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To the former class belong Nepanl (q. v.) and Btiotan (q. ▼.). To the latter claits
bL'lon;* a lar^e nnmber of states, an csiimatc of the area and popnlatiou of which Is
given in tlig following table :



Native States under the


Area in
Sq. Miles.


Populatioo.


Gov«*mor-goneral of India.


304.448
88,930
0,311

115,«7
8&834
«3,»0
72,200


88 7S3.178


Lieulenauv governor of Bengal •


2OT1,»4S


♦' »* N. W. Provinces


1,091,810
5.607,478
1.049.710


" " Pniijab


Ch. Comm»S5ioner of Cent. Provinces


Governor of Madras


4.750,239
8,840,101


*' Bombay




Total


5S9 816


50,185 457



The native princes who proft^ss the Hiodn raligion are calLtl rajahs and maUirajah?;
those who are Mohammedan are called nawab.s khans, &c. Thi? following arc a
few of the roost im|>ortant more or less dependent native stafe« : In the northwest
is Cashmere (with Ladakh), nud^r a native rajah (nop. 8,000,000). a mountainous
rejrion of the Western Hitnal.iya; th* hlU states, nnd -r a large nnmber of native
chiefs (pop. T50,0un) ; Gnrhwal, under a raj ih (pop. 200,000) ; BawolpAr, under a
khan, eonth of Mtilian (pop. 1,000,000). The Sikh 8late^ the lanrest of which Is
Pnttlula (pop. 1,250,000), lie betwe.m the Jnmna and the Sutlej. The Rnjpoot States
(pop. 8.500,000) unmher 13, t-ach und-T a raiah. The sbites of Malwa are 21 in nnm-
ber : amoni( the most important are Bhopal (ix>p. 815,000) and the Bnndelcnnd States
(pop. I,142,<H)0). Gwalior, or Scindia's dominions includes a number of seal tf^reddis-
tricts (pop. 8,250.000), sitnnted in the valleys* of tiie TaptI, Nerbuddo. and Chnmbul.
Tlie pinisi'ut maharajah attained his majority in 1853, and was then intruned with the
administration. Ho has governed the country wel', and a« stated a^ove. In 18W
remained laitiifiii to England. Indore, or the Holkar's dominions, lies between the
Vindhya and Safpura Mountains (pop. 815,000). Gngrrat has a pop of 4,250,000,
and C'utch. 60^,00); bo h countries are wplit up Into a number of states. In the
Deccan, Hyd rabad h:is un area of 80,000 square miles; the population is about
elfven millions. The country is ruled by the Nixam or ♦♦ Regulator;" bnt Sh* Sahtr
Junsr, many yoars minister of the late ni&mi. has, during the minority of the present
prince, nciini Jis rogi-nt, and discharijed tlie difficult duties Intrusted to him with very
great ability. Cochin has a population of 500,000. and 'lYuvancore of 1,000.000.
Mysore (pop. 5,055.412) Is a native stite, but Im^ loug enjoyed the advantages of
British rnio; it is to l)e restored txj native admhiistratlon on the maliarajah, who In
1874 was eleven years of age, reaching majority. . He is under the care ot an Sngliah



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tnlor, the coontry beinj^ admloletered by nn English commissioner. To these states
are to be added ihoee pituatrd in ihe iiortheasteni province? — viz., Sikkim, on the
slope of the Hiinalnya?, iK'tween Nepanl and Bhotnn (nop. «2,000>, governed by a
mj:ih : Mnniptir, twtween Assam and Bnrmah (pop. 75.000). iinderar.j<d» ; ond Irde-
p^-ndent or Mill Zippemh, a conntry covired with densv jnnglos, and inhnblted by
the Kookics, a stivage race, wliose cliicfs pay tribute to a roaharujali. No cen-us of
the Dutive stsites Iktiviiig been taken, tlie estimates of popn'ation n.nst be considered
as m'-re approximations to tlie tratli, on which do gri'at reliance is to l>e placed.

Further information respecting many of the native states of L wUf be found
under tlieir respective names.

INDIA, French, comprises, at the present time, tlie following settlements:



Name.


Locality.


Area in
8q. Miles.


Popnintlon
in 1870.


Chandernagore..


OntlieHooghlyKivcr,^
Coromandel coasts
Coromaudel coast, \
OriMa coast,
Malabar const, J


200




KnrikuL.. . 7.




Pondiclierry


270,600


Yanon


Mabd.





INDIA, Portuguese, is now conflued to tbo territories indicated in the annexed
table:



Name.



Goii, &(•..
Baniann..
Din



Locality.



Western coast,

Concan const, \

South coaft of Kattywar, j



Area in
St]. Miles.



1400
42



Popnlalios



892,284
53.283



INDiA RUBBER. See Caoutchouc.

INDIAN ARCHITECTURE. Tlic styles of art which have existed at different
timet* in Ii"di», hp in other countries, vary with tlie religion prevnlent nt tlie time
'J'he rarllosi faitli of v hich we have any architectural mouununts is tluit of Budd-
hism (q. V ). About 250 B c, /^pokji, st powerful inonaich, l)ecame a streunou.-* sup-
pi rter and proiapitor ol Bnddliism, and to liis ze.j;l we owe the oldest architi'Cturnl
lenniins of India. Frcnn iiis time to the present day, the s«'quence is unbrukcn, and
th«' wJiole lilj*Jory of Buddhiht archileclnre can be most distinctly traced either in
India or In Ceylon, Java and Tlbi't. ITie whole subject is us yet, liowever, hut im-
perfectly illustrated, the best account of the Indian btjbles being that coutained in
jbVrirns.«on's **Handl)Ook of Arcliitectnrc," andliis otli'er works.

'I'he Buddhist remains arc of two kinds : 1. .Commemorative monuments, called
Stupa?" or Topes (q. v.) ; the earliest stupns are single pillars, bearing evident trnees
of a western orljrln, ami thus nffortling a c!iie to Ihe his'toi-y of Indian art. 2 Tem-
ples (chaityaj*) and mcnast rion (viharas). Of Ihe chaiijas and viliaras, no built ex-
anjples ren ain : th«y arc nil excavated out of the Kolid rock, 'i'here are no less
than 40 or 50 groups of iliese monuments, each group comprising from 10 to 100 dis-
tinct exeavntions. A few of the** b long to oilur religions*, but ilie great majority
are Buddhist, and nearly the whole nre mbnapteries. not over 20 to 8<i nelng temples.
The oldest are at Bahar and Cuttack in Benpal (200 b. c), but they are few in num-
ber, nine-tenths of the caves being in the Bombay presidency. Tills probably arises
Iroin the nature of the material in which they an? cut, the oa^tern caves beinjr in a
hard granite, and tliose of the west beinir in a very uniform and comprratively soft
amygdaloid. Tlie lafer date from the beginning to about the 10th c, of the Chris-
tian era. Tlie C4ive-temple at Kaili 'a one of tl.e largest, onti is of a good style. See
e<ctlon ill art Buddha. In plan and general aiTangemeiiis, ithtrongly, though no
doubt accidentally, resembles u Christian basilica, with nave, aisles, and vaulted



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904

roof, and nu apse witli the shrine in the place of the altar. There Is oloo an ontcr
hall or atrium, and a gallery like the rood-loft. On the roof, are nnmerons wooden
ribs, attached to the vault: these and other portions iudlcaie that the bnildin^ from
which tiic cave was copied was wooden, which may account for the absence of
earlier built examples. This cuvu Is 126 feet long, 46 feet 7 inches wide, and 40 to 45
feet high. . ^ ^ ,».

The vihara or monastery caves are very numerous, as was required by the enor-
mous number of Buddhist priests. The oldest and simplest examples are hi Bengal,
but the finest are in Western India. They consist of a central boll, with cells roood
three sides, and a verandah on the fourth side, next the open air ; opposite the cen-
tral eiilruuce, there is usually a large cell or shrine, containing an image of Buddha.
There are fine caves at Ajnnta, Bangh, &c, many of them beantlf ully carved and
painted. The pillars are most elaborately ornamented, and liave the bracket capl-
Uls which dislliiguish all Indian architecture. From the absence of any built ex-
ample, there hasl)een great difficulty in forming a correct idea of the exterior of the
baildings from which these caves were copied. By following tlie style into other
countries where the religion has prevailed at different times, Mr Pergnsson has been
able to triice it up to the present day^ and to establish by analogy the probable ex-
ternal appearance of the early Buddhist architecture.

The temple of Brambanan, in Java, seems to shew the origlnnl form of built
cells. They are qtdte detached, and arrau^Hl in a square round a central
temple— evidently suggesting the arrangement in the caves at Ajnnta. Some rock-
cut temples which have an exterior (at Mahavellipore), shew the cells attached to
the main building. In Burmah. where the monastic system still prevails, the mon-
asteries, which are of wood, are nuilt in staires in a pyramidal form. The temple of
Boro Buddor (q. v.), in Java, has a similar arrangement, consisting uC a Inig9
number of cells or niches in tiers: but In plice of being occupied by prieiits, they
are filled with cross-legg'^.d Buddnas, a conversion quite common iu later Uinda
architecture. In many styles of architecture, the nicnes or other snlK>rdinato parts
are frequently copies on a small scale of the facade of the building itself. Thus, for
instance, the windows with pillars and pediments iu classic arcliitcctnre, are a repo-
tition of a temple end. The niches inside the caves, containing aiatues of Baddhiat
eaintH, are in a similar manner imitations of tlie main facade. In the same way ex-
ternally, the Burmese pagodas and Hindu temples are ornamented all over with
models of llie buildings tliemselves.

Mr Fcrgusson hus thus traced, in fuller detail than our space will allow, the trans-
formations that have taken place iu Buddhist arcliitecture, which, whatever its artis*
Mc qualities may be, has at leant the very interesting feature of being a style which
has existed from 800 vears before Christ up to the prt^sent day.

The other styles of ludinn architecture arc illustrated by the temples of the Jalnos
and those of the Hindus. The former seems to have been an imitation of thu Budd-
hist temples witliout the cells for the priests. Their religious structures consist of a
sanctuary surmounted by a spire ; iu front of this, a pillared vestibule, with a dome,
and round the whole an arcuded euclO!*nrc, with cells all round, contatuiug images.
The cells are also surmounted with spires, and the arcades with domes are often
repeated to a considerable number within one enclosure. The most striking feature
of this style Is the dome, which is constructed by horizontal jointing, not with reiru-
lar arches. Tlie domes, with the pillars, bracket capitals, <fiK^, are all elaboratly
decorated.

Hindu architecture Ih divided Into two styles— northern and southern. All the
finest examples nro poutheni, and are found soutti of Madras. The temples couslM
of the terapioof vimaiia,in front of which is the pillared porch of niantopa, the

gate pyramids or gopui*as, forming the entrance to the enclosure, and the pillared
alls or choultries. In the south, the temple is always pyniinidal, and in many
stories ; In the north, the outline is curved, and In one story* The finest example is
the pHgodaof 'I'anjore. It is 83 feet square at base, and 14 stories, or about 800 foct,
in height.

The gopnrasare similar to the pagod;t8, but oblong in pbice of square.
The pilhired halls are very wonderful stmctures, containing sometimes a^^ msny
OS 1000 columns, and as these are all elaborately curved, and ml different, the labor
of their coustructloa must have been enormous. They are used for many porpoees



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Indian



connected with HlndniBnif tiielr most Important oie belntr as onptlal halls, In'which
the rayfftlc unfon of rhe diirlDitiee is celeDrated. The genci-al nrraugement o^ these
balls sometimes produces a good effect : hat from their flat roofs, they cannot equal
the beauty of the domed arcadas of the Jalus. These building are of varioas datee,
from the commencement of the Chrieitian era to th'e last century, and it is remark-
abiu that the oldeBt exnmples are the finest— the style growing sradnally more and
more debased, till, at tlie present day, it has become, like the rel&ion, a mass of ab-
surdity and obscenity. The celebrated rock-cut temple called the Kylas, at Ellora
(q. \^J belongs to this rtyle.

When the Mohammedans conquered India, they imitated the style of the coun-
try in their mosques, and afterwards the Hindus borrowed from them, and thus a
mixedstylewascreatcd, which, in the palaces, tombs« Ac, of the natire princes,
produces picturesque effects. The Honammedaus also covered the country with
specimens of their Moorish style, which will be treated under Sabaobkio Abobi-

TECTUBK.

Some of the finest buildings of India are the ghauts or landing-places, with
their broad flights of steps; the reservoirs or bowlees, and dams, ali ornamented
with temples, Kioskfl>. stairs, &c. ; but our space will not permit na further to de-
scribe them. There is one very remarkable fact connected with Indian architec-
ture, vis., that although the form of the arch is constantly used— in domes, arcades,
^., especially in the style borrowed from the Moslem*— yet the radiating arch
construction is never adopted. The architraves are supported on bracketed capitals,
which project, bracket over bracket, till the space is spanned by one lintel. This
leads to many beautiful results in the early styles, and In the later mixed style, the
bracketed cornices arc amongst its finest features.

INDIAN ABMY. See East India Abmy.

INDIAN CORN. See Maiss.

INDIAN FIG. See Pbickly Pbab.

INDIAN FIRE, a bright white signal-light, produced by boraiDg a mixture of 7
parts of sulphur, 9 of Realgar (q. v.), and M nitre.

INDIAN GRASS MATTING, or Indian Matting, a kind of matting imported in
large quantities from Calcutta, Is made from a species of Papybus (q. v.), i*. Pmv-
gorei, called Madoorkati iu Bengal, and there very abundant. The stalks of the plant,
when green, are split into three or four pieces, which, in dryine, contract so that the
edges come almost into contact ; and when woven into mattiug, they shew nearly
the same beautiful shining surface on both sides.

INDIAN INK. The cake^ of this substance, which is a mechanical mixture, and
not, like the true inks, a chemical compound, are composed of lampblack and siae
or animal glue, with a little perfume. The lampblack must be remarkably fine, and
is said to he made in China by collecting the smoke of the oil of sesame. A little
camphor (about 8 per cent) is also found in the ink made iu China, and is thought
to improve It. This substance is used iu that country with a brush both for writing
and for painting upon paper of native manufacture, while in ibis country, it is ex-
teupivelv employed for designs iu black and white, and all intermediate shades of
color. Much cnrious Infonnationou this pigment may be found in Merim^*0 trea-
tise, ♦♦ De la Peinture h I'Huile."

INDIAN OCEAN, one of the five grand divisions of the universal ocean, is
bounded on the s. by a line drawn from ihe Cape of Good Hope to the most south-
erly extremity of Tasmania or Van Diemen's Land. Its other limits, reckoning
from the lasl-mentlonedpoiut, are Van DIcmen's Land, Australia, the Indian Arch-
ipelago, Farther India, HluduKtan, Persia, Arabia, and Africa. Gradually narrow-
ing from south to north, the I. O. forks at Cape Comorin into the Bay of Bengal on
tlie east, and the Arabian Sea on the west, tiie latter again branching off into two
arms, tlio Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, which roach respectively the mouth of the
Euphrates and the neighborhood of the Mediterranean. These details exclude the
waters of the Indian Archipelago, as belonging rather to the Pacific Ocean. As
above dwflned, the I. O. stretches In lat. from 48° 35' s. to 80^^ n., and in e. long,
from 18^ 29' to U6° 12'. It contains thousands of inlands, or rather tens of thou-
sands. Of these, Madagascar is the largest, and at about the same distance, from



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it to the efic4 en the coQtloeot of Africa It to the west Ue Bourbon or Remikm to-
wards the sontb, and Manritioa towards the north. Next in size to Madagascar,
and, in fact, the only other island of any considerable magnitude, is Oeylon. As a
channel of commerce; this ocean would appear to have been the firet to find a plaoe
in history, tnasmiich as the earnest voyage on record beyond the land-locked Medi-
terrancan—lliat of Soiomon's navy— did certaiulv extend further than the Straits of
B.Hl>-cl.MttiKle!}. In this respect, it virtnully mamtained lis supt'rforitv doring faUy
fOOO yearn, being haUitiially traversed. In the line of the crow's flight, between Ara-
bia and Hindustan, while caisting voyages alone were known in ttie Atlantic This
comparntivdy bold uavigivtion was snggested and facilitated by the periodica] mon-
soons of the northern part of the L 07, blowing, as they do, altoruately from the
soath-west and the north-east.

INDIAN SHOT {Ctmna Indiea) a pfamt common in almost all tropical oonutriea ;
a herbaceous perennial, with a creepiag root-stock (rMzoms), and a simple Hem,
formed by the cohering ba.««os of the large, ton^^h, ovate-oblong leaves. It belongs
to the natural order MarantaoecB, It derives the name I. 8w from the seed, whkh »
hard, round, and about the size of a small pea, and is sometimes nsed as shoe. The
seed yields a benatifol red color. The root-stocks are very Inrge, ppon^iy, and jointed,
and are nsed in Brazil for emollient ponllices in tamors and abscesses. Tlie root-
stocks of some of the other species of Omum are more valnable, yielding tbestatch
called Tous-uss-xois (q. v.).

INDIAN TERRITORIES, a phrase of vsgne meaning. Is pectiliar to the geo-
graphy of America. Originally and naturally, it Indicated such portion of each
country as had not yet been colonised, a porticn which, of course, was constantly
diminishing. In this sense, therefore, the words necos^arUy vnricd in extent of ap-
plication from year to year. In 1821, however, the I. T. of llritUh America were de-
fined by statute as comprising only the nnseltk>d wildernesses beyond tho llndson^
Bay Company's cliartcred domain, which was itself generally hdd to be identical
with the basins of all the feeders of Hudson's Strait and Hudson's Bay. Due west,
this vast region bordered on Russian America, while from the parallel of St^ 4<K
southward to that of 42^, it tonclied tJie Pacific Oemin. Subsequently to ISSl, this
maritime section was partly ceded to the United States, and partly erected into the
colony of British Columbia, so tliut tlie L T. of the present day nowhere reach tiie
sea, excepting on the ico-bonnd shores of the north. Within tins limited ranire, too,
tliey huve practically lost tlieir statutory character, being virtually released (see
Hudson's Bat Company) from the r"Strictive system of trading-licences. Hither-
to, perhaps, tho chautrc has been merely nominal, for, indopendentiy of the injla-
ences, moral and physical, of long possession, the Hudson's Bay Company finds, in
distance and seclusion, agnurantee stronger than any parliamentary title. If com-
petition is likely to bo |>owerless for years to come, colotilsution Is sure to be so for
ages under the combined prohibitions of soil and climate. The I. T. stretch in n.
lat. from alx>nt 62>^*> toanout 7iP, and in w. long, fnnn about 103° to the interna-
tional bonndanr between Russia and England of 141°. They consist chieifly of the
vall«vs of the Back, the Coppennine, and the Mackenzie. Beyond all tlie anologies
of civilised communities, the native population is incn-dlbly sparse and scanty, t^r-
tnlnly not t»xceeding, at an extra\'a;?ant eatimaK-, 10,000 in number, exclnsivJiy en-
gaged in hunting and fishing; while less than 600 strangers of every description
• are scattered abroad in hovel-like forts, hnndreds of miles distant from each other.
The I. T. form part of the diocese of Rupert's I^nd, established in 1S4» ; bat ii is
only since 1858 that they have actually l>ecomo the scene of missionary operations.

INDIAN TERRITORY, a country reserved by the government of the United
Stales for the Indian iril>es removed west of the Mississippi, and those living
there. It lies between S3«> 80' and 37<» n. lat., ond 9i^ 20' and 103° w. long., being
870 miles long by 220 wide, whh an area of 74,127 square miles. It is bounded on
the n. by Kansas, e. by Arkansas, s. and w. by Texas, from which it Is se|>arated
on the south by the Red River. It Is a beautiful conntry, with vast fertile plains,
watered by Innumerable streams, inclnding tiieRed River, the Arkansas, and their
branches. The climate Is genial, producing cotton, tobacco, maize, wheat, and
fmita. Coal, iron, zinc, copper, salt, and i>e?ro]eum sprinjra abound. Its popula-
tion of about 70,000 consists of Cherokees, Creeks, Semiuolcs, Choctaws, Chicka-



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saws, and remnants of smaller tribes. The principal tribes arc in a liigh state of
civSli^atiou, »ud, except the Semiuolett, all po^sest) u written constitution oud code
cf laws. In 1ST4, there were 6 high schools, and 88 day schools among the Cbcro-
kees, Uhoclawsy and Chlckasaws. Many of the Indians cultivate Targe planta-
tions.

INDIAN YELLOW, or Purreo, :» a coloring matter highly est/»emed by artists.
It is exported from the Bast Indies in musses of three or four ounces in weiglitT
which are of a dark brown color externally, but of a bright orango yellow fn the in-
terior. It is generally believed to be a urinary sediment of the camel or buiFalo, after
tb«s animal has fed on decayed and yellow mango leaves. Its odor is peculiar, and
resemblf 8 that of casiorenm. This snbstanoe consists chiefly of the mngncsinn salts
of an add termed purreic or euxarUhie add. It is almost insoluble in cold water or
I alcohol, but is soluble in hot alcohol and in ether; it also dissoWea freely in boiling
dilute hydrochloric acid, from which stelhite groups of aciculnr crystals of euxan-
tblc pcid (HO,C4 »Hi 70} ,) are deposited on cooling. Alkaline solutions diseotvo
tills acid, and iorm a yellow liquid. A solution (rf enxanthate of potash, when
mixed with the solutions of the salts of the earths, gives brilliant yellow, sparingly
soluble precipiiat43s, and, with acetate of lead, itformsa vellow insoluble lake.

By dry distllhittou, this acid yields a yellow, ciystalline sablimate of purretions
or*«tukinMon0 (C4oHisOi2). water and carbonate acid being evolved; and, with
nitric acid, it yields several nitrogenous bodies of considerable interest, In a purely
chemical point of view, but of no practical importance.

INDIA'NA, one of the United States of America, organised in 1816, with a
governor and legl»lnture, extends from 81° 47' to 41** 46' n. Tat., and from 84° 49' to
SS^ i' w. long., havhig a length of 275 miles, a breadth ot 185 miles, and nil
area of 83,80$ square miles or 21,687,760 acres. It is bounded on the n. by
Michigan state and lake, c. by Ohio, s. by Kentucky, from which it is
separxited by the Ohio River, and w. by Hlfuois. The state is divided into
92 counties. The capital is Indianapolis, near the centre, and its chief
towns are Evansvllle, New Albany, Madison, Richmond, Terre Haute, Lafayette,
Fort Wayne, and Its only lake-port, Michigan City. The population in 1800 was
4875 ; in 1810, 24,520 ; in 1820, 147,178 ; in la^, 343,081 ; In 1840, 686,866; in 1850, 988,.
416; in 1860, 1,350,941 (oC which nearly half \v«*re immigrants from other states, and
from Oemiuny and Ireland) ; and in 1880, 1,977,801. 'Phe state is level, with slug-
chh. streams and great prulries. It is chieAy drained by the Wabash River and its
branches. There are 7700 square miles of coal, portions of which, on the Ohio, arc
cannel coal of excellent quality. The soil is of wonderful fertility, and the
climate is like that of the south of France, with colder winters, and the
hills on the Ohio are covered witl» fine vineyards. The staple pnxlnciions
are .wheat, maize, cattle, swine, tobacco, fruits, wine, &c In 1869, mines of
coal and iron were found, and also quarries of building-stone. There afe over 4000
miles of railway, and 874 miles of a canal, uniting the Ohio River with Lake Erie.
There is a state university, a normal school, numerous common schools and
churches, and al)out 800 periodicals. VIncciines, on the Wabash, was settled by
the Frencli in 1702. Early in this century, the settlements were disturbed by Indian
hostilities; the Indians were defeated in 1811 by General Harrison, and the territory
was rapidly peopled.

INDIANA'POLIS, a city and capital of Indiana, United States of America, is
built on the west fork of the White River, near the centra of the state. 100 miles
north-west of GincinnatL It is a regularly built and bi^autif ul cihr, with a naudsunie



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