James Orr.

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slvelr employed In the preparation of tinciurcs. When thus prepared, they are
less llnbh? to aecay than when prepared on the old system.

IKFUSO'RIA, a dass of the snb-kingdom of animals called Protozoa (q. v.)«
The term originally almost synonynions with Animalcules (q. v.), bnt now vciy
much restricted in Its signification. It was fljtst used by Otto Friederich Mtlller, aiul
was adopted bv Cuvler, who made the I. the last class of Badiata (q. v.). But their
radi.ited stractnre is by no means established. No distinct trace of ne nous mat-
ter has been found.— After Mttller (1778—1786), the next to devote him«clf to the
special study of the I. was Ehrenberg, the pnblicjitiou of whose work on them
(1837) was the commencement of a new era in the history of this branch of zoology,
which has since l>een prosecuted with great industry by i)ujardln, Slelu, Lacbmaun
and Claparftde, C6hD, LieberkQbn, Rymer Jones, and others. Many of the oi^an-
isms included by Bhreuborg, as l)y previous natnralists, among L, arc now gener-
ally regarded as vegetable (see J)ESjnj>BM and Dxatoxacejs) ; whilst others, as
Cereariai (q. v.), have beai discovered to be immature states of Entozoa. The
Rotifera (q. v.) are now also, by very general consent, widely separated from the
Polygaatrica of Ehrenberg, for which alone the term I., although not unobjectiona-
ble (see Animalcule), is retained ; the term Polygastrica (Gr. many-stomached) be-
ing rejected, 1)ecanse it expresses a \iew of the sirncture of these creatures wliich
is generally deemed erroneous. Agassiz has gone the length of proclaiming an
opmion, not received by other nntiiralists, that the I. are all immature or larval
worms. Bnt of the forms at present known, it is at all events probable that many
are those of Immature creatures ; it is certain that some species assume very differ-
ent forms at different stages of their existence; and the whole life-ljistory of no
one species is fully known.

Some of the I. are largo enough to bo indlvldnally visible to the naked eye, bnt
most of them are altogether microscopic Their bodies ai*e composed of Mrcode^ a
glutinous diaphanous substance, of wnich the outer laver sometimes forms a more
or less resisting integument. The body has some well-defined form, of which the
varieties are very great in different species. Many are furnished witli cilia, the mo-
tion of which carries them with great rapidity through the flnid in whickthey live,
and by means of which al^o currents are created in the flnid to bring food to the
month. The month is very generally surrounded or largely provided with cilia.
Whether these organs are under the control of Mill, or maintaiu their motion with-
out will or even consciousness on the part of the creature, like the cilia of the epi-
thelium in higher animals, is not determined, lliero is an analog^y in favor of ttie
latter opinion, and many appearancef* — which, however, the phenomena of zoos-
pores, &c, teach us to regard as possibly deceptive— in favor of the latter. Some
I., instead of cilia, have a few slender filaments, which they agitate with an undula-
tory movement ; others move by contractions and extensions of their bodies. Some
have stiff bristle-like organs, which they use as feet for crawling on the surfaces of
other bodies ; and some have hooks, by which they attach themselves to foreign

All I. have a distinct mouth, and many have also an anal opening, sometimes
near the mouth, sometimes at the opposite extremity of the hodv. Between these,
Ehrenberg Imagined that he could trace an intestine, straight *in some, variously
bent in others, with which along its course many small stomachs are connected ;
whilst In the I., having only one aperture, he stipposed all the stomachs to open im-
mediately from It. But other observers have failed to find tlie canal and slomnchs,
althongli Ehrenberg's experiments, by means of fluids colored with indigo and car-
mine, havelx'en often repeated. And it seems probable that the food tiken into the
mouth is simply conveyed into the midst of the soft gelatinous substance of the
body, being formed into pellets as it passes from the mouth through a kind of

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gnllct In the firmer iotegnment. The food of L consists of orsanle particles of
varioas kinds, and different species have been remarked to shew a preference, like
those of higher animals, for purticniar kinds of food. Many of them feed on micro-
scopic pkmts and on otiier infusoria. Tlicir great use in the economy of catore is
probably to consume organic panicles, the decomposition of which would other wis*
De baneful to all life, and the retnm of wliicii bv decomposition to their primitive
clt^ments would dimlnisli the fertility and wealth of tlie world; The uambers of
the L are prodigio.ua. lliey are fonua in all parts of the world, and both in fresh
and salt water, In stagnaut pondii and ditche«, in mineral and hot springs, and in
moist situations. Any infusion or other liquid containing vegetable or animal
matter, if left exposed to the atmosphere, is sure to be full of tliem. Their ninld-
tudcfl are so great that ieaeucs of the ocean are sometimes tinged by them. Some,
which, instead of swimmliig freely, like most of tlielr class, liecome surrounded
with a gelatinous substance, are found adhering together in masses sometimes four
or five inches in diameter, although tlie individual Huimuls are so small that a cubic
inch of the mass may contain 8,000,000 of them, llie I. contained in a single cap
of putrid water may exceed in number the whole human population cf the glube I

The organisation of the L is still very imperfectly known. There appears in
many of tnem a cavity not far from the mouUi, the contractile »pace—\anoaeiy re-
garded as a cavity without proper walls, or as a vesicle— from which brunches some-
times radiate througii the sul)stance of the body, and which, being capable of coo-
traction and expansion, is regarded by some as the centre of a Kind of vascular
^. ._ ,.^ ,, .. _._,.,.,. jg^ ^ fumislied with proper

organ, evidently of great im-

system. It is with conslderuble probability regarded as furnished with proper
Avails. There is also, probably in all the I., anotiier organ, evidently of great im-
portance, although its use is still uncertain, called the tiudcua^ which u osnally
roundish or a liitle elongated, sometimes much elongated and band-like, it is en-
veloped in a membrane, and is more compact than tiie surrounding substance. In
the multiplication of ihc8e animals by spontaneous division, a fission of theuadoiis
always takes place. Each of tbe halves I)ecomes furnished with a complete month,
set of cilia, and other organs. The division, in the same species, is sometimes
longitudinal, sometimes trausverse, perhaps alternately lougituuiuwl and transvfrse.
The multipHcatiou of the I. in this way is extremely rapiX A Parameeiumf well
Bopplied with food, has been observed to undergo division every 24 lionrs, from
which would result 16,384 individuals in a fortnight, or 863,435,466 In four week;.
Hcproduction also takes place by getninalion; buds or gcmmules forming on the
outer surface of tlie body, and gradually as.sumin<2 the shape of the parent animal,
although they do not attain h> their full size till after their separation. More extraordi-
nary is another mode of reproduction by encysting or encapeulation. The animal
conti-ucts, closes its month, becomes surroimded by a viscid secretion, and finally
by a membrane, becomes attenuated, and dissolves, nil but the nucleus, into a mere
liquid containing grannies, which afterwanls form within the cyst a new iuf oso-
rluni, different in form and appeorance from that by which the cyst was prodnccd.
The metamorphoses of the I. have been traced to a certain extent in some kinds,
but not fully in any. Whether auy traly sexual propagation takes place, has not
been perfectly ascertained, although the observations of Bulbianl have mode it ex*
tremely probable as to some of them- A reproduction, different from all tluit has

?ret been mentioned, has been observed to tiike place in some, by the formation of
nternal germs, to which this character has been ascribed, but the subject is still in-
volved in donbt; nor Is it improbable that there may be amongst these minute crea-
tures a production of real cgijs, which has tiithcrto eluded observation.

In the integument of some I., very minute fusiform bodies are thickly imbedded,
called triehocyatSy which are capable of throwing out long filaments. Their use is
unknown, although they are supposed to be urtTcating organs. The flUiment^ ar«
thrown out when the animal is subjected to annoyance by the drying up of the
liquid in which it lives, or by the application of some irritating liquid.

INFUSORIA, Fossil. Bee Diatomacejb.

INQEMANN, Bernhard Sovcrlu, one of the most dlstingnished poets and novel-
Jats of Denmark, was born May 28, 1789, in the Island of Falstcr. His literary
career ma v be divided into three distinct periods. The first of these, extending
from 1811 to 1814, embraces his best lyrical productions, viz., the collection of poems

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entlUed "Procno" aSW), iwd the aHej^orical epic of "Do Sorto Rlddere" 0814);
while the eecoud, or dramatic, endiug In 18M, wa« marked by the appearance of
nnmeroQa tragedies, wlilch have maintained their place on the untional stage, and
among which the best ore his " Musanicllo," "BInnca," " ROstcn i Oorken " (1816);
**Hyrden af Tolopa." *»Koiiiald/* ** Underbaruet," **Lo\eridderen" (ISKft; nud
** Taspo's Befriede " (1819). Af ler this period, l.'s writiiics arc cliaracterisea eltlicr
by leaning to hixtorical disqnicitlont or a c^tronsrly relivToas blu9. His adiniruble
epic poem of *' Vuldemnr den Store og Hans MSnd ' (t8S4) was the prelnde to tlje
varioas historical novels, in wlilcii, taking Walter Scott for liis modvl, ho endeav-
ored to portray llio social life and liabits of iiis own conntr>' in the middle ages.
**Valdfmar Seicr," the first of the series (1S26), and "Erik Nenved's Banidom "
(1828), which are generally regarded as the best of the?e productions, may compete
favorably with some of the most sticccssf a1 efforts of his great model : while even
the less popular of his historical novels, *♦ Kong Erik og de Fredlose " (1838), and
•» Friuds Otto og Hans SanTiid" (18 i5), njay jusfly entitle him to rank among the
first novelists of his time. The poems of *• Dronumg Margrete " (ISW), and *• Ilolger
Danskc *> (1837). which are basted, like his novels, on Incidents of Danish national
history and tradition, rank among I.'s most euccessfnl efforts. The religious ele-
ment In this writer's mind has found expression in various productions of consid-
erable merit—as. for instanc(>, in his collection of anthems and psalms, ** llocjmes-
sepsalmcr" 0826), in his rendering of some of tiie symbolical or traditionaiy legends
of the church in his ** Blade af Jerusalem's Skomager's Lommebog" (1833) ; *• Salo-
mon's Ring" (1839) ; and in liis allegorical poenr. " Gnldceldtt " (1856). I. held the
chair of .(Esthetics and Danish Literature at the Royal Academy of SorOe, near Co-
penhagen. His collective works have been publislied in 88 vols., 185T, Copenhagen,
and the greater number of Ids prO!>e works and many of bis poems have been trans-
lated into various languages. lie died 1862.

INGERSOLL. Charles J., an American statesman, was borg in Philadelphia,
October 3, 1782. His father, Jared Ingcrsoll, was an active partisan in the American
revolution, and a member of the convention whicli adopted the Federal couslitntion.
Charles J. 1. received a liberaj education, which was completed by European travel,
lu 1801, he produced the tragedy of *'Edwy and Elglva," and in 1808, a strong polit-
ical pamphlet in defense of the democratic policy of Mr. Jefferson, and a satirical
review of American politics, entitled ** luchiqaln's Letters " (18.0). He was elected
to Congress in 1812 ; and in 1814, he advocated the principle that *' free ships make
freegoodp," In a powerful speech. He was for fourteen years United Statics dis-
trict attorueT for Pennsylvania, and in Congress from 1839 to 1849. Ho published
two series or ** Historical Sketcbes of the War of 1812," in 1845 and 1862. A spet'ch
in opposition to the Lincoln administration caused his arrest in 1862 ; but his popular-
ity made it advisable to release him, after a brief detention. He died in May 1862.

I'NQOLSTADT, or- Ihooldbstadt (anciently j4ar«aft«Tn, and by the Latin

writers of the 16lh c. called Auripolis and Chry»opoli»—\, e., **the golden city "), a
town and fortress of Upper Bavaria, Is sitnatod in a fertile district, on the left bank
of the Danube, which is here crossed by a stone bridge, 46 miles n.n.w. of Mmilch.

It contains three parish chorches (two Catholic and one Protestant), a hospital and
a castle. Cloth, playing-cards, and leather are manufactured ; and breweries and
a trade in com are carried on. Pop^ (1871) 18,164.

I. is an ancient, melancholy-looking town, too large for the number of its Inhab-
tants. A university was founded here in 1472, which reckoned Reuchlln, Aventin,
and other eminent scholars among its professors ; it was removed, however, to
Landshut in 1800, and to Munich alMUt six years after. At this university, In the
16th Ct Urb. Rhegins the poet, known by the name of Dr Faustus, studied. L was
the first German town at which the Jesuits were permitted to establish theroselveB,
and to tpach publicly from the university chairs. Loyola gave it the fond title of
** his little Benjamin." After the suppression of the order in 1773. Adam Weiss-
hanpt established here the order of the llluminati (q. v.). In 1827, the fortifications
of L, which had been destroyed by the French in 1800, were restored upon a large
scale, the two forts on the left bank of the river being especially disiiugnlshed for
their elegance and strength.

INQRAI'LBD. See Emobahjsd.

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INGRES, Jean Domiulqae Angiiste, an emluent French painter, was bom at
MoulaubttUjl5th September 1781, studied under David (q. v.), and aabaeqaestlj wait
to Home. Hei-e iie resided for flrteeu years, after which be M>eut fout year* lu
Florencet bv wbich time his fume was so well estabUsibed, that be was calkMl to the
Scliool of Fine Arts in Paris as the successor of Deuou. In 1834, be sncceeded
Horace Voruet as Director of the Academy at Home; and in 1845, be was made
Commander of the Le«;lon of Honor. Amone his compatriots bis reputation is now
firmly established. I. oc<>upiea a sort of middle place between the classic and ro-
mantic schools, bnt rather iiicliuea to the former. Among his unmerons pieces
may be mentioned *' Uiiph.iel et la Foruarina," *• Romulus, Vuiuqwenr d'Acrou,**
•* Virgile li«aiii son EntUde k Augnste et k Octavie," " La Mori de l^nard de Vm-
ci,*' •• Le Vceii de Louis XIII.," *• L'Apoihdose d'Homere," •' Slnitonice," *" J^sub
au Milieu des Doctcars," "Molidre dans sou Cabiuet," and ** L'Apotbeose de Napo-
leon I," with a mono flitterln^r the lateBmperor of the French. In n^wU recUvivw,
At the Puris Exhibition of 1855, 1, had a wliole salon to bimrelf. In 1881, be
was rai«>cd to the di^^uity of senator, and made a membar of the Imperial (Joondl
of Public Instrnciion. He died in 186T.

A casual view of a copy of one of Raphael's pictures, inspired him (so it is
said), at tlie age of ten, with the ambition to become n painter: he fortliwith began
to study drawfiig ; and after having been successively tlie pupil of a M. Roqnes and
of M. Briant, a landscape-painter, he went to Paris in bis ITth year, and entered the
studio of tlie great paiuier David. He remained withDavid asapnpil for fonryears.
He carried offihe second prize for paintiug at the Academv of the Fine Arts in 1800 ;
and in the following year, hu took the ilrat— an honor which has scarcelv, in any
oUier ciise, been awarded to so youug an artist. The picture which gained for him
tills high distinction was '*The Arrival of tlie Iuterces»sor8 at the Teut of Achillea."
It is now at the School of Fine Arts, and unquestionably it compares well with
many of the works which have made him famous. In 1802, he exhibited t%vo por-
traits, which stillcauk among his finest works of this cla«s; in 1804. bo exhibited a
portrait of the First Consul, and aleo a portrait of himself. He again painted Nano-
leon, now become Emperor, In 18)6, and the picture was bought f or the HOpital des
Invalides. In 1808, he set out for Rome, where ho continued to live for many years.
He seems to havt* made a reputation in Italy early, and the commissious hereceix-ed,
including several from the pope, prove that his reputation stood very high. From
his countrymen, however, the pictures which he sent to Paris, for many years met
only with negltrct or ridicule. It was at Florence, where he resided from 1880 to
1824. that he painted a picture which at length gained liim a party of enthusiastic
admirers among the Parisians. The picture was ** Le Vcbu de Louis XIIL" It was
exhibited at the Louvre in 1824, and tnongh much decried as well as much admired,
it still raised L, previously almost unnoticed, at alionnd to the chit-f place among
French idealisrpaluters of thnt time. He received from I/>ni8 XVIII. the Cross of
the Legion of Honor; and he was fortliwith appointed to succeed Baron Denouaa
Profe««or at the Academy of the Fine Arts.

Now that he had become the acknowledged head and representative of a ectmol
of art, it was natural that his work should be subjected to a searching criticism,
more eager to detect faults than discover merits. He hrongltt upon biinaelf a
perf^t tempest of discussion lu 1827 by a work called ** L'Apoth6ose d'Homdrc,'*
which his admirers declared to be a masterpiece; while the party of his dotractora
— tircn numerous and influential—condemned it as bad in drawing, as poor in color-
ing, and especially as being nngracefnl, coarse, and even vulgar m conception. The
French critics seem now to be agreed not only that this was L's finest attempt at
epic paiutiug, but that it places him at the head of the French school^ and on the
level of the greatest painters the world has eeeu. Many foreign judges, how-
ever, are disposed to hold that the strictures originally made upon it were to m large
extent well founded. The discussion which It originated ranged over all the
painter's work : it was renewed year after year, and tlic bitter expressions of some
of his critics made such an impression upon I., that from 1882 to 1834, be exhibited
nothing but two portraits, ana in the latter year embraced an opportunity which
offered of again establishing himself in Italy. He became Director of the Frerch
Academy at Rome, a post which has been held by many diatlngnished artista, and
in which his predecessor was Horace Veruet. This time, he remained in Italy for

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about ten yearf. During these years, he sent many pictnres 1o be exn1bitf>d nt
Paris: these, gradnally wrought npou ihe public taste ; and when be retarucd, bo
foand his coontrymeu nuanlmons and euthasiastic in admiration of hiro, and in
raptures about bis latest comjiosition — **Cberabiui [the composer] Inspired by the
Muse." Since then. It has bueu treason in Paris to breathe a doubt about the great-
ness of Ingrt«. The state radfled the decision of Ibe public by the liberality with
which it bestowed its honors upon him. He was nmae auOmcerof the Legion of
Honor in 1841, a Commander In 1845, and GraLd Officer in 1856 ; he was nainid a
senator on May S6, 1S6S ; and he was soon after appointed a meml>er of tbelmnerinl
Council of Public Instruction. He became a member of the Institute in 1S25. Many
of his works are now in public collections. At the Paris £xbibitiou of 1855, a room
was set apart for his pictures, and one of two grand medals of honor was awarded
to him— Eugene Delacroix getting the other. He continued to exercise his art
almost to the close of bis life ; and whatever may be ti)onght of the success of bis
higher aims, he shewed himself to Ihe last what he had always l)een, the most puins-
tukiug. conscicLtious, and learned of painters. The Naiad which he painted in 1861
(** La Source "), and which was his solitary contribution to the Londou Exhibition
of 1862, is considered the finest of bis later works ; it was* enthusiastically admired,
even by those who strongly dissented from the praises lavished by his country meu
npon his more ambitious undertakintrs. He died, alter a short illness, January 14,
18«7. Daring the summer an exhibition of his works took place in Paris, at which
almost all his pictures and the cartoons for his works in stained glass and munil
paintings were brought U^ther.

•* L'Apotb^so d'Homfire," »* Le Martvre de St Symphonea," " La Naiesance de
Vonus AnadyomAne," *' L:i Source," ** L'Odalisqne," and the porirait of M. Bertin,
aind, may be mentioned as among the most characteristic— they arc certainly anioug
the most admired— of the works of Ingres. His admirers— who are nt present the
whole body of his couutrymen — recognise in him. among modem painters, the nio^t
faithful and pcr^erering, and the most successful student of the tradifior:s of tiie
Renaissance ; they deelare bis paintings equal in ix>wer and fidelity to the best works
of the great roosters. On the other hand. It is maintained by bis censors or detrac-
toi-8 that I. was deficient in invention and in refinement ; that all the good thinjrs in
Ills worics have been borrowed from ancient pictures; and that moreover, he cop.ed
badly from his models, and often spoiled what he borrowed by bis setting of it.
Such censures appear greatly exaggerated ; but it may be confidently said that I. is
at present worshipped uv his couutrymen with a somewhat blind veneration ; and
tnut they would oo well to expend npon a few really great works the adulation
which they lavish npon everything tliat proceeded from him.

INGRIA. Soe St Pstbbsbvbo, Governmsnt or.

INGRO'SSING, or Engrossing, a deed means, in Law, the writing it out in full
and regular form on parchment, or paper for signature. The j)erson who engrosses
Is usaally a law-stationer or clerk. In Scotland, the corresponding term rs"ex-
tetid5(>g a deed," and tlie name of the person who does so most be named In the
testing daase, which is not necessary in England.

INGULPH, Abbot of Crovland, long considered the author of 'the **Histor!a
Moa ^teril Oroylandensis " (History of the Monastery of Croyland or Crowland, in
Linco)n8bir 0, is supposed to have been bom in London about 1080 a.d According
to the accointof his life in his History, ho studied oratory and philosophy at Ox-
ford ; beca ne a feyorite of Edgitha, the wife of Edward the Confessor ; visited Duke
William of Normandy at his own court in 1061 ; and, after a disastrous pilgrimage
to the Holy Land, entered a Normnn monastery. Here he remained till 1076, when
he was inyited to England Iw Ihe Conqueror, and made Abbot of Croyland. where
he died December 17. 1109. The **Hislorla Monasteril Crovlandensls " wasprii.ted
by Savile at London in 1506. and in a more complete edition by Gale at Oxford In
1G84. It has l>een tninslated into English for Bobn's Antiquarian Library by Rilev.
Sonic wri ters even of the last century questioned the entire genuineness of the book;
but their scepticiiim did not proceed further than the hypothesis of interpolations
by a later writer; but in 1826, the late Sir Fnincis Palgrave, in an article in the
** Quarter\y Review," endeavored to prove thor the whole so-called History was Utile
bener tliai anoTel, and was probably the composiiiou of a monk in the 13th or

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14th centary. His concIasiODS have been, on the whole, almost nniTemlly

INHBIUTANCE, Sec Hbibs, Intestaot, Will, Suooesstom.

INfllBI'TION, in Scotch Law, is a writ which is Issned In order to prohibit a
person from alieuatiug hi8 heritable estate uutil the debt of the creditor is paid.

I'NIA {Inia BoUvitnsU)^ a cetaceoas animal, of the family DelpMnidtB^ in form re-
sjmblinga dolphin, with a long and slender snout. It is the only known suedes of
its geua9, and is one of the few ceiacea which inhabit fresh wnter. It is foand in

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 183 of 196)