide of einc in an ounce of rose water.

Thure are various forms of this complaint, as f. figutaiOt I. gpana, Ac The
difiease known a^ CinutUa laeUa, which sometimes covers tlie faces of children like
a mask, ts a sort of componnd of impetigo and ecsema ; and the rose-water lotion
already menfJoned is a asefol application for It

IMPETAN, orlmpevau Pheasant (Lophophorus JmpejiMinu«),alar{iregaIllnaoeoas
bird of the family PbasianidtE, a native of high cold regions of tlie Himalaya, bat
remarkable as much as any tropical bird for the splendor of ita plumage, eubanccd
by the changing metallic tints which it exhibits— i;reeu, steel-liJne, violet, and golden
bronze. The liue ptoroage, however, belongs to the male alone. The female is
clothed in sober brown, mott!cd with gray and yellow, and is smaller than the male.
Tlie I. has been found capable of domestication, nnd may prob:ibly be found capa-
ble of naturalisution, in Britain. It derives its name from Lady Impev, who first
attempted to bring It alive to Britain, bat failed. The Nepaolese name, Monatd, aig-

I'MPLBMBNT, in Scotch Law, means fulfilment of a contract or decree of tho
court. ^

IMPLEMENTS, Agricnltnnil. Under this term are generally comprehended
not only the implements need in the actual cultivation of the soil, but those ro-
qnlaite for other operations of farming, and for the preparation of the produce
of tlie hind for use, in so far aft it Is ordinarily carried on by the farmer. The
first Implements for the cultivation of the ground were doubtless such as could
be used by m:m*s unaided strength, and many such are still in use, as the spade,
the hoe, the fork, and the shovel. When animals were reduced to the service of
man, the plough appeared in its first rude form. Grubbers, cultivators, Ac, are
recent inventions; lollers are more ancient. Sowing machines or drills arc mod-
em, but thtt harrow Is andent, although branches of trees drawn along the
newly sown land, long served the pnrpoee of its now carefully adjusted tines. —
The necessity o( irrigation in some countries early led to expedients and Imple-
ments for nccomplishlng it. Imnleroentsforcleariugthegronnd of weeds, for occa-
sional stirringof the ground whilst under crop, m\q. for earthing up crops, are all,
except the hoe, of comparatively recent invention. The scythe and sickle have existed
from remote antiquity, although the reaping-machine is a novelty only beginning
to assume a very important place. Wheel-carriages of various dcscrlptioriS and
for various purposes must be mentioned among agricultural implements; also
implements for thrashing and winnowing corn, lor scutcliing and breaking flax,
for ginning cotton, for crushing 8nsi:ar-caoe and evaporating its juice, Ac. The
preparation of the produce of different nlants requires implements of different
kinds. Others are required in the C4ire of cattle, and for the Dairy (q. v.). The
principal acrlcultural implements are noticed In separate articles, and some in
connection with particular kinds of cultivated plants.

IMPLU'VIUM, atankor cistern in the centre of the hall or Atrlnm (q. v.) of a
Roman house. In the examples which remain at Pompeii, the implnvium is gener-
ally fornie<1 of marble. It b* placed immediately under the unroofed part of the
atrium, and is intended to receive the rain which rumt down from the roof througli
the opening. Tiie implnvinm was frequently adorned with fountains, and formed a
very pecul&r and lutereetlug feature in the dwellings of the Romans.

IMPONDERABLE SUBSTANCES, an epithet applied to light heat, electricity,
and maeneiism, at a time when they were universally considered as matter,
in contradistinction to thoso substances which possessed sensible weight. See

IMPORTS Airo EXPORTS. See Bai^axcv of Tradi.

IMPOST, the point where aa arch rests on a wall or column. It is nsually
marked by borisontal mouldings, but aometimes these are abaeot, eapedally in

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Improvlwtorl ^04

Gothic architecture^ Where different forms of Smpoft are' need. These haive beoi
cUii8«d by Professor Willis as— lat, ^the MuftnuotM impost," where Uieftich mooUl
Sugs are carried down the pier; Sd, "the dimxnltinuotu hnpoat,** where thearvh
mouldings abut aud are etopped oii the pier; W. " the shafUd impost," where the
arch inoaldings spring from a capital, and are difiCerent from thoHe of the pier— (lie
form used in ihe oeat Gothic ; 4th, *^the hcmded iranoet," wlusre the pier and arch
have the aame nionldiDgH, but the impost ia marked h)r a band of horiaoutal
monUllu?', AS is freqaently the case in Kaliuu-Gotliic btdldlugp. Tlieee
pimple forms of impoat aio aomctimes used togcliier, so as to produce mora
complex combinatious.

I'MPOTENCT, in Inw, is a good gronnd for elf her of t^vo married parties an-
nnlling the marriage, if the impotcncy existed at the time the contract was entered
into. The defect mast be proved. The law is uniform in the United Kingdom.

IMPOIT'NDING A DOCUMENT occurs where a docament is produced in coarse
of a t rinl or hearing before a court orjudge, who, instead of giving^it up to the owner,
retains it, in order to enable a prosecutloiUo b^ brought if necessarj.

IMPOUNDING CATl'LR Is, fn English Iaw, the remedy glTen to all occupiers
of laud against the caUie of strangcra which stray on such land. It ftmoanlis in
fact, to taking and keeping thecattle as a security for the damage which has been
done. The occupier is then said to distrain the cattle damage feaaanL Tbia he
docs by seizing and driving tllera lo.tho nearest pound, if tiiere is one within three
miles— I. e., an enclosed place kepi for the purpose — or he may put them in premises
of his own. In ell her case, he is bound to feed and water the catrle at the expense
of ihe owner of such stray cattle, who can only recover ibem back by paying ih(rae
cxp^^nses and the damage done, or on giving security, and bringing an action of Re-
plevin (q. T.) to try the light. The cattle cannot be distrained unless they are at the
time nctnally trespassing upon the land. In Scotland, a similar rt^ht exists, called
tliu poinding of stray cattle.

IMPRE'SSMENT was once the mode formerly resorted to of manning the Brit>
ish navy. Tiie practice had not only tbesauctioii of custom, but the force of law»
for many acts of parliament, from tlie reign of Pldlip and Mary to timt of Geor^
III., hud been passed to re^^olate the system of impressment. Impressment con-
sisted in seising by force, lor service in the royal uavv, seamen, river-wmtenuen, and
at times landsmen, wlien state emergencies rendered them necessary. An armed
party of reliable men, commanded by officer?, usually proceeded to such lionf*eti in
the seaport towns as were supposed to be the resort of tho seafaring populittion,
laid violent hands on all eligible men, aud oonvt'ved them forcibly to the ships of
war in the harbor. As it was not in the nature of 8aik)rB to yield witliout a strngi^
many terrible fl«;hts lOOk place between tho press-gan^ aud their inteuded victims—
oombats in which lives were often lust. In point of justice, there is little, if any-
tiiing, to be said for impressment, whicli had not cveu tlie merit of an impartial so>
lection from the whole available popuktiou.

In recent times, when volunteers fail, a system of BoimtJes (9. v.) has been re-
sorted to; aud it isnot very probable ttiut recourse will 1)0 again had to impress-
meiit. At tlie same time, ihe laws sanctioning it slumber, withoqt b^ng repealed^

Uuder the laws, all ellgiblR men of seafaring habits are liable between the asros of
18 and 65; but exemptions are made in favor of apiwentices, who have«ot been two
years apprenticed, fishermen at sea, a pr(K>ortfon of aole seamen in each c<riller,
harpooners in whalers, aud a few others. A press^gauff could board a merchant-
vessel ora privateer of its own nation in any part of the world, and carry off am
many of the best men as oonld be removed without actually endangeiinir tlie v ecweL
The excrciite of this power made a privateer dread a friendly mau-of-wnr more than
an enemy, and often led to as exciting a chase aA when enemies were in pursnU of
each other; for tho privateer's men were the best sailors, for th^r purpose, the
naval ofOcers conid lay hold on.

IMPRI'SONMBNT. Tho power of Imprisonment for non-payment of deU, ^
well a» bv way of pimishmeot for crime, has alv« ays been held to be inherent in
courts of justice. In erimiual proceedings also, a person may, by a wllrraut of a
justice of peaoe, bo imprisoned before triaU provided the justioe considers it is BOI

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oyyo Improviaatori

a proper case for allowing bafi ; and as a generarrnle, thonfi;h In minor offences an
accused person ntay InsiHton being dircbarj^ed on tendering sufficient btiil, yet In
more (prions crimes It is always in the discretion of tlio justice to accept or refuse
the ball tendered, and on h|j* refusal, appUcution may be made to jud;,'es of the com-
mon law courts to accept bail. As regards hnprlsoumcnt for debt, it is now com-
petent only in cases where there is fraud in contracting or contempt in not paying
It. In one case, however, and only one, a person may be iniurisomd before jodu-
mcut has been obtained— viz., where he is uI)out to leave the Icingdom. In such a
case, the creditor requires to make an affidavit of the debt or canttc of action before
a judge, and may obtain a eapiaa to arrest the defendant, who will not l>c released,
except on ball, until judgment Is obtained. With regard to debts nnder £20, which
are generally sued for In England in the county court, though the defendant cannot
be imprisoned on a jiid;;meut for less than that amount, yet if he wilfully disol)ey
the jiidgtnent of the court, wlikh ordered him to pay by instalments or on a time
certain, and if the debt was orfginallv contracted by means of fraud, the judge can
commit him for contempt, and thus imprison him on another ground. In cases of
insolvency, it is no longer an act of iMinkruptcy to fuffer imprison li.eut for debt, but
ab:<enting one's self from business, leaving England, making a fraudulent assign-
ment, &c. Is an act of b:inkruptcy, and he may be aajndicat<Kl a bimkmpt, and bis
estate distributed In the usual way by the Court of Bankruptcy. But in general, if
a person wishes to be made a iMmlcrnpt, he can become so witiiont the necei-slty of
being impriiK>n(Mi. It was also a doctrine of the law of England, that If a del)tor
was once imprisoned for debt, it op<Tated as complete satisfnction. and bis land or
goods conkl not then l)e taken. But the debtor could get out of pil^on through the
Bankruptcy Court, which required him to give up everything to the creditors.

In Scotland, imprisonment for debt has not been abolished as yet; and it Is com-
petent to IropnEOn a debtor if the debt exceed £S, 68, 6d. An absconding debtor
may also bo arrested If in meditatUmti fug«B—\, e., about to leave the country, in
which case ball or caution Is required. In Scotland, imprlfsonment for debt is not
considered satisfaction of the debt, and the creditor may at the same time poind his
goods and adjudge his laud, and take other concurrent remedies.

IMPROBA'TION, a Scotch law-term, meaning the disproving or setting aside a
deed ou the ground of falsehood or forgery.

IMPRO'MFrU, in Music, a short cztemporaueoos composition. See also Fam-


IMFROPRIA'TION, the transfer to a layman of the revenues of a benefice to
which th» cure of souls is annexed, with an obligation to provide for the perlor-
mance of the spiritual duties attached to the benefice. The practice of impropria-
tion A\flen from the somewhat similar but more ancient usage of appr<fpriaiion^
inasmuch as the latter supposes the revenues of the appropriated benefice to be
transferred to eccleslastlcaj or qnasl-eccleslastical persons or bodies, as to a certain
dignitary in a convent, a college, a hospital ; while Impropriation implies that the
temporalities of the l>eneflce are enjoyed by a layman ; the name, according to ifpel-
man, being given in conseqnence of their thns being improperly applied, or diverted
from their legilimate use. The (ractice of impropriation, and still more that ul
appropriation, as in the case of monasteries, Ac, and other religious houses^ pns
vailed extensively in England before the Keformation; and on the supprrswon ol
the monaalerieis all snctk rights were (by ST Henry VIII. c 28, and 81 Beury VIlLc;
18) vested In the crown, and were by the crown freely trausfeiTed to laymen, tfl
whoso heirs have thns descended not only the right to tithes, but also in ntany casei
the entire propei ty of rectories. The ppiritnai duties of such lectorles are dischargeii
by a clergyman, who is called a vtear, and who receives a certain portion of iht
emoluments of the living, generaltv consit>ting of a part of the glebe- bind of the par*
louage, together with what are called tiie »* somll tithes " of the parish.

IMPROVINO LEASE, a lease, in Scotland, by which the tenant undertakes to
keep ttie prentlses In repair; calied a repairing lease in England.

IMPROVISATO'RI, an Italian term, deplgnatlng poets wlio utter vers** without

Sevions preparation on a given theme, and who fometlmes sing and accompany
eir voice with a musical instrument The talent of improvisation la found

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topnUlr. 866

ill races In which the imagination is more than nanally lively, as in the Arabs,
and ill many tribes of ne>froe9. Among the anclenta, Greece was the land of im-
provisRtiou. In modern Barope, it Una been almost entirely confined to Italy, whrro
Petrarch, in the 12th c, iiitrodaced the practice of singlnc Improvised verses to the

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