James Orr.

Chambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 online

. (page 181 of 196)
Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 181 of 196)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

the playtrround, wlietlier open or covered, order, obedience, kinduesi*, considern-
tion, civility. clennUnes^, good-temper, are to be taught, and the moral objects of
the infant school atluined. Play, and i lie moral training which ma^r be connected
with It, sliould be the leading ideas of the place, and toj,iie!«e everythnig else should
be snbordtiiated. Next to this, tlie intellectual imture of the infant has to be con-
sidered, its future anticipated, and the elements of reading taught, but with the lielp
of sucli methods and boolts as cull for the minlmnm of mental exertion. An infant
school whicti tias cultivated the moral nature of M» children through games and ex-
ercises, aud has taught them to read easy mouosvllublc sentences by the time they
reach the age of six, has accomplished its work well. At the same time, other
means of awakening interest aud intelll^nce may be resorted to with advantiigo,
but under this restriction, that, if tliey fail to call forth sponkmeons and nnconsdons
attention, eil her tlirongh the want of sldll on the part of the mistress to present
them in an altractivc form, nr through some defect in the apparatus at tlie command
of the mistress, they should at once be given up. We refer to songs of a moral or
narrative kind— rhymes and nursery jingles— <1escriptlons of objects and pictures by
the children under the teacher's guidance (object-lessons)— the concealed pur)K)se
being to cultivate the perceptive faculties of form, color, number, size, Ac— and les-
sons in arithmetic on a luili-lrame. Then, again, the teuchcr may col eel the chil-
dren around her and read to them fairy tales and simple stories of ineidcnt and the
affections. All this may be, and actually is attained ; hut the qualifications in the
teacher for tiie attainment of them arc rarely to be met with. 80 far as these qnali-
Hcations are of a moral or imaginative kind, they are natural endowments ; but they
may receive enlightenment and direction by a judicious sys'tem of traiuinjr. In the
first Keport of the Home aud Colonial School Society, itis truly said, ** that fewsit-
natlons in life require so much discretion, so much eiiergr, so much tenderness, so
much self-control and love, as thut of a teacher of bal>es.'' Withonta consciousness
that she possesses these qualifications, especially the last-named, no woman should
for a moment contempUite the career of an infant-school mistress.

1'he question still remains to be considered— whether infant schools are desira-
ble at all. and whether the family lienrth, and the fields, or the streets, do not con-
stitute the l>est, because nature's infant scliool. The answer given by many wonld
be that, were society In a healtliy and normal condition, infant schools are hurtful
even at the best, and that, when wu bear in mind the chances of tlielr l)eiiig badly
conducted, they may be generally denouuced as a public nuisance. But we are not
in a normal state; and while infant schools proper are, perhaps, superfluous in rural
parishes, they are in populous places a boon and a blessing, if not a necessity.

INFA'NTfi (from the Lat. infana^ an Infant), the title given in Spain and Por-
tugal to the princes of the royal family, the coiTes|>ond ins title of Infanta l>eiiig
given to the princesses. Since tlie 14th c, liowever, the h«r-appurent to the throne
hi Snaiii has l)een styled the Prince of Astnrius, and the heir-apparent in Portujral.
until ilie separation of Brazil from the mother-country, lx>re the title of Prince of
Braxil. The personal domain of an Infante or Infanta is cnllefl the Jn/avtado^ atd
this has come to be the name of a district whicii was made a dukedom in 1475.

INPA'NTICIDE, the act or practice of rannlcrlnir infants, which is abhorrent
to modern civilisation, was common in ancient times, and now prevuils ainon^
many barbarous nations. It prevailed in Greece and Rome, and (such is the force
of custom) found defenders in Plato and Aristotle! The latter, in his '* Politicti,"
says the law should forbid the nurturing of the maimed, and where a check to pop-
ulation is required, nlwrtion should 1x5 produced before the quickening of the in-
fant. In Sparta, we are Informed that the law directed, when u child was born, the

Digitized by VjOOQ IC


Xniantrr QO^

father was to carrr It to nn appointed phce, to be fnnpected by the elders of the
cominnnity. If they perceived that Its Hinbd were straight, and its look was wbok?-
soine, they returned it to its parent to be educated ; otherwise, it was thrown into
a dttt'p cavern, at the foot of the mountain Taygef nw ; and it was said thi« law had
a wholesome effect, for it nitide women with clilld very c-irefal as to their (mting,
drinking, and exercise, and hence tliey proved ez<u!llent nurstrs. lu the uther Orts-
cian rennlilics, a aimilar disregard of tiie life of Mckly Infants w:is shewn. With
rcgnrd to tiie practice among tlie Romans, little deflnire infonnation exists, tliongti
learned antlii>rs discuss it at great lengtli. It seems ccrtiiiu tliat it luy with the
liomau fatlier to but whether Ins child siionld be permitted to live or not. The ex-
t>o^iiion of infuiitSt indeed, was the rule, rntlier than tlie exception, in mo^t conn*
trii^ in old time*. Among the Norse, tlie child's life always hung in the balance
till the father handed it to the nurse to be renred; if, on account of its being
weak, or n daughter, he disuppfbved of its living, it was exposed to die by
wild l>caMts or the Wealiier. In modern times, the practice is cruelly common
among certain peoples. Chiid-mui^er prevails to a great extent throughonf tho
whole of the South Sea Islands. Among the Fijiuns, it is a system. A recent
nuthority says, tiiat in Vanna Luvu in some parts, ** the extent of infanticide readies
nenrer two-Uiirds thim a half." Among the Hindus, the practice of destroying cliil>
dreii, especlnlly females, prevailed frit^htfully till it wascltecked in the time uf the
Marquis of Welleatey's nile. The RajpAts, It is said, destroy all female children but
tlic ilrst-1x>m— « peculiar custom due to its l)eiug a point of honor with a Rajpikt to
nu.irly ruin idm«elf in ttie marriage feast and portion of his dauglrter, so tliat he
couid not afford to have more than one. Tlie Mohammedans were iiiciiuod to th«
same practice, but effected their ohiect chiefly by means of abortion. In New Hol-
land the native women think nothing of destroying, bT compression, the infant in
the womb, to avoid the trouble of renniig it alive. Iii China 'nranticide is supposed
to be common, the ciiief cause being said to be the right of perlo<Ucally repudinilng
tiu>ir wives, wlilcli is |>oitsess4'<l i>y Cfiinamen. Some statistics recently published in
tiie ** Kspernuce " of Nancy, Indicate the fearful extent to wliicii life is lost tliroagh
t Ills pi act ice prevailing in so vast a population as that of China. In all the cases
al>ovc cited, it may be assumed there was no feeling of infanticide being wrong or
crinrnni. In some it was owing to religious feeling of a perverted kind ; in some,
to tiie difllcuity of living* hut in many, as among the Piiians, It would appear ttial
the motlier killed her cliild often from whim, aiiffer, or indolence.

Modern civilisation deals very differently with ihe subject of infanticide, for one
of its maxims Is that human life, from its first to Its last liour. i!« sacn»d, and who-
ever wilfully puts an end to it Is a murd'i^r, or a criiniunl of the same cntegory.
Instead of enooumging the destruction of life, modem civilisation abounds in every
kind of machinery for pntwrviuir it, l.owever nnsuccessfnl the attempt. The chiifif
cause whicli now leads to Infantkide is that of shame, wliich, however, operates only
In the c so of tlic child being illegitimate. The parents often Incur the risk of com-
mittiai; the crime of murder, to avoid social diwrace. In order, therefore, to appre-
ciate the force of the checks put by the law on the tendency to infanticide, tlie I.nw of
Bastardy (q. v.), tlie practice of Insiltuting Foundling Hospitals (q. v.), and the kind
and deun^e of the punishments attending any attempt more or-less direct to destroy
the ciilld eillier before or after birth, require to be taken into account.

Tiie criminal law deals with the cognate offences which make np infanti-
cide in tlie following manner, wliether the child is legitimate or illfsitimate. As
regards the procuring of abortion, every woman who takes pc^on or other
noxious thing, or uses instruments or other means to ^procure Iter miscarriage,
1b guilty of felony, and liable to penal servitude for life, or not less than tliree years;
and sols any person who administers poison or nses Instruments upon the woman
with sucii intent. Wiioever supplies druffs, poison, or Instruments for tlie same
purpose, is guilty of a misdemeanor, and liable to penal servitude for three ^rs, Tlie
conce:iiinent of birth is also made u criminal offence. Whoever, after a child is born,
by any secret disposition of the liody, endeavors to conceal its birth, is guilty of a
misdeine:inor, and liable to Imprisonment for two years. This is the offence whicli,
perl)n|)S, Is most frequently committi^d. or at least made the subject of prosccutioo
in sncti ca!^?s. as tlic attempt to establisli tlie larger crime of murder to tiie satis-
faction of a jury, is frequently foiled by the secret sympatiiy shewn towards the

Digitized by



935 IniSrfhnmt

motber, who is preramed to hare been the yictf m of eedtrftloo, or othenrfae wronged.
The existeuce of thli offence shewv the neceerity which erery womnn likely to
become a mother lalx>rs ouder of mukinf^ uablic her ait nation to aome extent. A»
the deatrnction of children may l>o affectea liy the negative fact of not ^applying
foo<1 and clothing, aa weii aa by the poaitive act of wonndin^z or ill-treatiiiK. the re«
fnanl or uoglcct of a parent or other peraon who ia tiooud liylaw to aiipply food and
clothing to tlie child, and ne};lecta to do ao, tiiereby cnnciog ita death, Hnionuta
eitlicr to mcrder or manaianghier, accordinj? to tlie circnnirtancee. Moreorer, tiie
nnlawfnl abnndonlng or expoi'nre of any cliild nuder the age of tuo yeara, wherei>y
tlie life and health ox the oliild are endangered, ia a mia<1emeanor i nnivhabie wlcfi
three years* peuAl aervltnde. Wliere a peraon ia charged with the mnrder of a rery
yonng chitd, it ia eaacntial to prove tliat tlie child waa in life. The teat of tliia ia
not tiiat it breathed, or bad an independent circoljitiou after it waa separated from
the mother, bat it ia enongh that ihe child waa fnily l>om ; hence, if n man airike a
woman with child, fo aa tocanae the death of the child, he la neither pnihy of mor*
der nor of roanalaoghter of the child. The judgea of Euuhind in 1848, had to de-
iibenitely couaider whether thongh a child waa Ptul attached lo tlie^avel atring, the
killing of it waa murder, and they held that it waa. In all caaea of the mordtr of
Infanta, the qnestion whctlier the child waa fally bom, and ao tlieanbjrctof morder,
ia generally one of medical jarlaprodence. npon which medical akill i» needed to
throw ligh^ and medical men have certain well-known teata for am ertainiug thia
important fact. The above offencea in reference to infanticide are pouiaiied in a
einiilar manner in Scotland.

It haa been atated that an inqnett ia held daDy upon the bodiea of children do-
atroyetl tbroogh the deaign, the neglect, the igi.omnce, or tlie mental ioflrmily ox
the mother?. £ven wlien the act may be fairly regarded aa a crime, iia enonnitr ia
generally greatly leaaened in the eye of ihe law by the conalderatiou of the phyaicaJ
condition and moral dietorbance of the parent.

A further protection waa given to iniant life by an act of 1872, which obliges
those who undertake for hire to nnrae infanta under the age of one yetir, to iiave
their house reglatered. and to keep rccorda of the children they take charge of.
They maat also give notice lothe coroner or procorator-fiacal of aach infanta' deatlia.

I'KFANTRY, the foot-aoldiera of an army. Among aemi-barbarona nations,
fighting on foot haa alwaya been conaidered less advantageoiia titan figliting on
horseback or in charlota : but aa war haa liecoroe a acience. the principnl atrength of
armies ia fonnd to lie in tlieir infantry. See Abmxxs, Taotios, Wab, Sk.

INPE'CnON ia diatingniehed from Contagion (q. v.) by aome medical writers,
who would restrict the latter word lo the caaea in which there mnat be contact of the
healthy peraon with a patient, while they apply the term fi^ecftatM to diataaea which
can he conveved by the atmosphere.

INFE'CTtOUS DISORDERS In cattle hare been made the anbjcct of ancclnl en-
actment, in order to protect the public from the calnmitlea ariaing from ttie rpread
of disease in ao important an article of food, llie Contagions Diaeaaea (Anunnia)
Act, 82 and 88 Vict. c. 70, authoriaea inepcctora to be appointed, who have power to
enter cow-aheda and stables, and report if diaeaae exlais. Sometimes sonnd cattle
require lo be alanghtered, in which caae half or three-fonrtlia of the valne are al-
lowed by the county or borough rate to the owner. Penaltiea are impO!>ed for turn-
ing out diaeaaed cattle on nnincloaed lands or in markets, for not purifving sheds,
for not diainfecting railway cartle-lmcka and steamboats. The owner is boond I&
give notice to the inspector of any symptoma of diaeaae appearing : and the hny,
atraw, litter, or dung of infected uuiinula cannot be lawfally removed except for the
purpose of being destroyed, and with an Inspector'a license. The inspectora are
appointed by the local authorities, and are removable by the Privy Council.

INFETTMENT, or Saaine, a Scotch law-term, used to denote the symbolic^
giving possession of land, which M-aa the completion of the title, tiie mere convey*
ance not being enongh. 'I1ie inatrument of saaine was tlie notroia! Inatmment en**
bodying the fact of infeftment But now tlie neceaaity of a separate formality i
nnueceaaary, it l>eing snlBcient to register a conreyance in the r^dster of sasioee C
Scothind. In England, there ia no atmilar nvister for deeds, and the title ia c6i#-
plete when the coavayaucc is executed and delivered to tbe parchaser. In Scotlafi

Digitized by VjOOQ IC


Inflnit* Q fi

laflammation you

an inf^tment in mcuritg Is a temporary infeftmentlo secure payment of some di^bt ;
aud Mil in/^tmmtqf rwUf is a similar secarity to relieve a caaiiouer. «:i«^

I'NFINITB. This word is the sonrce of ranch controversy and difference of
opinion. Soino hold Miat there correspunds to Infinity a distinct notion, wtiicti ^ve
arc entitled to cnteituio and reajnou about, witli tlie same confidence that wedlMtneis
measured intervals, aa a yard or a ni.lu; while otiiers maintain that tlie word is a
UJirau for a mere negative. Sir W. Hamilton goes so far as to say that •* the Infinite
and the Absolute are only the names for two counUT-imbeclIlties of the banian
mind, transmuted lute ))ropertieA of the n»tnre oC things— of tvro subjective nega-
tives converted Into objective afflnuatives (*' Discussions," p. 81). And Mr J. S. Mill
holds a similar view. It had also been maintained by Locke that we have no posi-
tive idea uf the infinite, that it was only the negative of an end or termiuatlon
( Bss.iy on the Understanding," book ii, chup. 17).

The notion of the infinite has, indeed, been admitted into mathematical rea-
soning, a circumstance that would seem to imply that we could use it with exactnesa,
and, oonseqneutl]^ it could not be altogether an incompetence or imbecility of the nu-
der-«tauding. It appears, ho^vever, that mathematicians U!>e the word under pecoliar
restrictions. Thev employ it in the two extremes of the infinitely gre:it and the in-
finitely little. **If we see a conclusion, which we can nearly attain by the nse of a
large magnitude, more nearly by the nse of a larger, and so on without limit, that is
to sav, as nearly us we please, if we may nse a magnitude as large as we please, but
which is never absolutely attained by any magnitude however great, then such con-
clusion may he said, for abbieviation. to be absolutely true when the magnitude ia
infinite." " Penny Cyc," art. " Infinite." The very same statement might be made
regarding the infinitely simill, which is represented in niathematica by the symbol
for nothing, aUhongh it is not the same a^ nothing in the strictest sense,
namely, tlie nothing caused by snbstracting a quantity from itself, as
two trom two. It is nothing in this sense, that If added to a finite
quantity, as 10, it produces no augmentation that can be made nse of; the
quantity for ail pnri>oses remains the snnii>. The machinery of infinite quantities
plays a largo part in the operations of the higher mathematics, aud is introduced in
order to compare two things naturally incommensurate. Thus, in estimating the
area of a corve<l surface, such as a circle, in straight-lined spaces, such as square
inches, tiie difflcnlty waa got over by a sort of fiction, namely, by soppoeing the
circle to be inscribed by a right-lined figure or polygon, of such a very greait unm-
bsc of sides that they coiuckle to all intents and purposes with the curved circom-
feronce. The coincidence can never ba perfect ; but by imagining tiie sides to be
smaller and smaller, and, consequently, more and more numerous, the differaiice
between the pol}'gou and the circle may become leas than anjr assignable qaaiitity,
or, as it may ue said, infinitely little, in fact, as good as nothing, so tlua tlie estimate
of the area of the one will stand for the estimate of Uie area of the other, lliia
device for overcoming the natural incommensurability of straiglit and curved, and
of number and motion, is the re:il occasion of the imiihemaUcaTuse of Uie term in
question. Nor does it give any fonudaiiou for the view that would r^rard the infi-
nite as a positive conception of the mind, which we may apply to objects with a
conscious meaning.

This uill be more apparent when wc attend to the difference between twoclaaaes
of negative notions Tlie first class includes those whose negative brings some-
thing i>ositive ; thus, not hot, brings bifore us a positive experience, namely, cold ;
not while, according to what is intended, turns up eitliur black or all otiier colore,
wliich are to us as-much a positive, or real, conception as white. Unjust, or not
just. Is the name for a distinct class of really exii>tiuu actions, in contrast to thedast
named just actions. Ail notions such us these which have for oppoeites rvally exist-
ing things, are real and genuine notions of the mind ; tlicy arc conceivable by us to
the full extent that we are capable of conceiving anything whatsoever. In fact, the
higliestt ' ' '■' ' ■ '"•-•-• • -

wliich is

posed lof^ . . .

and space toj;ether m^ikc the extended universe, the world of extemnllty, or ot)jeo-
tive existence ; which has a distinct meaning by contrast to the luextended nifiid,
or the subject universe. But existones, as a whole, is not a real conception, bccauae

Digitized by VjOOQ IC




\re havo nothing to oppose It to ; iion-cxistencc is not a real opi)0»ite, like epnce to
body, or mind to extensiou ; it is only a formal or verbal opposite, mode op by using
tlie word (or negntion to a case tliat does not admit of the operation. Noi)-«;xistence
is total nnnlhilatlon, \rh!cti of coarse we cannot conceive, us we do cold or binck, in
tiieir opposition to hot and white. This beine so, we have nothing to afllrm respect^
ing existence as expressing the absolute totality of things. See jExtknsion.

Now. to which class of notions does infinite belong? Is it a real opposite to tlie
finite, like cold to heat, or a verbal and formal opposite, like non-existence? Finite
nienns what has a bonndury or termination, and applies strictly to bodv. which is
iilwnys conceived by as bounded and tenniuating in space. The bonuded Is, in fact«
body (or some nnalogv of l>ody, a^ when we fancy on enclosnre which we do not
nctoaliy construct); the absence of iMunds is free space, which is a real conception.
It means scope for movement, frectlom from obstmctiou, and Its opposite is some
inert mi^tter, standing in onr way, to prevent ftirther movement. The unbonndod ie
thus another name for tpaoe ; and when we arrive at a space with no farther pros-

ERCt of obstrnction, we niay call that a boandleaa space, bat the only meaning we
av« thereby is a spnco wlifch no longer contains material obstrnction. And we can
conceive of no oth^r end of space. Onr whole experience famishes no other con-
trast except these two. spoce and body, and where the one ends, the min^ must
conceive tlie othor. We may conceive the not-extended, it is true, by passing to the
saliject mind, with its feelings and volitions; bnt withhi the sphere of the extended,
we linve no choice bat betwej'n space and Ijody. We cannot conceive the end ot
simcc othenvise than the beginning of resistance ; anything else (not being the sub-
ject mind) would be non-existence, or annihilation.

Tlie infinite may thus be tlie name for an abbreviation in mathematics, but as a
real notion of the mind, it merely expresses oar Inability to pnss beyond the region
of our experience of matter and space.


INFrNlTIVE. See Vebb.

INFLAMMA'TION is the most Important of all the moii)id processes that fall
under the notice of the physician or siinreon. I1ie most obvious symptoms or
phenomena of inflammation, when it attacks an external or visible part, are pain,
redness, heat, and swelling, or. In tlie wonds of Celsns, •* rnbor et tumor cum calore
et doiore.** The general characters of the process will be l>est nnderstood bv nu
assumed esse. If a healthy man gels a splinter of wood or any otiier foreign body
imbedded in any fleshv part, lie begins to experience pain at ttie part^ ood this is
soon saocceded by redness of the skin, a firm and extremely tender swelling at ond
around the spot, and a sense of almorinal heat. These purely tocni symptoms are
succeeded, if the inflammation reach a certain degree of intensity, by a general
deranireinent of tlie vascular and nervous systems, to which various names, sncli as
constitutional distnriiance, symptomatic or inflammatory fever, pyrexia, &c. have
been applied. If the foreign body fs extracted, the probability is that all these
symptoms will gradually abate until the part at length regains its nataral appearance
and sensations. In this case, the inflammation Is snkl to termiunte hv rewolutiotu
and this Is the most favorable mode of termination. If, liowever, the canse of
irritation is not removed, or If the Intensity of the morbid process exceed a certain
point, the following phenomena occur : tlie swelling assumes a more proiecting or
pointed form, the part becomes softer, and tlie skin at its centre, which is nsuallj
the most proiecting part, becomes whiter. Tlicre is a sensation of throbbing pain,
and If the skin be not divkled by the knife, it finally i)reaks, and a yellow, cretinv-
like fluid, known as Pus (q. v.), escapes, after which the symptoms rapkUy abat&
This termination is known as ttftppuration.

If the original imnry was very severe, and the inflammation intense, there maj
bo actual death of the part affected. In that case, the red color of the skin becomes
purple or greenish black, the pain ceases, and the^art becomes dead and putrid.
This in xnorUfieation, Under favorable circumstances, this dead port which is culled
R Bhttffk, spontaneously separates from the adjacent living parts by a vital process
known as Ulceration (q. v.), and the cavity which I0 tbos lormed gradaally fllls np
and heals.

The pain may vary from mere discomfort to intense ogony. There is usnallj
moot pttin ia those parts in whlcU the tension pcodoced by the swelling la the great*

Digitized by VjOOQ IC




«.<t. ns in bone, seroas and flbrons xncmbmneff. Ac The pafn occorring In inflam-
mation iH ulwitys a^nivAtcd by pressure, u»d by this means the phyeician can often
di^tinj^ish between inflammatory and non-iiifl:iuiniatory dieoraen>. Tbe htat is
eeldom so innch increoaed aa the suiiaations of the patient would lead him to be-
lieve ; it does not rise above the niaximnm heat of the blood in tbe interior of tbe

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 181 of 196)