James Orr.

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that tiie true spirit of the style was most fell, and the finest exam^ea remain. Our

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ipaoe has not permitted ns to enter minutely Into the Tarions styles of Gotbic in each
country. The more important of these will be treated separately. See Eably
BMOU9H, Decoratsd, Pbrpxndiculaiu Flamboyant.

We miiy, however, state geuerallyf that both iu France and England the style bad
a complete exiatei>ce— it was bom, arrired at roaturity, and died. When the spirit of
the early architects had pa^hed thedeei^n to its utmoct limits, they rested from their
labors, well satisfied with their splendid achievements. Their sncotssors occupied
themselvod with forms and details, nud with the perfecting of every minute part.
The art Anally passed away, and left architecture in the hands of trade corporations —
masons, carpenters, plumbers, Ac— who monopolised the whole work, and acted
independently to the exclnsiou of one directing mind. The result was as we have
seen ; architect are became masonic skill, and Gotbic was finally superseded by the
revival of classic architecture In the 16th century.

GOTHLAND (Swed. GoUland)^ an island In the Baltic, lying between 67o— 68^
n. tot, and 18"— 1>« 80' e. long., which, with FarOe, Gotska, SaudOe, and other
smaller islands, constitutes the Swedish lien or province of Goltlaud and Wlsby.
Pop. (187«) 54,649 ; and the superficial area about 1200 square miles. Chief town,
Wi8by(q. v.). G. consists mainly of terrace-like slopes of limestone formation,
encirclea by clifEs which are broken by numerous deep fiords, more especially on the
west coasts of the island, the eastern parts of which ure fiat, llie surface is m many
parts hilly and well-woodod, and the soil is f rnitf nl and well cultivated. The climate
IS snfilciently mild to allow of the grap<! and mulberry ripening in favorable situa-
tions in the open air. The laud is divided among many small proprietors, who Ilvo
iu separate and detached homesteads. The island of G. was for ten ywn » (from 1439
to 1449) the self-elected place of banishment of King Eric X.. who, after loug-cou-
tiuneddiasensions with his Swedish and Danish subjects, retired to Wisby. where
be shut himself up in the castle with his favorite mistress and a band of followers.
Having refused to resume his duties, he was declared to have forfeited the crowns
of Swraen and Denmark, and thenceforward he subsisted by i)il!ag!Mg the ships auc*
infesting tlie coasts of the lands he had formerly governed. The remains of numer^
oos churches and monasteries in every part of the island attest its former wealth,
and afford many noble specimens of Gothic architecture.— nic name G. or Gotland
(q. v.) is also used to indicate the southern division of the kingdom of Sweden, in-
cluding 11 provinces l>eside8 the island of Gothland.

GOTHS (Lat Ootki^ Gothones^ GuttonM^ Gutmj Ac. ; Gr. Goithoi, Gottoi, Goutlhoij
Gnthdnet; Gothic, Gutthiuda), the name of a powerful nation of antiquity, belong-
ing to the Germanic race. By some writers they are thought to have had a Scandina-
vian origin, which wastho belief of their own faistorlan, Jornaudes. Indeed, Jomandes
Procopms, Capltollnns, and Trebellins Pollio identifledihem with tbeGetie, a branch
of the Tbraclan group of nations; but later researches, especially t hose of DrlAtbam,
leave It almost without a doubt that the G. were originally Germans. The earilest
notice of them extant among the writers of antiquity is that of Pytheasof Marseille,
who lived abont the time of Alexander the Great, and wrote a book of travels, some
fn^roonta of which have been preserved in the works of other writers. In one of
these fragments, we find mention made of a tribe of GiUtonts bordering upon the Ger-
mans, and who lived ronnd a gulf of the sea called Meutonomon, a day's sail trojn
the island of Abalns. where they osed to gather amber, and sell it to the neighboring
Tcutones. This gulf, there Is every reason to believe, was the fVischea Haft situ-
ated on the Prnssian shore of the Baltic. The next notice that occurs of the O. is in
the "German la" of Tacitus, in which they are called Gothoues, and are represented
as dwelling beyond the Lygti ; in the same direction, that is, as the one pointed out
by Pytheas, tlioi^h not on the sea-coast. Tacitus also distinguishes them from the
Gothini, a tribe east of the Quadi and Marcomanni, and who uro represented by
him as using the Galilean tongue. The Gothoues, according to this historian, were
under regal government, and on that atcount not ouite so free as the other
tribes of Germany, but stiU they enjoyed a consicierable amount of liberiy.
The tribes next oeyond them, and dwelling immediately on tha sea^coast^
were the Rugii and Leraovli, whose form of government was also mon-
archkatl, and uieir weapoiiB, like tboee of the Qothonea, round abielda and abort

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We next hear of the O. as settled on the coast of the Black Sea, about the moatha
of the Danube, curly in the 8d ceiitnnr. Bat at Mrhnt tirae, or nnder wf clrcuui-
ntonccs their migration from the Baltic to the Buxine took place, it Lb impoaaible to
ascertalD. ** Either a pestilence or a famine,'' rays Gibbon, ** a victory or a defeat,
an oracle of the gods or the elouneuce of a daring leader, were eofflclent to impel
the Gothic arms on the milder climate of the aoutb.'' In their new home, which was
also the couotrvof the Getie (whence, perhaps, the error that confonnded them with
that people), the G. increased both iu nnmbers and strength, so that as early as the
reign of Alexander Bevems (9S&— 235 a.d.), they made some formidable inroads upon
the Roman province of Dacia. In the reign of Philip (244—249 ^.d.), they ravaged
that province and even advanced to the siege of Mardanopoiis iu Mcsma Se*
eunda. The inhabitants ransomed their lives and property bv a^rge sum of money,
and the invaders withdrew for a time to their own country. Under Dedus, however,
they again entered Mcesia to the number of about 70.000, led by a king named Cniva.
Dccius himself advanced to meet them, and found them engaged before Nioouolis.
On his approach they raised the siege and nuirched away tu PhilippopollH, a city of
Thrace near the foot of Mount Hasmus. Declus pursued them by forced marches,
but at a convenient opportunity the Q. turned with unexampled runr upon the Ro-
man legions and utterly defeated them. Philippopolls next fell before them hi
storm, after a long resistance, during which and the massacre that followed, 100,00&
of its inhabitants are reported to have been slain. This was in 960 a.d. In the fol-

lowing year another tremendous battle took place near an obscure town called Forum
Trebouil, in Moesla, in which the Romans were again defeated with great slaughter,
the Emperor Decius and his son being in the number of the slain. The succeeding

emperor, Gallus, purchased their retreat by an immediate present of a large sum of
money, and the promise of an annual tribnte for the f nture. The G. now set them-
selves to the acqnisitlou of a fleet, and with this in 258 advauced to the conquest of
Pltyus, a Greek town on the northeastern coast of the Black Sen, which they com-
pletely destroyed. In 258 they besieged and took Trebizond, when a great Beet of
ships that were in tlie port fell Into their hands. In these they deposited the booty
of the city, which was of immense vuloc, chained the robust youth of the seacoast
to their oars, and returned iu triumph to the kingdom of Bosporus.
In the following year, with a still more powerful force of men and
ships, 'they took Chalcedon, Nicomedia, Nice, Prusa, Apaurrca. and Cins. In
a third expedition, which numbered as many as 600 vessels, they took Cyxicus,
then sailed down the ^gean, ravaged the coast of Attica, and in 262 anchored at
the Pirseua. Athens was now taken and plimdered, and many other renowned
places in Greece were either partially or wholly destroyed. Even Italy waa threat-
ened; but, says Gibbon, **the approach of such imminent danger awakened the
indolent Gallienus from his dream of pleasure." The emperor appeared in arms ;
and his presence seems to have checked the ardor, and to have divided the streugtii
of the enemy. A portion of the G. now returned to their own country. But iu 269
they again started on a maritime expedition in far greater numbers than ever.
After ravaging the coasts of lx>th Europe and Asia, the main armament at length
anchored before Thessolonica. In Claudius, the successor of Gallieauf^ however, the
G. found a far abler general than any they liad yet contended witli. This emperor de-
feated their immense host, said to number as many as 820,000 men, in three suo*
cessive battles, taking or sinking their fleet, and after an immense slaughter of their
troo)>s, pursuing such as escaped until they were hemmed iu by the passes of Mount
Utemuv, where they perished for the most part by famine. This, however, was only
a single reverse. Aurelian, the successor of Claudius, was obliged to cede to them
in 272, the large province of Dacia, after which there was comparative peace betMreen
the combatants for alwnt fifty years. In the reign of Constantine, their king,
Ararie, again provoked hostility, but was obliged eventually to sue for peace with
the master of the Roman empire. Under Valens, they once more encountered the
Roman legions, with whom tfiey carried on a war for about three years (867—360).
with tolerable success. They now began to be distinguished l>y the appellations of
Ostro-Goths and Visl-Gotlis, or the G. of the East and West : the former inhabiting
the shores of tiie Black Sea. and the latter the Daciau province and the banlucS
the Danube. On the irruption of the Huns, the Visigoths sought the protection of
Valens against those barbarhms, and iu 875 were allowed by him to pass into Maeel«t

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to tbe^nninber of abont SOiLOOB. Groat nambera of them also now took Mrrice In
the Roman army ; bat a dispnte soon arose between tbe Q. and their new allies,
wbkh led to a decisive battle. In 878, near Adrfanople, in which the emperor Valens
Io8t his life. The O. now threatened Conatautinople, bat were not able to take it ;
and during the reign of Theodosins, there was again a period of comparative

Henceforward, the history of the Visigoths and Ostrogoths flows in two rather
diinMjK<eut streams. Befoi*e tracing either of these, however, it should be mentioued
that the G., for tbe most part, became converts to Christi unity about the middle of
the 4tb c, adopting tlie Arlan form of iielicf, in accordance with the instractious of
tlietr renowned teacher aud apostle, Bisbop Ulfllas. Here, also, it may be stnted
that tbe term Moeso-Qoths was applied to certain of the Western G., who having
settled in Moeeia, there devoted themselves to agricultural pursuits, uoder tbe pro-
tection of the Roman emperors.

rt«i*«oeA«.~Upou the death of Theodoslua the Great, in 895,and the partitfon of the
empire between Honorius and Arctidius, the renowned Alaric, king of^the Visigoths,
6oi^;ht the command of the armiee of the eastern empire, aud upon being refused, in-
vaded Qrcfcc with an array of bis countrymen. About 400, be invTided Italy, took
and pilhiged Rome (410), and was preparing to carry his arms into Sicily and Africa,
when bis career was arretted by deatli. See ALABia Alnric was succeeded In the
Bovereiguty by Athaolf (410—415), who, having married Placldia, the sister of Honors
ios, wiuidrew from Italy into tbe south of Gaul, and about 418 crossed the Pyren-
ees Into Spain. Athaulf was assassinated at Barcelona, and his successor, Slgcric,
dying the same year, the choice of tbe G. now fell on Wallia (415—418), who ex-
tended hia power over a great part of Boothern Gaul and Spain, and made Toulouse
his capital. The G., under this monarch, greatly assisted the Romans In their con-
tests with the Vandals and tlio Alani. WalUa was succeeded by Thcodoric I. (418—
451>, son of the great Ahiric. He lost his life in tbe bloody engagement of CbAIons-
sur-Marne, leaviiig the throne to his son Tborisinund (451—452), who, however, was
a^sasfliuutcd by his brother Tbeodorlc II. (462 — 466), who reigned for some years,
bat was at length himself assassinated by his brother Euric (466—488), whose reign
was unasnally orilllant and successful. He extended tbe sovereignly of the Visi-
goths considerably both in France and Spain, introduced the arts of civfllsation
among his subjects, and drew up for tlieir use a code of laws, in which were em-
bodied many sound princii>les of jurisprudence. Under .his successors, Alaric II.
(483—606) and Amaluric (506—581), however, the kingdom of the Visigoths declined
before that of the Franks. The former fell by tbe hand of Clovis in battle in 607,
and the latter was killed cither In battle or by the baud of an assassin in the year
53U Under hia successor Thendea, the rule of the Visigotha was confined ex-
clusively to Spain. Theades was in his turn assassinated In his palace at Barcelona
in the year 548. It will not be necessary to trace tbe long line of Visigothic kings
that subseqneutly mied in Spain from this period down U) the year 7 if. The Visi-
gothic power was completely broken, and their last kiugt Rodrigo or Roderick, slain
by the Baraceu invaders on the battle-flefd of Xeres de Ui Frontera.

OsCro^MAa.— At the time when the Visigoths were admitted by Valens within the
bonudaries of the Human empire, the same favor was solicited by the Ostrogoths,
bat was refused them by t^ emperor. They revenged themselves for this slight or
injnry by making frequentlucarsionsinto the Roman territories, sometimes on their
own account, and sometimes aa the allies of the Visigoths. In 886, the Ostrogotha
sustained a severe defeat mider their king or general, Alatheus, in attemptbig to
cross the Danube, when many thousands of them perished, cither by the sword of
the Romans, or in the waves of the river. After thi9, they obtained n settlement in
Phrygia and Lydia, but were ever ready to aid any fresh band of barbarians that
prepared to assault the empire. ThiLJu they joined Attila in his renowned expedition
afamst Gaul (46(^—453), and fell hy tnousauds under the swords oC their kinsmen
the Visieoths at the battle of ChAlous-sur-Marnc. After this, they obtained a set-
tlementin Panuonia, whence they preascd upon the eastern empire with such effect,
that the sovereigns of Constantinople were glad to purchase their forbearance by
large presents of money. In 476, Theodoric, the greatest of the Ostrogotii sover-
eigns, succeeded to the throne ui>on tbe death of his father Theodemir. He directed
bis anna almo6t immediately against the easteni emperor Zeuo ; aud having gained

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Gotland q/\

Oottiagtn «/W

couaiderBble tdvantages over him, obtained a f^nt of some of the rldieat prorrncea
In the empire. Eventnallj, he was uaroed chief of the iniperiul {roard, and Indeed
consul for the year 464. In 488, with the consent and advice of Zeno, he planned
an immense expedition against Odoacer, king uf Italy, who had held that title since
476, when he dethroned Aagnstulus, Ihe ku)t of the west^mi emperors. Theodoric
utterly defeated Odoocer, slew him, it is said, vfXWx his own nnnd, and reigned
undisturbed sovereign of I aly until his death in 526. The seat oC his em-
pire was at Ravenna, which he sometimes exchanged for Verona, and
once— i. c, iu 60O— ho visited Rome, when he convened a meeting of
the senate, and declared that it was his intention to rule the people
committed to his charge with even-handed justice. To a greiit extent, he fulfilled
this promise, and governed his subjects upon the whole wisely and to their advan-
tage. The glonr of his reign was however, sullied by the execution of two of the
most distingnislied men of that age, Boethius and Symmachus, upon the plea that
they were engaged in a conspiracy against him. During bis reign, the Ostrogoth
kingdom incluoed, besides Italy, all the adjoining countries within the Rhone and
the Danube ; also the modem Bosnia, ServSa^ Transylvania, and Wailachia. In the
disorders consequent upon the death of Ttieodoric the Emperor Justinian sought
to win back Italy to the alliance of the emperors of Constantinople; and for this
purpose he despatched Boli&rius at the head of an army into that country. In 586,
Beusarins entered Rome, which he held for bis master, although invited by the G.
to become himself their king ; but all his and his euccessor's efforts to subdue the
G. were at that time utterly fruitless. Totlla (641-^8), a noble Goth, was elected as
successor to Vltiges, the antagonist of Belisarius, but was conquered in the battle of
Tagina, by the imperial general, Narses, in the year 652. In that Imttle. Totila re-
ceived his death-wound, and waa succeeded by Teias, who did all that a Wave man
could to repair the misfortunes of his countrymen. It was to no effect, however,
for be also was killed in battle in the following year, when '*his head." says Gib-
bon, ** exalted on a spear, proclaimed to the nations that tlie Gothic kingdom was
no more." The Ostrogoths, oroken and dispersed by their calamities* henceforward
disappear from history as a distinct nation, their throne in Italy being filled by the
exarchs of Rtivenna ; while the nation generally became absorbed in the indiscrim-
inate mass of Alani, Huns, Vandals, Burgnndiau*, and Franks, who had from time
to time established themselves in the dominions of the old Roman empire.

GOTLAND (GOtaland, or GOtarike), the most southern of the three old provinces
or main divisions of Sweden (q. v.). G. is now divided icto 12 Isens or depart-
ments ; it has a superficial area of about 87,000 square miles, or one-fifth that of all
Sweden, and a pop. of alMve 8,800,000. The greater part of the region, more
especially in the north and in the Interior, is covered with mountains, forests, and
lakes, but its southern dlstricta contain some of the most fertile land in Sweden.
The principal lakes arc the Wener (q. v.) and the Wetter (q. v.). The river G^Jta.
which was unfit for navigation on account of its cataracts, the most picturesque of
which is Trollhftttan, has been rendered naylgable by the construction of numerous
locks and canals, and it is now open to vessels of conpiderable burden f rota Gotten-
borg, on the Cattegnt, to LAke Wener, from whence the G{Ha Canal extends the line
<of 260 miles) of internal communication across the kingdom to ila eastern shores.
G. comprehends a large portion of the mining distritts, and is especially rich in
iron and alum, and yields good copper, nickel, coal, Ac The peasantry arc super-
stitious, attached to their old traditional usages and their national costume, but are
honest and industrious, hospitable and contented.

GOTTENBORG (Swed. GdUborg). next to Stockholm, the most Important city
of Sweden, in lat. 67*' 41' n., long. 11* 58' e., and the principal town of the Iseu of
Gottenborg. The population, in 1874 was 63,748, exclusive of its extensive environs.
G.. which was founded by Gustavus Adolphua in 1618. is situated on the river GOta,
a few miles from the Cutiegat, and consists of a lower and upper town ; the former
intersected by numerous canals, which are bordered bv allies of fine trees, and
spanned by numerous bridges ; and the latter picturesquely mattered over the adja-
cent rocky heights. Its admirable harbor, wlilch is protected by three forts, affords
safe anchorage to ships of heavy burden, and htis long been noted for its extensive
foreign commerce. 'The upper parts of the town have wide and regular streets and

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good fttoae houses ; but tliere are few bnildini;s deoervingr of special notice except iitg
ihc now chnrcliy (lie Exchange, the Cathedral, the Tuwii-bull, uud Arseuul. G. iti thu
fee of a bishop, and the peut of the government of the dioti let. It iiud good schools,
•ue of them ionuded hv Oscar I. for the chiidrcu of soldicre ; a pnhlic library : nn
academy of science and literal urc, which wan Incorporated in 1715 ; &c. The uOta
Canal, which connects Ihc German Ocean and the Baltic, brings G. Into direct com-
munication with Stockholm and a great portion of the interior of the kingdom,
wiiich ft supplies with the products of foreign commerce and Its own liome-industiy.
Tlie latter is of considerable importance, and includes, besides ship-building, ex-
tensive manufactories of woollen and cotton good?, sail-cloths, tobacco, snuff, ghiss,
paper, sugar, and porter. In 1872, 3961 vessels, of 1,147.032 tons, cnteretl and cleared
the port. The exports arc Iron, cop^jer, dents, tar and pitch, alnm, flsh, &c. ; and the
imports, salt, cereals, wine, and articles of colonial trade. The great feature tf
the G. Licencing Systenij which has acquired some notoriety m this countrj',
fs the elimination of private profit in the sale of spirits, by having the public-
bouses conducted by managers paid by salary, while the profits are paid into the
town treasury.

GOTTFRIED VON STRASBURG, or Godfrey of Strasimrg, so called, it is be-
lieved, cither from having l>een born, or from having resided in the town of Stras-
burg in Alsace, wason^of the most eminent poets or minnesingers of the Middle
High German period. He flourished during tlie latter half of the 12th century. His
chief work, *• Tristan," in the composition of ^tiich he was employed at his death,
and which extends to about 20,000 stanzas, was written about the year 1207, during
the lifetime of Hartmann of Aue, wliom lie celebrates as the first of German narra-
tors, and after the publication of the first portion of Wolfram von Eschenbnch's
*• Parcivnl," to thcjprologue to which he alludes. Eilhart of Obcrce had worked up
the Btor^ of *• Tristan" from a French poem. G. founds his story on
another French poem (of which considerable fragments are still extant),
and names as the author Thomas of Brittany, who, however, is not to
be confounded with the half or wholly fabulous Thomas of Erclldoune, referred to
in the old English story of "Tristan," published by Sir Walter Scott Besides
•* Tristan," some lyric poems by G. are stillextant G.'s works, with later continu-
ations of •* IMstan," were published by Von der Hagen (1828). An admirable edition
of O. has been furnished by Bechstein (1869 : 2d ed. 1873>. Modern German traiis-
latJouf have been given by Kurtz and SlmrocK. Wagner has made use of " Tristan"
for his opera ** Tristan und Isolde."

QOTTINGEN, a town in the former kingdom of Hanover, In lat Sl^Sl'n., long.
♦« W e., and one of the plcasantest in Lower Germany, is situated in a fruitful val-
ley on both banks of an artificial arm of the Leine, called the New Leiue, about 60
miles south of Hanover. It is in general well built, but is almost destitute of fine
ediflcos^nd has an air of solitude, which even the number of students cannot dissi-
pate. The Ratkhaun, ?k\\ old castellated and picturesque edifice; the educational
institutions, of which there are many ; the hospital, and the university, are the only
buildings ot any note. The university was instituted by George II., king of Eng-
land and Elector of Hanover, in 1734, and opened 17th September 1737. Connected
with it are the library, containing over 900,000 vols, and 6000 manuscripts ; the Royal
Society, founded 1750, which publishes the well-known transactions and the ** GOt-
liiijger Gelehrte Anzeigen ;" the observatory; the art museum, with collections of
oUToil-paintings, of engravings, of coins and models of all sorts, and some casts ^
from the antique ; the lying-ni hospital, the chemical laboratory, and the botanic
gardens (laid out under Hatler^s superintendence in 1789), one of the chief ornaments
of the town. Prom 1822 to 1826. the number of students attending the university of
G. averaged 1481 annually ; but in consequence of the troubles of 1831, the number
in 1884 hod fallen to 860. The university could, however, still boast a rare assem-
blage of distinguished teachers, such as Blumenbach, Dahlmann, Ewald, Gauss,
Gervinns, Oieseler, Herbart, LOcke, Otfr. MOller, the brothers Grimm, Ac. ; but the
expulsion in 1887 of the "seven professors," Albrecht, Dahlmann, Bwald, Gervinus,
the two Grimms, and W. Weber, for political reasons, inflicted a blow upon the

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 18 of 196)