James Orr.

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crnl appointed by the crown, and acting nnder the control of the secretar)- of sJato
for India. Tlie viceroy is appointed by the crown for n term of six years, and is as-
sisted by a council of five ordinary members, three appointed by the secieUry of



state, two by her majesty's warrant. Each of them hss charge of a department of
the executive. The commander-iu- chief may bo constituted an extraonlinary mem-
ber of Iha councU. The legishitive council is composed of the members of the ex-



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892

eenMrr, to^ber wfth twclre in«inVn, one balf of wbom most be bjuco— cU fd vftb
the pablc prvrice. They are uo.ninaffvi lor two T««r» by tbe ricwor. BriHeb L !•
iiow diridtnl into tlie proTiuces munitioned )q the prvcemii^ table. It was fonoeiiy
dlTid'-d into th<; three Prr^ideijcieff of Bengal, Maantf, and Bombay; and in ord.Dxry
lat(;;Da^. aud ercn in offlclal docaments. the uaine of Preaideiicy la »tili 0t«ii to
the prijvincetf of Madras and Bomijay. Aa re^rds militaTy mattrra, tb« old tbrr«-
fold divi«t(»n may be raid to sabsist, but it mai«t be kept to rohid that BrilMi I. is
now dirided hito tbe 4 territoriea iiudf r the irorenior-gciieTal, and tbc 9 prortnce*,
eonroerated fu the precedlug table, aud thnt each hai» Sta own cirfl gorenrairtit,
and la ind 'pendent of the ocl>er». The two eoTemnieuts of Madras and Boai>
bay are niid-r the rnle of jroTcrnora appointed by tbe crown, and asaSsted by ex-
ecntire and le^^lalatlre coniicila. They communicate only with regard to irapCMrtant
matierfi with the honie (^verument throogti tlie giiremor-geiienil. Asreira nis agaha
of minor importanc4^, tcey correspond direcily with the secretary oC state for India.
The Lower Prorinci>« of Beuf^al, the Nortli-west Prorinces, and tbePttnjabare
admini»tored by lieutimnnt-^oTemors appohiti-d by the goremor-general, rabject to
Uie approimtion of the secretary of state for India. In Bengal, the Uealenaut-gor-
enior is agisted by a legislative coouciL Oade^ Assam, tbe Central Prorinces, and
British Bannah are governed by chief-commissiouerv sppointcd by tbe Indian goT>
emnient. Ajiuere was sepArat^ frooi the sovemmeut of ibe Nortli>w<:»t Provinces
In 1671, aud placed under tho din>ct control of tlie goTemor-general. Berar, also
known nndcr the name of tlie as:«igned districts of Hydcrabaa, Mysore, and Coorig
are ndniiuistered br commiseioncrs sppoiuted by the gOTeruor-generaL All tbe
pverumeuts of IndLi are f plit into provinces, ovi'r eacli of which a commiaKioner
IS pluced, and these are In torn divided into dL»tricts nudcr a judge aud collector.
Th(j pruvinc*.>s are di^'tinguislied into regnlatiou aud non-r^nlation proviuces. In
tbe ftirmer the rerenno is collected and justice is admiuist^^ accoidiug to fixed
meiliodn. In the latter, power is reserved by legislative enactment to modify these
a^ occasion requires. Kesident political agents are appobited by tiie British gor-
enuneiit ni the conrts of tho native prince^. The OnenanUd CMl Service ie com-
posed of £uropeani>, u bo couduct the gcueral administration in the Indian |wov-
{nces. Since IbM the members have been recruited from the successful candidatce
at comiH'titivi; examinations instituted for the purpose, held in Loudon. Tlie CTm-
covenanted Civil iUrviee^ amioinrmeut^ to which are inaae by tbe authorities in L, la
composed of Europeans, Eurasians (the cIum sprang from unlive mothers by Eu-
ropean fathers), and natives. MuuicipalitieA in L were first c> cated for the throe
presidency towns, aud it wa^ uot till 1830, 1856, and 1868 tlint acts were passed un-
der wliicli a large num))erof Indian towns have obtained municipal institution^
which are grndn dly diffusing the habit of self-govern meut over tbe whole country.

IlUitaru Force,— 'VUq Indlau military service, like the civil service, under-
went a thorough reorganisation, consequent on the great matiny, and tbe
transfer of tho government of the coantiy from the E»»i Indian Company to
the Crown. In 1875, the eatabiished military force of Bniiah L numbered 190,175,
including officers ; of wh(;m 123,688 were natives, and 60,2^ English (exclusive of
offleors). I. is divided into three military divisions, which although named after
the tJiree o'd presidencies of Bomliay, Madras, and JBengal, and pcr}ietuating their
uanieii, have not exactly tlio same limits. Of the native troops iT,vOO beIoiigc<l to
tho Bengal army, 87.000 to the Madras array, and 84,000 to the Bombay army. The
Biitisli forces are chiefly stationed In the Punjab, and along the vull^ of the 6an«
gos. lu 1872, tliere weie 87,000 English soldiers in these provinces, oC whom 18.000
wore lu the Punjab, 10,i00wero m tbe Bombay Presidency, and 18,^00 in thul of
Idadnis.

The Police In British I. Include a force of 190,000 constables or regular police-
mon. and the village watchman who aid them. 'I'ho minimum age of admission is
17, the maximum 81. Eacli district has a jiil and police supcriutcndent ; aud tbe
districts are grouped, forpuiice pnrpoives, iuto circles under depniy-iuspectora-geu-
cnil, while the whole police force in each province is uuder au inspector-general.
The constabulary is a purely civil force, sabjsct iu oli rospects, except iuterual dis-
cipline, to the civil authorities.

Adminietration of Civil Jtt«tiee,—ln 1861, by an act of parliament, high courta
of judicature were established at each presidency and in the North-weat Provinoas,



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893



India



under the control of a cblef-jaetlce, and os many other Judges, not exoeedlnir flf«
teen, as her Majesty may appoint. lu 1871—1878, there were i.088,163 civil salts in
L, nnd there can be uo doubt that the ronchtnery for litigation cupplicd 1)y the
courts i^ much employed. Sir Q. Caropl)elU however, fears that the teudoiicy to
upliold the bare doctrines of law — the literal fnlfllmeut of contracts alleged to have
1>cen entered into by ignorant and improvident people — lends to great hardship lu
cases which affect pottr men and l>enefit the rich and litigious. The Civil Proce-
diiro Code of India offers facilities for litigation which are aut to bo abused. Sir
Qoor?e Campbell, iu illustratiou of the views entertained of legal proceedings by
some classes of Indian litigants, eives the following account of a litigation between
the members of a family originally belonging to one of the hill-tribes. One of the
{larties, after litigating through all tlie courts of I., got u decree in the highest
court But there was an appeal to the Privy Council, and the suitor^s funds were
exhausted. So they caught an old man, carried hiui to the top of a hill, and sacri-
ficed him to propitiate the gods who rule the decisions of the Privy Council. The
Civil Procedure Code worked such mischief among the Sontals, that the people were
cx:ii*|}emted, and ha<l to be removed from the operatiuu of laws applicable generally
iu Bengal.

Hecenue, Expenditure, <£re.-~The annexed table shews the gross amount of tiie
public revenue and expenditure of Britii^h I., with the surplus or deficiency of reve-
nue iu each of the under-mentioned yean* ;



Years


Gross Revenue.


TofMl Kxt


K>ndltim».


ended.


In Indi:i.


In England.


1869
1870
1871
1872


49.262,691
60.901,081
D1, 418,686
60,110,215


43,226,687
42,791,018
41,016,608
40,486.818


10.181,747

10,691.018

10,088,004

8.127,694



Years
ended.



Gross Expenditure.



lyurplua (+) or Deficiency (— ) of
I Kevenue.



ExciUHivii of Pub-
lic Worlcs Ex-
traordinary.



luclu( iug Public
Works Extra-
ordinary.



i^iXciiiMVi* ot Pub-
lic Works Ex-
traordinary.



luciudiug Public

Works Bxtra-

oidiuary.



1869
1870
1S71
187i



52,086,721
60,782,418
49,030.696
46 986.083



63,407,834
68.882,026
61,096,606
48,614,612



—2,774.080
•f 118,669
-1-1.482,990
+ 3,124,177



->4,144,648
—8,480,946
+ 816,180
+1.495,708



lie ^ro.'^s timuunt of ttiu public revenue and expenditure in each province in British
exclusive of receipts aod expenditure in England, for the year ending 8^st March



1876, Ir shewn Ix-low:



f ndla under the Governor-general.

B(*nga)

.North-west Provinces

Onde

Punjab

C<*n t ral Provinces

British Burmah

Afsani

Madras

Bombay (including Siude)

Totals



Kevenue. Expeudittxre.



X
8,568,299
16,087.294
6 879J17
1.636,004
8;747,682

956,818
1.488,148

622 001
8,873.826
6,986 806



60,226,688



£

18,447,250

8,067 769

8,202,085

676.648

1,747,478

698.888

771,218

861,290

6,897.664

7,006,474



40,760 688.



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toM" 894

The r cr e n neB and expeiidltvre of the Bsstcrn SeCttemente, and oC Hyderabad a»-
pf gned dUtncta^ or tl)« Bemrs, are eeparsted from tte reneiniea and expeoditare of
British L, aod not iuctod^ in the above fe4at«in<>nt. Tbe rweiiiie for 187 t-T was e»-
timated at jeM,480,000 ; tbe ezpendltare, at XSO,S3<,000.

Rtvenw, Expenditure, are.— Tbe cblef Itema of the rereono for tbe year eodins
1876 were Uie following, in tbe ordrrof their Importiince: Loud reveBae, i:si,Q87,-
912; opiam, jC8.ti4«879 ; salt, X«.150,MS; stampfi, X^t9S,M3; cvatonks, n,<T&47»;
cxcUe on npirttfi and dm<^, D.tM,143. The kuid-tnx aloue produce* neartjr the baJf
of the whole reTcnne. lu L the froveniment has aiwaya beeu oMMidered tbe owuer
of tbe eoii, and the actual caiti valors pay a reut or tax, tn collection wliich dHbcrefit
•yf>t(>ini> have hitherto been fullowed in dilEereut parts of tlie cooutry, known as tiie
ZemHidaH ScUlrment, Ryotwur^ and Mouzavoar or FiUmfft SetUemeaL Tbe latter i%
tlie oldest and the simple^ system. Each village under this arrangemeut was re-
garded as a separate innDlcipality, and each waa aseesMd by the gowniaseut at a
particalar sain, for the dne payment of which tbe headman of tbe vilfaige waa ooo-
sidi-rcd ref>ponMble. The individual distribation of tbe bardeu of taxation rested
with the village autltoritics, and covennnent, provided it received its renlar does
through the potailj interfered no f nrtlier. 'llie origin of tlic Zi'miudari p.ud Kjotwar
Hettlemeuts i^uires some explanation. When llie Bnglisli first entered upon tbe
odmiDistratlon of tbeconutij, they found tba^lhe practice of native sovereigiia, their
pri*dcce880rt«, hod beeu to bicni out tlie laud revenues of the country to tbe ooblea
of the court, or to wealthy baokcrs, who aunnulty paid a fixed amount into the royal
treasury, and collected the govemmeot dues on their own behalf, from tlie actual
cuitivat<M« of the soiL These farmers of tbe revenue were termed Zemindars Tbe
qoestiou for Uie Bugllsh rulers arO!»e, whether or not they were to consider these
mec as proprietors. In Bengal and Baliar iliey were so recognised, aod confirmed
in tticir position, the govemmeut holding them respoii8il>le for the payment of the
dues on their estates, and regnrdinz tlie cultivators on the farms as Uieir tenants.
This was Lord Comwallis's Zeiniiidari ScHtlemcnt. In Madras aud Bombay, tbe
opposite course was pursued. Claims of the middlemen, or farmers of the rerruues,
to enjoy any proprietary rights were totally ignored ; and under Sir Thomas Monro,
the r>otwar system was introduced, by which govemmeut makes a separate settle-
ment with each individual cultivator or ryot^ who Is recognised as tbe virtual pro-
prietor of the laud, or tenant direct under govemroent. so long as be puys tbe laud-
tax aiintudly charged on his estate or farm. In 1871, under tbe administration of
Lord Mayo, there was created a new department of revenue, agriculture, and com-
merce. It has charge of all questions relatinsr to land rcventie aod settleroeots^
works of agriculiuruT improvement, silks and fibres, forests, commerce, trade, and
the industrial arts. It has also under its charge the collection of statiaUcs, placed
under another new department, the statistical survey of L, of which the director-

Sncral is Dr Hunter. His book on Orissa (see below) was the fir^t instalment of
B work done. A series of leading questions has been Issued by tbe director-gen-
eral, shewiug exactly what In formation Is required from residents in the different
districts. A connected account of each district will be prepared from the returns,
and these will be in turn condensed by the director-gencrul into an imperial statis-
tical irtrcount of India. ** Tlils stirvey," says Mr Markharo, ** forms an epoch in sta-
tistical enterprises, and its practical results will be most important."

CurreTM^.— In British I., accounts are kept In rupees, anna?, and pie— Ifi annas
going to the rupee, and 12 pie to tlie auna. The coins are rupees (value 2s. sterling),
and half and quarter aud half-quarter rupees, lu silver ; and in copper )^, X. X* I-^
1-lS of an anna. The currency of I., however, Is chiefly silver, of whicli a large
amount is coined annually. The coloaee bears the impress of Queen Victoria as
Einprcss of I. in the native costume. In 1861, an act was passed by the government
of L, providing for the issue of a paper currency by means of promiasoiy-notea.
The amount of notes In circulation in 1S75 was i:i0f670,407.

The public debt of I. In L and Euclaud In 1872 amounted to XllS,SU,7eO, on
which the interest paid was £638,829. In 1876, the total amount of the debt was
XI 18,446,991, of which £48,697,088 were in England, and JB69,849,958 In India.

Com7n«rc0.— Ti^e following table shews the number aud tonnage of Yessels and
steamers engaged in the foreign aud coasting trade of British L m the year ending
March 81, 187S:



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895



India





Entered.


Cleared.


Biitteh


Vesfiels.
3.048
2,175
4,8Sl

11,706


Tons.
2,499.849
4»,0«
656,718
488,825


Vefffclft.
8 611
2.098
4.071

10,896


TODI".


Forolgti


2,781,715
417 904


Britieb ludia


Native Craft


689 617




471,486




21.209


4,072,916


20,676


4,260,722



In 1875, there eutcred 19 875 vessels, of 4,903,827 tons ; cleared, 19,094, of 4,982,678
toil?.

The total valncof the inerchandlsc imported Into British 1. Jn 1872 was X31,088,74T ;
of trt^asure, £11.673.818. The chief items were— coal and coke, £514,794; coUou
manufaciares, jei7,4v'il,887; metals of a!] kinds, manufnclared und unnmnnractmed,
£2,390.775; tialt, i:91 8,975 ; raw silk, iHS51,593; silk mQnufactarei<, jC480.948; spirits,
jC560,485; sngaraud Micchariue mutter, £709.779. The total vulue of the exports in
1872 w:is as follows: Indian prodnce or nni nti fact nres, X6 1, 697,225; foreign nier-
chnndisc, £1,4*3,622; treasurf, Xl,476,093. The chief exports in the same year
were tiio following: Coflfee, X1,380.410; cotton wool, X21,272,480; cotton manufuc-
tares of, £1,191,6^; dyi*s of all kinds, X3,956,8d9; j^ruius and pube, £4.865,748;
hidns nnd skins, jC2,615.860 ; jute nud mannfaciare of juto, £4,299,767; opinm, XiS,^
865.228; seeds, £2,728.127; silk, £1,130,706; ten, £1,482.186; wool, £906,698. In
1875—6, the value (iuchidinir treasure) of the total Iniporis was £44,188.062; of ex-
ports, £60.291,731. The greater pan of the tra<le of I. is carrie<l on with Great Ilri-
tuJn ; but there is ulso an extensive comnieno with Ceylon, the Straits Settlements,
Cfihu), Ansti'uUa, the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea, and several of the European

BtdtC.«.

Roads and Itailwai/9.—S\ncc 1886 great trunk-roads iiave been constructed in va-
rious parts of India. The most remarkable Is Ihnt from Calcutta to Peshuwer, 1400
miles long. The importance of these great worlcs has now diminished, owing to
the exten.^lon of a great railway system in India. The chief railways now open are
the East Indian, from Calcutta to Di-lbi ; the Indian Peninsula, which forms a oranch
to BomlHiy ; the Delhi, Punjab, and Sinde, which will ultimately coimect tlie sys-
tem with the month of the Indus; the Bumbhv and Baro<lu, which runs nortii from
Bombay ; the Madras Railway, running south-east to Madras, and thence south-
w^ St to BoypAr ou the Coromandel Cuast. Up to March 1876, £93,720,794 had been
exiiended by the guaranteed railway companies, and £8,000,000 were required to
complete their lines. The net receipts in 1875 were £3.647.868, including £71,854
from the state lines. If we estimate the capital at £97,000,000, this represents au
av«!rage return of £8 15s. per cent, upon the Ave per cent, guaranteed capital, and a



net lo'<s to the government of £1,242,107. As the railwnvs, however, are now ahnost
completed, it is expected that their tluanclalnositlon will soon Improve. In 1876-7
the net loss to government was only £588,467. In 1677 there were in all 6848 miles



of railway opiu In India, and near 3000 more in course of construction. Nearly
17,000 miles of telegraphs connect all the imnortant cities of British I., this Indian
system being connected Inr three lines with Kngland.

Irrigation Works and (fanals.^Vie have already referred to the Importance of ir-
rigation in I., and the great attention given to the subject within hite years. Our
space will not permit us even to enumerate the groat works recently undertaken in
tlie basins of the Indus, Ganges, Mahaimddy, and Taptl, and in other parts of I., to
snpply water to the rich hut parched soil, and thus extend the area ot cultivation.
Several of the canals are adapted for navlgalon as well as irrigation— and wlieii
works now in progress in Sirhlud have been completed, there will lie uavlguble conv>
mnnication from the Ganges to the Sntlej, and down the Indus to Kurachee. To
give the greatest possible efficiency to the action of the government in rehition to
the extensi(m of cainils, an inspectnr-genei-al of irrigation works lias been appointed,
wltli Irrigation secretaries in tlie various provinces.

Disease in /fu/ia. - The climate and sanitary condition of L give rise to pestilences



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896



which at intervals cany denolation over the country, irbfl^t discaiie in Its worst form
is never absent. Iluspitals, richly endowed and ndmirablv re!;iilated, aopported as
well by govenimeiit as by private muitiflccuce, exist in all ihe iargf towns : and ereat
efforts are constantly made to bring the benefits of metlicol f kill and knowledge
witbin reach of the poorer classes. In nil p:iris of the country dit^pcnsaries have
been opened, wliere medicines are given ont, and patients advi8<.*d. Much of the dis-
ease of I. is due to bud water and rad drainage ; and where a new watcr-sapply has
been introduced, and drains have l>een niude, as in Calcutta, the improvement hi
the Iiealth of the inhubitAuts haA been marlced. Nearly 8 niiUions of persons were
vaccinated in I. in 1872. Mortality is fearfully aggravated by the passion of the
people for pilgrimages. All ages and sexes traverse vast areas, and die by hnndreda
on the route. The Mohammedan pilgrims go In numbers to Mecca, Kerbela, and
Jerusalem ; and a largo proportion never return.

SmiffrcUian and CotoniMMon.— From the table at the head of this article, it ap-
pears that the popnlution of Briti!<h L is very nnoqually distributed. Wiiile Benpil
resembles a citv in the density of its population, ttie adjoining provinces of Assam
and Burmah, although no less fertile, have a very small nnmoer of luhabitauta. The
recurrence of famines in this overpeopled district shews the importance of encour-
aging emigration. The tea-planters are now attracting lavgc crowds into Assam
and other districts. In 1871 the number despatched was 7022 against 4868 in 1870, and
the number is increasing. In Burmah there were 97,671^ coolie immigranis !n 1871—
1872. The distiint emigration from India lias become very important in recent vears,
and to regulate it tlie Indian Emigration Act (vli. of 1S7I) was passed, consolidating
all previous laws for the protection of the emisraut coolies. One condition with
respect to emigration from India to tlie British colonies Is, that there sliall be 40
women to every 100 men. In 1871—1872, the number of emigiunts who left Calcutta
for the West Indies \va9 82Sl, and the condition as to the proportion of the sexes
was fully complied with. In the fame year 3383 returned to Calcutta. As a rule,
the Indian cmignints improve their condition by scnicc In the West Indies. It le
thought that, except to a few limited districts, colonisation from England mast ever
be impracticable in India on account of the nnfavorablo character of the climate;
for the Euroi)e:in rncu settled in the country rapidly degenerates, and in a few gener-
ations l)ecomes effete, and bodily and mentally enervalctL A constant stream of
British capital, however, and fresh directing energies iu Its application, is the great
want, and what would secure as nothing else can, ilie development of its unlimited
resources. Indigo and sugar factories, and coffee and tea plantations, have been
the principal iinderialcingA in which inde]>ondent British capital and energy have been
hitherto embtirkod. nnd the results liave been most sntisfacloi-y.

Christianity in India. India w«s one c.f III- carllist fields of Christian missions.
Tradition n^isij^ns it as the scene of the auosilo Thunins'i* labors and martyrdom.
Wliether this wuji the case or not, we find the Syrian church phintrd in Malabar In
Southern India, wliich nndonblcdiy had a very early origin, 'ihe Jesuit misalon-
nries, from the middle of tlie lOth c onwards, Imd a large success in India. See
Xavtsr, Francis. The Catholic missions now confine tiicirutteiiticui to tlicir Chris-
tian converts. They are divided Into two branches— the Portuguese or Ooa branch,
and the Jesuit mission. The number of the former in Bombay is not known ; they
number elsewhere 48,000. The Jesuit converts exceed half a niililon In Madras,
Pondiciierry, and Travancore. The earli<?st Protestant missionaries In India came
from Holland and Denmark. With the latter mission the eminent Sciiwartz was
connected. England's first missionary effort was pnt forward by the Society for
the Propagation of the Gospel, and the Christian Knowledge Society, wh!cli com-
menced in the beginning of the 18th c, by aiding the Danish mission already esitalH
lir^iied in Southern India. Subsequently, the East India Company adopted the policy
of excluding missionaries altogether from their tcrriiorics; but since the Itegiuniug
of this century, when these restrictions were withdrawn, a great worlc iias been
entered on, in wlilch all denominations are represented. In Bengal, lft,000 ryots
profess Protestantism. In Chota Nagpore, within the last twenty years, German
missionaries have converted 80,000 Holes. In Onde and Kohiicnncl, tncre are 9000
converts. In Sonthern I., the numbers nro much greater. The ci.tlre number
of Indian Protestants in I. In 1852 was 128.000; in 1862, 218.182; and in 1873, Sia,-
83a. Mr. Markham, who gives these figures in his Report for 1873, t^peaking of the Pro*



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897



India



testant mlMiona. sayp ; ** The goveruuieut of Indin conuot bnt acknowledge the obli-
gations nuder which it is laid by These 6i0 mlMiiomiries, whose bhiiiioless example and
eclf-denyiug labors are iiifii»ing uew vigor Into the stereotyped life of the great pop-
ulation placed under English rule and are preparing them lo l>e in every way better
men ana l>etter citizens of the great emuire in which Ihev dweil.*"- In the Procln-
mation to the Priucois Chiefs, >«nd People of India, read lu the principal cities, ou
Nov. 1, 185S, it was declared, ** that none shall be in anywise favored, none mo-
lested or disquieted, by reason of their religious faith una observances, bnt that all
shall alike enjoy the equai and impartial protection of the law.'* The fullest toler-
ation in matters of faitti is enjoyed throughout British«India. Fanaticism only, &8
when itsoelcs to enforce the burning of widows or 8uttec ^. v.), or offers human
beings in sacrifice, is curbed by tlie ruling power. There is no exclusively endowed
Btate-church, but government continue to pay the state grants made to Hindu temples
and to Mohammedan mosques. Clergymen of the Chnrch of England, the Church
of Scotland, and the Roman Catholic Church, are retained on the govern men test ab-
iiehment as civil or military cliaplaius. There arc Church of England bishops at
CalcutU, Madras, and Bombay.

Education — The education of the peopled of I. is based on the system set forth



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