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in a despatch of Sir Charles Wood, dated 19th July 1864. The main principle of
the despatch was that European knowledge should be diffused through the lau-

Suages understood by the great mans of tlie i>eeple ; but that the teaching of Eng-
8h should always be combined with careful attention lo the study ot the vernacu-
lar languages. With regard to the wealthier classes, it was declared that the time
had arrived for the establishment of universities in I., conferring degrees, and
based ou the model of the university of London. They were not to be places of edu-
cation, but to test the value of education obtained elsewhere, and to confer degrees
In arte, law. medicine, and civil engineering. Such nnlvernitles have accordingly
been established in Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay; and since 1859, government
schools have been opened for the instruction of all clasc>es of Indian people. In
each province there is now a director of public instruction, assisted by school In-
spectors, one of whom has under his care one circle or subdivision of the province.
Normal schools for the truinins of teachers have also l>een eatablielied, and at-
tempts are being made to spread female education. In 18i4->6, there were 68.T64
government and private schools and colleges, giving Instruction to 1,668,026 pnpiis,
the grora expenditure on government bchools from imperial and other sources be-
in^ upwards of XI,OOO.OOU. In the North-west Provinces the total number of pu-
pils under Instruction is about 880,000. There are 860 1>oy8 iu every 3000 p< ople,
and of these 16 are at government schools, 14 at vernacular schools, and 8 learn
English. In the same 8000 people, tliere are 800 girls and 1 is at school. In 1875-^,
883 candidates passed tiie entrance examination at the university of Calcutta, 668 at
Madfos, and 431 at Bombay. The postal statit»tics partly illustrate native progress.
The number of letters and newspapers carried by the poft more than doubled in
the ten years 1867-76. The totalnnmber of letters, Ac, sent through the post-ofil-
ces of British I. In 1876-6 was 119,470,981.

AdminUtratite Divisions,— V^\\e Lower Provinces t^ Bengal, under their lieuten-
ant-governor. Bengal In this sense includes the provinces of Bengal, Bahar, Chota
Nogpore, and Oriasa. Calcutta Is the seat of government. Assam was detached
from Bengal, and made a separate government under its own Chief Conimlcsioner,
iu 1874. For sanitary reasons the seat of government is not now at Gowhatty, but
at Dubrugurb. The North^West J^ovinceSy nnder their liententant-ieovemur, for-
merly under the same admhiiatratlon as the Lower Provinces of Bengal, conftHute
a distinct govern raeut, the capital being Allahabad. Oude (or Audh)l» another lo-
cal government, Its head bting styled Clilef CommIsj»ioner. Tlie seat of govern-
ment Is J^ucknow. The Punj<S» is administered by a lienleuant-govemor ; its capi-
tal Is Laliore. The Central Provinoes became a separate Commlssionership in 1801 ;
Nagpore is the chief town and seat of government In British Burmahy the three
provinces of Aracan. Peeu and Tenassenm form the administration of a Chief Com-
missioner. The territories immediately under the administration nf tlie Go9erftor-gcn^
eral are Ajmere and Malrwara, Coorg, Berar, and M vsore. Mo»t of the precf'ding nd-
mlnlstrallons lie within the limits of what used to be known as the presidency of
Bengal. The other two ** presldeuclea " have not much changed their areas. . Mch

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dras, \Tlth lt« caphtil of the Mine n&me, hns an official hend called GoTcrnor. Bora^
ha>j^ named aftec the fieat of government, has also a ** governor." It shonUl be
added that as Ibe threefold divigion Into presidencies fa maiutained for nillitaiy pnr-
poseq, tUtt uriny of B'>ngal is responsible for the territory not included iu Madras or
Bomlwy, save tliat Mynore is garrisoned by the Madras amiv.

tf iftory.— The oldest liistory of L is entirely legendary ; it Is ehrondod In mythi-
cal narratives, which, though of »he highest Interest from a n'Mglons and arch«olo-
gical point of view, do not enlighten us as to the dates of the personages concerned,
nor as to the rtality of the facts which thev record. Thas, th** solar and Innar dy-
nasties spoken of in the epi(vpoonis, the RamAyana and MahAhh&rata, and in the
Ptirdnaa^ as well as oUier dynasties. like that of Pradyota, S'isnnigo, and oth^ra
mentioned iu tiie Purdnas, are, for the present, at least, beyond the reach ot liistory
In the sense in which wo use this word. The first reliable date to be met wiih in
ancient Himla history is that of Chaiidragupta; for lie is the king whom the Gru-ek
bisiorians call Sandrocotttu; and as he was the ally of Seleacns, we may safely con-
clude that he reigned al)ont 300 B.a He belonged to the Manrya dynasty, which
contains another distin^uishod name, that of the king A ti6ka, who plays a prominent
p:irtiii Buddliist history, and probahlv reigned from S6S to SM B.C.; bnt since the
history of this and other dynasties whicli reigned in different parts of India np to the
time of the Mohammedan conquest, concerns more the special student of Hlnda
antiquity and Indian history than the general render, we must content ourselves here
with referring tliose who take an interest in it to the ndmlrable work of Professor
Christian Lassen, tlie ** Indische Alterthomsknnde," wiicrc they will not only find
the richest material collected in any one book hitherto devoted to this subject, bnt
also learn to appreciate the difficulties which beset the questions of ancient Hinda
history and chronology.

From the Mohammedan Conqwut ri001> to the eloee of VUeount Cannin^e admin'
Utration (1362).— tfotuM! of Ghizni (1001— 1167;.— The Saltan Mahmfid, sovereign of
the small state of Ohicni <q. v.), was the flr^^t conqueror who permanently esta^)-
lished the Mohammedan power in India. In IIM, the House of Ghizni became ex-
tinct, and the Hindu princes fell one by one before a succession of Mohammedan
dyuii'-ties, whose names and d:ites arc as follow : Slave King* of Delhi (1808 — ISSS).
- One of theM sovereigns, Altmish, wlio ascended the throne in 1211, added the
greater imrt of Hindustan Proper to his dominions, and in his reig^ the Mongol
Genghis Khan devastated tlie north-eastern parts of India. In I3a)ln*s reign (about
1231) the Mongols made a second irruption into Hindustan, bnt were totally defeated
by the monarch's eldest, son, the heroic Mohammed, who fell in the action. The
Khiljie and Houee of Toahlak (1283— 1413).— In 1290, tlic Mongols made their thirtl
and last great irmptlou into Hindustan, bnt were almost annihilated by Z.ifir Khan,
whose name became so proverbial among the Mongols, that when their horses
started, they would ask them if tlier saw the ghost of Zailr Khan. In 1397, dnring
the reign of the la*t of the Toahlak kings, thcTartar TImur, or Tamerlane, sacked
Dellii, and proclaimed himself emperor of India. The Syude (1412—1450). The
Hoiute of Ladi (1450—1526). To the kings of this dynasfy succeeded tiie Great
Moguls or Hotue of Timur (1586—1X07). Baber, who had for twenty-two years
been Kovoreign of Cabul, invaded L for the fifth time towards the end of the year 1528
(«ee Babeb), and after doing battle with Sultan Ibrahim on the plain of Paufpat,
April 1526, entered Delhi hi trinmph, and established himself as emperor of the
Mohammedan dommions in I., In right of his ancestor Timur. He died in 1630, and
was succeeded by his son Humaynn. The celebrated Akimr (q. v.), son of Uu-
mayun. biHUimo emperor in 1666, and reigned for nearly twcu^-flw years. His son
ascended the throne in 1605, and his grandson. Shah Jehan, in 1627. In 165S, Shah
Jeliau was imprisoned by his son, the fainons Anrungntbe (q. v.). who nsurpcd the
imperial power. TtUs remarkaMe man raised the Mogul empire to the highest
pitch of gr<'alU8BS and splendor, and was the al>lest and most powcrfnl, as well as
the most ambitions and hisoteil, of Ids r tee. The death of Aamn!rr.ebe took place
in 1707, and the decay of the empire, which had begun a few years bt-fore then, pro-
ccedtHl rapidly. ^* A succession of nominal sovereigns, sunk in indolenco and d»>
bauchery, sauntered away life in secluded palaces." Viceroys of the Great Mosrnl
formed their provinces hito Independent states; whilst Hindu and Moliammedan
adventurers curved out kiugdouia with the sword. The dlamcmberment of tAe

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Mognl empire opened a wfde field for ambition and enterprise to the nations of
Enropj. The Vcuof lanB, the Genoese, the Portnjjnese. and the Dntch had by tnrua
traded with I. ; and In 1602, the English appeared on the eceue. See East India


In 1658, Madras was raided Into a presidency, and in 1668, the Island of Bombay
— which was tlio dowry of Charles II/s qneen, the Infanta Caihcriue of Portugal-
was traupferred by the crown to the Company. Tlie inviif'Ion of the Persian, Nadir
Shah, in 1733, who packed Delhi, sliinghtt-rid its inhabitniiti*. and carried away \X\e
Peacock Throne, and vast treasnie, liatiti-ncd tlie full of iho Mogul empire.

1745— 1761.— Gnat jalouny exintid between titc Eiiglith i\\.(\ Freuch. who had
also established thenihelves in India. On the declaration of war 1m t ween England
and France, hostilities conimei'ced in the Madras presidency, nor were they tennin-
ated by the peace of Aix-ln-Cliapelle, in 1748. Tlio ftrn}:g:e in tlie Catuailc was
coiitinned wlili ardor, under pretext of supporting the d iins of lival native
princes lo sovereignty. Clive (q. v.), the first iiud most fnnons nnnie on that great
mnster-rol! of Bntisli soldiers and statesm* n who have thrown mcli luttre on the
Britifrh occnpation of I., laid the foundation of his cciirtry's supreuucy in the
EasL His memorable defence of Arcot in 1761, acd his snl)Piquent vietoncf, broke
the spell of French invincibility. Ihe next nientorahle <vi'nt\%ns the siege and
capture of Calcutta, on the 80th June 1766, by 8nraja Dowlah, grandson of AH
Verdi Khan, and governor or subahdar of Bengal. The prisoneis, 146 in number,
were confined In the small garrlnon prison or Black Hole, of whom only i8 survived
till the morning. Clive quickly took command of an exjudiiion fitted out at
Madras, recovered Calcutta (1757). and, assl^ted by Admiral Walton, prosecuted the
war with his usual vigor, till after a hollow peace and a rent wal of hostUitJes,
Suraja Dowlah was completely defeated bv Clive in the memorable luittle uf Plassey,
SS<1 Jnne 1767. Meer Jafllr, Snnija Dowlah's conim«i)der-in-chlcf, was jnlactd on
the mnsnud by the English, who irom this time ruled Bengal as well as Buhar and

Political Progress (^fEaH India Company (1764— 1778).— After the battle of Buxar,
fonglit In 1764 with Sujah Dewlah, the m^urping vizier of Oude. the Mogul emp«ror.
Shall Alum, who had previously l)een in the power of the defeated Sujuh Dowlah,
claimed the protection of the hri'ifh. He confirmed the company in iheir ) o^ses-
sions. and grunted them the collectonite or perpetual dnrannee of Bengtil, Bahar,
and Orissa, on condition of receiving the sum of jCi60,00U per :innuni. During the
suhseqnent financial difBcultlef of the Company, they repndlaled this and other con-
ditions which they had gnaranteetl to Shah Alum ; and the cost to the Company of
mahitaining their authority and standing anny prevented them fiom nndertaking
pnbHc works and developing the ri'sonrces of tlie country. The KcKulatlugAct was
passed in 1778, and a governor-general wrs appointed. In 1766, Clive purgid the
Indian government of oppression, extortion, and corruption, and from that, his
last visit, dates the purity of the adminlstrr.tfon of our eastern eninlre.

Administration qf Sir Warren Hastings (1773— 1786).— Warren Hastlnes was the
first governor-general of India. A new power, the Supreme Court of Judici.tnre,
appointed by the Regulatlnj; Act, came into operation during his administration,
liils conncll arrogated to itself authority exceedingly inibairasting to the gover-
nor^general, to whom It was very hostile. Hastings U'cd verv unscrupulous, and at
times venr anjaHt1fial)lc means to replenish the East India Company's exeliequer,
but, Ivjr his energy and talent, he averted dangers that Ihrcaiened to ar.nihilate the
British supremacy in India. The powerful Musselman sovereigns, Hyder All and
the Nizam of tlie Decciin, assisted by French officers, combined with the Mahrattas
ajrainst the EnglUh ; Sir EjTe Coote broke up Ihe confedeiacy. and defeated Hyder
All In 1781. In 1789, tlie Supreme Court of Judicature was deprived of its inde«
pendent powers, and the policy of Hastings was successful lK)th in the council and
In the field. In 1784. Mr Pitt Instituted the Board of Coutrol.

Marquis Comwallis {1786— 17W).— Lord Cornwallls, who succeeded W^arren Hast-
ings, was both governor-general and commander-in-chief. His adniinislntive
measures were Important, and consisted most notably in fixing the land-rent
thronghont Bengal on that system of land tenure known as Zemindail, and reform*
Ing the jndlcal system. In 1790, Lord Cornwallls, with the Nizam, the Mnhraltas.
aod the Bajah of Coorg for allies, made war on Tlppoo, Sultan of Mysore, who had

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invaded Travftncore, then nnder Biitish protectloa. TennB were dleUted to Tlppoo
At Ills capital, Scriiigapatam, and he was compelled to cede half hfs domiDioos to
the Cotn-mny — The MarqnU CoruwaHfs waa aacceeded by Sir John Uhore (179t—
1T93). wlioMe'rnle was In no reaped roeraonible.

MarquiH WelU»Uy 0798— 13&S).— The British empire in the Bast, like that of
Nupoleon I. in Europe, conid onlybs nioiuUiucd by conatanl fightiuj'; it was the
price paid for empire, and to stand still was to rutro^rade. I'ippuo S«hib broke hia
faitli by Inirlgning against the English both with the Prcucti and with untiw
princes; lii'« bud fuith cost him his crown and hia life. In May 17M. Seringapotam
wus captured, and Tipnoo slain. The Hindu dynasty, displaced by Hyder Alt, was
restored, and the udniinistratlon carried on most saoccMfnliy for tiie yombfal nt>ih
by Colonel Wellesley ^afterwards Duke of Wflllugton). In tho famous battle of
Attsaye, in 1803, he dt'teated the MnhruttAS nnder Scindia; and the victories of Lord
Lnke In Nortliern I. extended verv considerably the dominions of theComoanj.
The policy of tl»o Marquis of Wellesley was, liowcver, too aggressive to suit ttio
views of the Bast India Company, and ho was superseded by Lord Corawallia, wtio
only returned to I. to die. Lord Mlnto succeeded from 1805 to 1818.

Nothing of much importiince occurred until the Marquis of Uastlugs became gov-
ernor-general (1818—1828). He wajjed war against the Pindaria, who wore eutlrelj
suppressed. He had previously defeated the Gurkhas; a::d before the close of hM
briiriaul administration, he inad«i tliu British power supreme in India. The civH
administration of tho Marquis of Hastings was directed to the amelioratiou of th«
moral condition of the people of India.

The next administrations were those of Earl Amherst and Lord WillUm Bentinck.
The first was signalised by the Burmese war, the second by the suppression of sutti
and the Thugs.

i?ar/o/^ttcA!aiuf (1885— 1842).— Tills governor-geueral is known chiefly by hii
nn justifiable and disastrous Afghnu policy, ending in the horrible massacre of Bntish
trooiis In the Khyber Pass. See Afghanistan.

Earl 0/ SUenoorough {1843— 1 844).— The "army of retribution" proceeded to
Cabnl soon after Lord SUeuborough took the reins of government. Cabnl was
sacked, several public buildings mzed to the ground, after which the country was
evacuated. The conquest of SIndc by Sir Charles Napier, followed by its aunexa-
tlon, also l>elongs to tills administration.

Sir Uenry Hardinge (1S44— ISJ8).— Lord Blleiiborongh liavius; been recallod by
the Bast India directors, from alarm at his martial tendencies. Sir Henry Hardiugs
was sent to take his place. The attention of thj new goveruor-geueral wa^ how-
ever, soon diverted from works of peace, to do battle with the bravest p3ople of
India. Ever since the death of our all^, Runjoot Singh, iu 1839, tiie Punjab liacl been
in a state of disorganisation. The Sikiis, uneasy at our co-.iquesti In Slnde and
Gwalior, and rcmumbcrinir our discomfiture at Cabul and the Khyber, resolved to
anticipate the attack they considered imminent The first Sikli war commenced ou
the part of the Punj:ibei:s by tlie nassag-! of the Suticj, and wus followed by the ter-
rll)!e baitli^ of Moodkec, Perozcsnuh, .\iiwal, andSobraoii, In which, after very hard
fl^htiui;. tlie Sikhs were defeat -d with great slaughter. The war resulted in a Brit-
ish resident and Bri:!sli troops being stationed at Lahore, although the boy-prince,
Dhuleep Singh, wa.) acknowledged as Maiiarajnh. The Cis-SuUej states, the Jnllou-
dur Doab, and the alpine region Ix'twecn the Bens and the Sutlej, were annexed.

Jfarouwo/Da;*onst«(l8i8— 1855).— Thendmiulstratlon of the MarqnU of Dal-
hon!*ie is memorable for tht? commencement of superb public works, cheap oniforta
postage, railways, tt^lcMrraphs, Improvements In government, and social priMTitss
generally; a second Sikh war (ending in the crowning victory of Qnjerat, 21st Feb-
ruary 1849), a second Burinan war (fltiislied in 1852) ; and tlie auuexatlou of four
kingdoms, the Pui'jab. Pegu, Nagpflr. and Oudc.

ViBeount Canning (1855— 1862).— When Lord Canning took the reins of govern-
ment, everything promised a reii^i of peace and prosperity. With the early days of
185T came the first mutterings of tlio storm that was to sweep over so hirge a porw
tion of British India. At the commencement of the year, chupattees (cakes of flour
and water) were circulated mvateriously through the North-west Provinces ; treason-
able placards appeared at Dcilhi, and other suspicions occurrences gave warning of
Mohammedan disaffection or conspirncy. The Bufleld rifle and its greased cartnoge

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waff nt this Hme pat into the hands of the sepoys withont explanation or precaution ;
and Gciierul Ausuii. the cuininander-in-chlt.'f, snubbed ca^te, and wns agniust nil
concessfon to the " beastly prfjndicles" of the natives. 'J'he mutiny broke out iit
Meurnt (82 miles from Delhi), where tliere were stitloued Buropenn troops amount-
ing to ftlwut 1800 men, l)e»»ide8 sappers and miners, and about 2900 nntive soldiers.
On tlie28d April, the skirmishers of the 8d Native Cavalry on parade, refnsed to
touch tlio'new cartridges, altliough permission was given to Wreak off tlie end with
the fingers. The 85 mutineers were tried, and sentenced to imprisonment. On tlio
evening of the next dav, the native troops rose, liberated their comrades and the
felons of the jail, sliot duwu their offii'ers and the doomed station was given up to
conflagration and massacre. Tlie next day, the 11th of May, the Ifeemt mutineers
reached DelhL There were no Eniopean troops to oppose them, and city fell into
their hands, but was retaken by Qeuenil Archdale Wilson the following Sieptcmber.
Naua Saliib of Bithoor, whose claims as the adopted son of the Piswub, had not
been recognised by the British government, fanutnl the insurrection. At the end of
June, General Wheeler was forced to surreuder to him at Cawnpore, and. In spite
of the promise of safe-conduct to Allahabad, all the men were immediately massacred.
The women were Imtchered on the 16th of July by order of the Nana, when he
beard of Havelock's march from Allahabad, which began on the 7th of the same
month. The Earo]>eaiis In the Residency at Lucknow were besieged on the SOIh of
June. Five days afterwards, the commandant. Sir Heunr Lawrence, died of his
wound!*, and his place was taken by BriKndicr Inglis, who bravely held out till he
was relieved on the 555lh of September by the heroic Havelock. The final relief
was achieved by Sir Colin Campbell ; and on the 17th tlie city was again in complete
possession of the British. By June 1853. no city or fortress of any importance re-
mainetl in the hands of the miilincera. Onde was entirely reduced by the begin-
ning of the year 1809. The able rebel leader, Tantia Topee, a Mahratta Bruhmun,
was taken, tried by court-martial, and bunged. During tne mntiny, valuable assist-
ance and protect iun were received from many native chiefs. Honors were, in con*
teqnence, bestowed upcm Sciudia, the Alaliarnjnh of Gwalior ; Holkar, Maharajah
of ludore ; the Nlsam, and others. The trial of the king of Delhi resulted in his
conviction as ** a false traitor to the British government, and an nccessoi-y to the
massacre In the palace.** It was the fate of the last representative of the East
India Company to sentence the last Great Mogul and heir of the House of IMmfir
** to be trantiported actx>88 the seas aa a felon." He was transported accordingly,
acconiprmiedby bis queen and son, to Tougn, in Pegu, where he died In 18G2.

The transfer of the government of I. to the British crown, and the new consti-
tution already referred to, were the immediate conaequences of the mntiny.

The Earl cf Elgin (1S62— 1868).— No event of importance occurred during the
brief adminlatratlou of Governor-general Lord Elgin, who died in Noveml)cr 1S63.

Sir John Lawrtnce (1868— 18C6).— Towards the close of Lord Elgin's administra-
tion, a Mohammedan rising was apprehended hi North-western .India, and It was
cons!dere<l most desirable that ihe new viceroy should have practical experience of
Indian affairs. Sir John, afterwards Lord iiiwrenco, was accordingly appointtd
viceroy. He conducted the government with prudi^ncc ami zeal; but nnforiunaU!
events occurred dnrint: his term of office. A warwilh Bbntan terminated rather
unsatisfactorily for England In 1865, and a dreadful famine occurn^d in Orl(»>n,
caused by a drought and failnro of the crops, by which one million uud a half of
people perlahetl.

JkxrlMayo (1869— 18T2).— The administration of Lord Mayo was Inaugurated by
a great denionstr»tion at Unilmlla on 27tli March 1869, when the Ameer of Afghnn-
istan was received in state, and received a supply of nrms and the flret inst'ilihcnt
of a ii:one> sulwldy of X120,000 a year. In i-etnming from K.mgoou to Calcutta,
Lord Mnyo vii^ited n convict estabiishmcnt In the Andnman Islands, and was as-
sassinated there by one of the prisoners In Feb. 1878. The act had no political sig-

Bartni Northbrook (1872).— Lord Nortbbrook entered on oflSce In May 1872. The
clief events of his ndministration were *'ttic Bengal famine," which, however, was
uullclpated In good time; and Ihe visit of the Prince of Wales to India (1875).

Bwon Lytton (1871^.— The most Important events in the tenure of office of Lord

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Lytton liavo been the proclamation of the Qaeeu as Empress of India (1377), and
the relief of nuothor famine.

For fnrtluT iiironnatioti npon I., the fo'lowlng works mav be consnlted with ad-
TsnUi;;*?: **The Hisiory ot British India," l>y Jaun'S Mill, with notes and contiuoa-
tion by Horace Hayman Wilson, M.A., F.R.8. (Land. 1353); "The Indian Kio-
plre," l)y R. Monlgo,noty Martin (Lond. 1862) : ** I'lie History of the Indian Ke-
volt," publi«licd bv rlio MeS'*r*. Chambi;r5 in 1859; •* An Account of thcMatini<»iu
Oude, and of tlic Biec* of the Lncknow Residency, &c ," by Martin Richani Unb-
bins (Loud. 183S) : *'Tho Mirqnls of D ilhonaie's AdniIiiii«tr:itiou of British India,*'
by B<lwin Arnohl, M.A. (Liond. 1308); Wntson and Kaye'a "People of India,**
(Lond. 1356— 18T0): "O'oimp'iy of Lndia." by (ieor^jj Duncan (Ma.lraa. 13T0);
KnyeV ''Si'pov War" (ISTl) : Hnuter'a ''Orlsm" and other works on India (LondL
1812— IS74); M:irkham'a •*Offlcial R-oDrt, exliibltlns; the Moral and Material Pro-
crrfsa of India daring 1871— 1S72*' (printed 1813); •' G.«ozrapby of India," by J.
Hill (Lond. 1824); ♦'Hli'tory of India,** by Sir H. M. Klliot (Lond. 1872); *'Tbe
Highlands of Ccntr.d Indhi." by.Capiain J. Fornyth (Lond. 1871); •"La Laugue et
la Littferatnre HIndoas»tanie on 1871," by M. Qarciu de Taaay (Paris, 1874).

INDIA, the Native Statea of, arc divid 'd into thoae which are entirely Indepen-
dent and tho-^e which are niorr* or Ic^a under tlie control of the Indian govern uienL

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 174 of 196)