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of the middle ages— althoni;lt the cultivation of the plant and preparation of Aml
dye were described by Marco Polo in the IStb c— imtil re-iutroduced by tike Dutch
about the middle of the 16tli centmy. lis use In England, France, and Saxony was
then for a coualdenible time prevented by a strong prejudice against it, arising from
the difflctilty experienced in fixing the color. Since this has been overcome, the



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coltlvatioii of plants procmdnir Indlg^o, lon^onftncd to India, ha« extended to mnnr
other tropical and eniDtropical countries, as ^ypc, the West Indies. Mexico, Brazil,
Ac These plants generally belong to tlie genus Indigqferat of tne natural order
LeauminosaSf sul>-order PapUionaeect. llie ke^ of ttie corolla is famished on both
sides with an awi-stmped spur. The species of this genns number at least 150, and
are natives of almost all tropical and subtropical countries. Of these, /. tinctoria
is the species mot^t generally cultivated in India. It is a half^shrubbv plant, 2 — 3
feet high, ^ith pinnate leaves, which have five or six pair of long-obovate, dull,
bluish-green leaflet;*, and racemes of axillary pale red flowers.

The pixjvince of Tlnnevelly produces a great quantity of indigo. Bengal pro-
duces, on nn average, about nine millions of pounds annually. The ^nm which
Burope ounoally pays for indigo is estimated at elglit or ten millions of pounds
sterling.

Indigo is, however, obtained from plants of other genera, particularly from
Wrightxa tinctoria (uatural order Apocgrnacea)^ East Indies ; Baptisia tinetana (nat-
hral order Leffuminosas), North America, which yields Indigo of a pale color and
very inferior quality; Tephrosia tinctoria (natural orderX/^^Mm^noMc). Malabar ; and
T. Apoliinea^ ^gypt and Nubia; Manvlenia tinctoria (natural order A9elepiadaee{r),
lu Sylijet; and Tolygonum ttnetorium and P.Chinenm (natural order Polygonaeece).
China and Japan.— iFWflrWia tinctoria is a largff shmb, Indigenous to great part of
India and to Ceylon^ yielding indigo of the finest qnality, and is recommended by



Dr Roxburgh for cultivation, us less dependent than the common Indigo plants on
rain and irrigation. It grows very freely, and throws out shoots raindly on thuir
being cut away.— In times when East Indian Indigo was not known, or was brought



to Enrope only in small quantity, the same dyestnff was obtained from Woad (q. v.)
— A course khid of Indigo, calicKi Bastard Indigo, was also at one time made lu North
America from the young shoots of A'nvorpha ccerulea.

Tfifi Mami/acture and ApplieatioTui qf Indigo.^'VlxQ indigo plont. In Its general
appearance, is not unlike the lucerne of our fields. The seed is sown in drills al)ont
10 inches apart, and soon makes its appearance above ground, when it requires in-
cessant care to keep the weeds down, which othenrise would soon choke so tender
a crop. In about three months, the plants beein to flower, and are then cut down,
but soon shoot up again, and yiela n Fecond cutting sometimes a third, the same
year. Formerly, Indigo was carefully dried after being cct, and even flre-heat was
sometimes used for the pnr))08e, but now— at Icost In India— the practice is aban-
doned, and it Is found in every respect better to use the plant whilst fresh and green.
The first process is to pack a large vat full of the freshly cut indigo : heavy wooden
beams are placed on the top to press it and fix It down ; aud water is then let into
the vat, enough just to cover It. Being left In ttiis state for from ten to twelve
boors, fermentation Is set up, and mucli gas disengaged, the water becoming a light-
green color. The green liquor Is then run off Into tne second vat, which is pwced »>o-
K>w the level of the first, in which, whilst the fermentation process is being repeated
upon a fresh supply in tne first vat, It is violently ogitatetl by being beaten with
poles : this causes the grain as It is called, to separate, and the green matter sns-
p«»ndpd In the liquor becomes Itlne and granular. When this operation Is snfliclently
advanced, the contents of the vat are allowed to settle, and the sediment is then run
into the third vat, which is below the level of the second ; from which it Is pumped
Into a iMiler. Tlie boiler is slightly heatad, and then allowed to stand for a few
boors, daring wlilch time the indieo settm down, and as much clear water as pos-
sible is drawn off from above It. The boiler is then again heated, and this time up
to the boiling-point ; after which Its contents are allowed to run on to a frame of
frood, lined with ** long-cloth " sheeting, where they remain to drain till about the
eonsistence of very thick cream, when They arc removed, and subjected to very heavy
screw pressure : and when as hard and dry as ordinary soap, are cut by brass .wire on
a^rnnie into cui>e« about three Indies square ; aud tiiese are laid oat, so as not to
touch each other, on the shelves of the drying-house. Finally, the cakes arocleaued,
one by one, and tightly paeked In boxes for the market.

This dve is, without aoubt, the oldest lu use ; the Greeks and Homans obtained
A knowledge of its uses from India, wbare Its empkiyment has been very general
for a great length of time. Much ol)scurfty Involves Indigo and its early use, in
couseqoence of the varhition in its name ; for iosUuce, the Tamools of India call



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the plant AteHe, aod the dve itself Neeligfk ; in Sanacrit, the plaut is VUha th od an iM,
nud tUe dve Nlli uud Nlhnl, whence the Anil of tho Portuguese The Kulays call
the dyo Turoom, and the Arabs, Xeel,

CommeiciuIIy apoukius, Ind'iKO may be said to be the produce of India aod Ccn-
tral America, aa those arelhc ouly localities which supply the recognised form of the
article. In Iiidiu, the chief seat of the iudigo muimfuclure, Bcneul is the most im-
porUiiit district. The lotal quantity received in Great Britain in 1861 was nearlr
80,000 cwt.— a vast qmiutity, when it is borue iu mind with whnt difficulty ft
is cultivated and manufactured. When pure, indigo has a rich, darlc-blae color,
almost purple ; it is in small cubes or parts of cubes, and its fracture shews a tend-
ency to break up into square piece's, and indicates cracks In its substance, often
Ailed up with a film o( whiiiMh efflurasceuce, probably the lime used in precipitating
it. It has neither taste nor smell, and its specific gravity is about IM; if rubbed
with any hard substance, it gives a streak with a bright coppery lustre. The varie-
tiea recoffiiised in commerce are — 1st, Bengal, which, from the care taken in it»
preparatiun, and the largo scale on which it is imide in that district, is the best; and
itti various gradaiio:iS of qiiallty, ten iu number, varying from 9«. to 6s. per poond,
are always kept distinct. In other sorts, they are osualiy much mixed, si, Madras
and Kur^ah; 3d, Oude; 4tli, Manilla; 6th Java; and 6th, South Americaiu Tb«
last is packed in t*erous or cases of dried ox-skin, and its qualities are distiugaisbed
as rolloNvs : Ist. Flores; 2d, Sobres; and Jid, Cortes; all the others are in wooden
clte^tt), containing about 250 lbs. each.

Few materials are of greater importance to the dyer Uian indigo, and none rcqnire
the exercise of more care and skill iu using. Beiug insoluble in water, it reqairea
the action of other solvents to reiiduT it capable of penetrating the fibres of the nia<>
terials to be dyed. The method generally employed is the following : The indigo is
broken into small lumps, and these are soaked in hot water, and left for at least 43
hours, iu order that the moisture mav soak throon'h and soften them ; after which
the^ are put Into the Indigo-mill, which is a levigauug machine, consisiinz of a yca-
S(M in which a roller is imule to work by mactiiuery, so as to rub down the indigo,
mixed witli plenty of water, to a very flue paste, This is a tedious operation : there-
fore, in large establishments, there are usuiUly numerous mills iu the griudiug-room.
When sumcieutly ground, the paste is removed to the dycint'-vaL, where to one part
of indigo is added one part of lime and three-fourths of sulphate of copper; thcae
aro well mixed witii sumciont water to fill the vat, and the d^er then proceeds to dye
either cotton, linen, or silk poods. See Dtkino. After bosng dyed, the goods are
dipped into a batli of dilul^ sulphuric or hydrochloric acid, which gives brightoess
and purity to the color ; they are then fiulshed by washing In a stream of pure water,
and drying.

Oreen Iiidiffo, called Lo-kao by the Chinese, is a substance resembling indigo,
whicli is obtained from a tree called n<nn-bi; it is highly valued by the Chinese art-
ists as a pigment, and also gives a beautiful permanent green color to cotton and silk
cloths ; ii is, however, so costly, that it never can, unless diflterentlv prepared, be oaed
as a dyeing material. The fact that the Chinese dye cotton cloths with iU Is ac-
counted for by the uatnre of the process of preparing the lo-kao, which is this : A
well macerated decoction of the bark of the hom-bi free is largelV diluted with water
mixed with a little lime; pieces of cotton cloth are then dipped into the vat, and
taken out and ex|>osed to the sun, whicli changes them to a oright green ; they are
then placed iu perfectly clean water, and ^Ptsted nntil the water has renaoved aH
the free coloriug matter; this water is then evaporated, and the small sediment left
is the lo-kao. It is the cotton cloths thus used that are sold ns green-dyod fcpods.
It is said that a similar dye stuff isobiaiucd from another tree called Pa-hi, Ma4
although this, as made by the mitives. is much too costly to use In European dyelnf,
yet iirobably, if better means of obtatniug it can be pointed out, it may becckoe
an important article of commerce. •

ChemUtrp of Indigo.— The plants which yield indigo present no indication, when
growing, that they contain any Chrcmogen, or matter capable of yie)dln|P pigrocst,
nor is it deflnitely known in what form the indigo exist in the vegetablo nsattes.

The indigo of commerce is by no means a homogseneons body. Its essratial aod
mo9t iinportant constituent Is Iiidig<ttin or h\dig6 Blue, but It likawifo centeiii
Indigo Brown, Indigo Bed, aud other ingredicnta.



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Indiao Blue, or TndfgotiniCitUiliOzX Ib obtained from coimnorcial Indigo by
extracting tho ingredients with which it i» mixed bj Acetic acid, alkalies, nud l)oil-
ing alcohol. It occurs either as a dark-blue amorpbooa imwdur, or In purple
crvstalliuo scale?, with a metallic Instre. It is devoid of smell and taste, and is in-
soluble in water, alcohol, ether, dilute acids, and alkalies. When carefully heated,
it may be sublimed without decomposition. Among tlie products of its destructive
distillation are hydrocyanate and carbonate of ammonia, aniline, Ac Indigo blue
dissolves without any evolution of gas in strong sulphuric acid, forming a blue
BOlvtIoii of 0ulpMndigoHe oeatf, which is extensively used for dyeing cloth, nudur the
name of Saxony Bltut,

Under tlie action of reducing agents, such as alkaline fluids containing sulphate
Of iron, or a mixture of Krupe-sugar, alcohol, and strong soda lye, indiuo blue be-
comes converted into Itidigo White or Meduced Indigo^ which forms a yelk>w solution
in alkaline fiiiidis but which, on free exposure to the air, absorbs oxvgen. atid is
reconverted Into indigo blue. Indeed, this is tiio best method nf obtaining the
latter in a state of purity from commercial indigo, of which It should form about 60
per cent.

Indigo blue occurs in small quantity in the urine of man, the horse, and the
cow, and occasionally in the milk of the cow, when these fluids have been exposed
for some time to the action of the air; but Schnuck obtained it from the urine in so
manv cases (in the urine of 39 persons out of 40), tliat Indican (or the chromogen
yielding Indigo blue) must be regardwl as a normal urlrinry constituent. See M.
Schunck's paper in ** The Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of
Manchester," 186T, vol. xlv., or Day's ** Chemistry in its Relations to Physiology
and Medicine," I860, pp. 810—812.

Indigo White or Jkeduced Indigo^ in a state of purity, occurs in white flakes, which
arc devoid of taste or smell, are perfectly neutral, and are insoluble in water, but
dissolve in alcohol, other, and alKaline solutions. Its composition is represented
by the formula Cj eHe KOg, and as it only differs from Indigo blue, C, .HkNOj, in
containing one more equivalent of H, it may be considered as the hydride of the
latter. If yam or woven goods be immersed in au alkaline solution of this sub-
stance till they arc thoroughly saturated, and are then exposed to the air, indigo
blue is formed within the fibres of the tissue. The blue dye thus obtained is very
intense and permanent. From its property of becoming blue on exposure to the
air, indigo white Is a sensitive test for the presence of free oxygen.

Many compounds of great chemical Interest have been derived from Indigo bine.
It was from Indigo that aniline (now so largely employed in the production of the pig-
ments known as mauve and nuzgenta) was first obtained.

INDIGO BIRD (Cganospizaeyanea), a North American bird of the Pinch fam-
ily CFringillidce)^ a native of the United States, as far north" as the Missouri, which
It visits In summer, and of Central America, where it spends the winter. It is about
6^ inches in lengtn, of a beautiful blue color^ variously tinged and shaded, the
lores and nnfflos of tlie cliln velvet black. It frequents open places on the edges of
woods, and delights to sit singing on the top of a high tree. Its song is very sweet.
It is easily domesticated, and is much in request as a cage-bird.
INDO-GERMANIC LAKGUAQES. See Abtan Lahqvaqzb.
INDO'RE, a Mahratta principality of Hindustan, consists of several detached
tracts, some of them lying very remote from each other. With au aggregate area of
8075 sqnare miles, and au aggregate population of about 640,000, the territory, as a
whole, is traversed from east to west by the Nerbndda, and also by the Vindliya
Mountains, their loftiest point within its limits being S600 feet above the sea. The
revenue is nearly a Quarter of a million sterling ; and tho armed force amounts to
nbont 20,000 men. Besides the capital, the ciiief towns are Rampflra, Mehadpore^
Dili, Plllaud, Mundlaisir, Bhanpftra, and Mhow. I. is peculiarly the country of the
Bhfcls, Olio of the wildest and most savage of the aboriginal tril>eB of India. The
country, Including all between Its extremes, stretches in n. lat. from 91* 18' to 24"
46', and in e. long, from 74° sy to 76° 20'. The climate is sultry, the thermometer
ranging from 00° to 90° F. in the shade.

INDORE, the capital of the principality of the same name. Is situated in 22* 42'
IK, and long. 7«o 60' c., on the left bank of the Kuthl. It stands about 9000 feet



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above the larel of the een, and is estimated to contain 16,000 InhabitiBts.
Tbie place, mean and iusigniflcaut enough in iteelf, acquired considerable notoriety
in connection with the grand revolt of 1867. Though Uolkar, the raJAli, renuiued
faithful to the Br.tish government, yet his troops mutinied on Ist July, holding
tlieir prince as a jtrisooer in his own palace, and butchering many Europeans, noeu,
women, and cliildren, in cold blood. L is of modern erectmn, having been founded
in 1767 : and its original namesake, now Jemuab, stili exists ou the opposite bank
of the river.

INDO'RSED, Indorsed, or Addorsed, terms applied in Heraldry to two animsls
placed back to baclc Two keys, two wings, &c, may also be indorsed, and a peli-
can is always drawn with his wings Indorsed.

INDO'RSEMBNT, the term generally used to demote the writing of the name of
the hoId«r on the back of a bill of exchange orpromissory note, ou transferring or
assigning it to another. Signing the name *' A. B." alone is a blank indorsement;
and if the transferee is numed^ Ic Is a special indorsement The usual form i%
*' Pay C. D. or order. (Signed) A. B." In Scotland, it is, " Pay the contents to C
D. or order. (Signed) A. B." When personal liability is to be avoided, the words
" without recourse " arc added. The word indorsement is also frequentlr n^ed in
English law. to denote any matters written or indorsed on tlio back of writs or
de^, as inaorscmeuts on declarations, on writs of summons, &c.

FNDRA (from the Saucrit id^ which probably meant "to see, to discover," hence
literally, ** he wiio sees or discovers," soil., the doings of the world) is the name of
one of those Hindu deities that were worsiiip|)ed more especially In ihe Vedic peric^
of the Hindu religion, but enjoyed a great lejgcndary popularity also in the Epic and
PurAuic periods. Sec Ikdia, sect. Religion, In that class of KM^^-Veda hyiuna
which there is reason to look upon as the oldest portion of Vedic po>2try, the char-
acter of I. is tltat of a mighty ruler of the bright nrmnneut, and his principal feat la
thiit of conquering the demon Vr'itra, a symbolical personification of the cloud
wiiich obstructs the clearness of the sky* and wltliholds the fructifying rain from
the eaith. In his battles with Vr'itra, he is therefore described as *• opening the re-
ceptacles of the waters," as '* cleaving the cloud " with his "far-whirling thunder^
bdit," as ** casting the waters doviii to earth," and restoring the sun to the sky. Uo
is, iu consequence, " the upholder of heaven, earth, and firmament," and the god
** who has en£(endered tUo sun and the dawn." And since the atmospherical phen-
omena personified iu this conception are ever and ever recurring, he is "undecay-
ing " and •' ever youthfuL" All the wonderful deeds of I., however, are performed
by him merely for4he benefit of the good, which in the language of the Veda means
the pious men who worship him in their songs, and invigorate him with the offerings
of the juice of the Soma plant See India, sect Rmgion, He is therefore Ura
** lord of the virtuous,'' and the *' discomfiter of those who neglect religious rites."
Many other epithets, which we have not space to enumerate, Illustrate the same con-
ception. It is on account of the paramount influpnoe which the deeds of L exercise
ou tiie material happiness of man, that this deity occupies a foremost rank in tbe
Vedic worship, and that a greater number of invocations are addressed io
him than to any other of the gods. But to understand the gradual ex-
pansion of Ills mythical character, and his ultimate degradation to an inferior
position in the Hindu pantheon of a later period, it is necessaiy to bear
in mind that, however much the Vedic poets call L the protector of the pious and
virtuous, he is iu their songs essentially a warlike god, and gradually endowed by
imagination, not only with the qualities of a mighty, btit also of a solf-wiUed king.
The legends which represent him in this light seem, it is true, to lielong lo a lat«r
class of the R'ig->Ma liymns, but they shew that the original conception of L ex-
cluded from his nature ttiose ethical considerations which in time changed the pan-
theon of elementanr ^ods into one of a difi!erent stamp. Whether tho idea of an
incarnation of the deify, which,, at the Epic and Purple periods, played so lmtt>rt-
ant a pnrt iu the history of Vishnu, did not exercise its influence as early as the
composition of some of the Vedic liymns in honor of I., may at least be matter of
doubt. He is, fur instance, frequently invoked as tlie destroyer of cities— of seven,
of ninety-nine, oven of a hundred cities— and he is not only repeatedly called \\w
shvyer of the hostile tribes which anrroauded the Aryan Hindus, but some of tbu



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chiefs Blain by him are ennmerated hv name. The commentators, of coan>e. turn
tho«» ** robbers " and their "chiefs" into demoop, and their cities into celestial
abodeip; bat as it is improbable that nil these names should be nothing bnt persoul-
iiaiiions of clouds destroyed by the thauderbolt of I., it is, to sav the least, qnestlon*
able wliether events In the carry history of India may not have been associated wllh
the deeds of I. himself, in like manner as, at the Epic period, mortal heroes were
looked upon as iucamatious of Vlshnn, and mortal aeeds transformed into explo'ts
of tills god.

The purely Idn^ly ciiaracter of I. assumes its typical shape in the " Aitan>yn-
Brfthmana," where hie Installation as lord of the inferior gods is descrilKd with
much mystical detail; and from that time be continues to be the supreme lordcf the
minor gods, and the type of a mortal king. During the Epic and JPur&nic peiiods,
where ethical conceptions of the divine powers prevail over Ideas based on elemen-
tary impressions, I. ceases to enjoy the worship be had acquired at the Vtdic time,
ana bis existence Is cijiefly upheld by the poets, who. In their turn, however, work
It out in tlie most fantastical detail. Of the eight guardians of ihc world, he is then
the one who presides over the east, and he is still the god who sends rain and wields
the thnnderl>olt ; but ooctry is more engrossed by the beauty of his paradise,
Swarffa, the Itappy abode of the inferior gods, and of those pious men who attain it
after death in consequence of having, during life, properly discharged their religious
duties; by the charms of his heavenly nymphs, the Apaaraaasy who now and then
descend to earth, to disturb the equanimity of austere penitents; by the musical
performances of bis choristers, the Oandhanxu; by the splendor of his capital,
Amardvati; by the fabulous beauty of his garden, Nandana, &c. A remarkable
trait In this legendary life of I. is the series of his conflicts with Krishna, an Incatv
natiou of Vishnu, which end, however, in his becoming reconciled with the more
importmit god. As the god wlio is emphatk^ally called the god of the hundred sac-
rifices (S'aMkratu)j I. is jealous of every mortal who may have the presumption of
aiming at the iwrtormance of that number of sacrifices, for the accomplishment uf
such an intention would raise the sacriflcer to a rank equal to that which he occvpies.
He is therefore ever at hand to disturb sacrificial acts wiiich may expose him to the
danger of having his power shared by another Indra. According to tlie Pur&uas.
the reign of this eod I., wiio is frequently also called S'akra, or the mighty, does not
last lon^r than tne first Manwaniara, or mundane epoch. After each successive
destruction of the world, a new I. was created, together with otiier gods, saints, and
mortal beings. Thus, tlie I. of the second Manwantara is Vipas'ehit ; of the tliird,
Su»'6nti; of the fourth, S'ivi ; of the fifth, Vibhu; of the sixth, Manejaoa; and the
I. of the present age is Purandara, When represented in works of art, I. is gener-
ally seen riding on his elephant ; and where he is painted, he is covered with cycB.

INDRANI', a name of the wife of the Hindu god Indra (q. v.).

INDUE, a central deportment of France, formed out of the western portion of
the old province of Berri, lies immediately south of the department of Loir-et-Cher.
Area, 8679 sq. m., of which about 4-5ths are in tillage and pasturage. Pop. (18T2)
277,093. The department is well watered, the chief rivers being tlie Indre. the
Creuse, and its trlbutory the Anglin. The surface is for the most part flat, ana the
land is gencriiUy fertile, prodnctng large crops of wheat and barley. The two prin-
cipal resources of the department, however, are its vineyards and its flocks. The
climate, except In tlie district of La Brcnue. is mild and healthy. The principal
msiuufactnres are woollen and linen cloths, hosiery, scythes, paper and porcelain.
Iron mines are worked. The department is divided into four arrondissements —
. Chftteuuroux, Le Blanc, L>soudim, and La Ch&tre. The capital is Cbftteaurooz.

INDRE, a river of France, rises on the northern border of the department of
Crense, flows northwest throuffh the deijartmehtt* of Indre and Indrc-et-Loire, and
joins the Loire 17 milee below Tours, after a course of 186 miles, for the last 40 of
which it is navlnihle.

INDRfi-ET-^iOIRE, an inland department of France, formed out of the ancient
province of Toaraine, lies north-west of the department of Indre. Area, 2340 sq.



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