James Orr.

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some of the npper tribataries of the Amazons, and in the Itilces near the CordiUt-raa.
Il is from scycu to twelve or fourteen feet long. The I. feeds cliieflr on fish. It is
pnrf«acd for the sake of the oil which it yields. It is generally foand in little troops
of throe or four. The females shew great affection for their yoang.

INI'TIALS. Tbongh in general it is nsaal and regular in all legal deeds and
writings for a piirty to write his fall Christian name and surname, yet lu many cases.
e»p?cially in documents of a mercantile nature, signature by initials will biud
equally with the full signature.

INJB'CTIONS. This term is applied in medicine to fluids thrown into the pas-
sages or cavities of the l>ody by means of a syringe or elastic bag. The fluids thus
iujocted Into the rectum or lower bowel are termed CI vsters (q. v.). The iujectiou of
a dilute solution of salt into the veins has been found to be of great service in even
advanced cases of Asiatic cholera. The injection of blood into liie veins is described
in the article I'sansfusion or Blood.

INJE'CTOR, Glffurd's, is now in general nse for feeding water into steam-
boilers, particularly locomotive boilers. Feed-pumps are diflicult to keep in order
when driven at high 8|iced. The very rapid action of the valves sererely tries their
durability. In the case of locomotives. Inconvenience was often occasioned bv the
fact, that their feed-pumps acted only when they were mnuing; and thus, if an
engine happened to stand still for any length of time, the water occasionally got
too low in toe boiler. The injector acts equally well whether the enghie is muuhig
or at rest

The essential parts of the injector are as follows : the steam-boiler, being the
wstter-level ; a pipe into which steam is admitted : this pii)e terminates in a cone,
which is cnclos(>d in a larger cone. In the smaller cone, the pointed plug can bo
raised or lowered so as to increase or diminish the area of the aperture at its lower
end. There is a pipe communicating with the water-cfstem, and admitting water
into the external coue. A pipe cuminunlcates with the boiler mider the water-
level. On <)i)ening communications between the boiler and this apparatas, it might
be exi)ecteU that steam would rush out at the lower end of the aperture, and wiUer
at the pipe from the boiler, both currents meeting with t<;reat force, and escaping
into the atmosphere between the two openings. Faradozical as it may appear, the
outflowing stream of water, althoagh it is actually flowing under a greater
pressure than the curront of steam escaping, duo to the head of water
arising from the difference of level between the aperture and the
water-level, is overpowered, and driven back into the boiler; and not
only is the outflowing current of steam able to drive back the stream
of water trying to escape, but the torrent of steam drags with it a huge quantity of
wnter with wliich it comes into contact as it is passing through the external cone.
This water finds its way Into the cone through the pipe from the tender or cistern,
and constitutes the feed-water. The steam rushing from the apertm'e will necos-
sarily be condensed by the cold water with which it comes Into contact in the cone.
The explannrloti offered of the action of this apparatns \n as follows. The ojienlng
tlirough which the steam escapes, has nearly twice the area of the opening into
which the water Is to be forced. The opening in the external cone is also larger
than the aperture, and it appears thttt the mechanical power contained in the flow
of Btcam is, as it were, transformed from a large area to a smaller, with a corre-
spoiuling increase in its intensity. This diminution of Its volume arises from its
conduMisatlon by the cold water throngli which It bus to rush In the cone. We get
tna'i the mechanicMl pnwer due to a column of large area concentrated into a sniaH
urea, with a corresponding increase In Its velocity, and to this increase of velocity la

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dne the fnot, that a current iMnlng will ODter lu epite of tbe conuter-preeenro. The
iiijectorforfeediuff boilers is rufhvraucxpcusiveappnratns. Ill coii9t*quei)ce of the
nuiuberof adjustable parts required to )>e provided. Vuriutions iu the presenrc of
-Blenin require ulteratioiis iu tlie area of the eteHin-passage, and lu the distances lie-
tweeu the mouths of the couicul c^euings for the out-llow aud iuflow of steam
ttud water.

In a simple form of injector for raising water, steam Issuing from tlie pipe into
tlie vessel will draw Uie water through the pipe and force it up through the narrow
neck, to a lieljrht of altont one foot tor every pound of pressure per sqnnro inch. It
is doubtful if those injectors oiu work so economically, as regards expenditure of
steam, as onliiiary slow-moving pumps ; but they possess many couvcuieuccB and
advuutages, which are bringing them into use.

INJUNCTION, a writ in Eunlish law, by which the Court of Chancery stops or
prevents some inequitable or illegal act being done. The \w\\. is peculiar, in jrent-ral,
to the Court of Chancery, though to a limlu^d extent it is now introduced into com-
mon law. If ttie party disobeys the injunction, be may be attaclied for contenT])t
of court, and imprisoned till he obeys. If he obeys it, lie may appiv to have
the injunction dissolved. In Scotland, a remedy of a similar kind is called an Inter-
dict (q. v.).

INK. The most Importimt kinds of ink may bo included in the two following
heads— ITritiMff Imk and J*riiUin{f Ink,

1. Writing ink. — The composition of the ink used by the ancients is not well
nnderstood; It is. however, certniu that tlieir ink exceeiled onrs in blackness and
durability. Mr Underwooct (who read a paper upon tlie PDl)jectof ink before the
Society of Arts in 1857) thinks that some old ink was merely a carbon pigment, like
the Indian ink of the present day, while other kinds were veritable dves of iron and
acids (irue chemical compounds), with the addition of a good deal of carl)on.

The essential constituents of ordinal^ black ink are galls, sulphate of iron (po-

fmlarly known as green vitriol or green copperas), and gum ; and the most Impor-
ant point is the regulation of the proportion of the sulphate of iron to the ^'atls.
If the former is iu excess, the ink, although black at flrst, soon l)ecomes brown
and yellow. The gum is added to retain the coloring matter iu snspensitm, and to
prevent the mixture from being too fluid. The following prescription by Profest^or
Brande yields a very good ink : ** Boil six ounces of flni'ly bruised Aleppo galls in
six pints of water, then add four ounces of clean and well crystallised snipbnte of
iron, aud four ounces of gnmarobic. Keep tlie whole in a wooden or glass vessel,
ocoislonally shaken. In two months, strain, and i>ouroff the ink into glass bot-
tles.*' The addition of a liitle crt^isote is useful as a check to the formallon of
mould. Stephen's ink— a blue liauid, which in a few hours after its deposition on
paper becomes of an intense black— Is one of the most ^>opnhir of our wntijg fluids.
It consists essentially of galiotannate of iron, dissolved in siilpliaie of indi«ro, while
in ordinal^ ink the coloring matter is merely itu^)endsd by means of the gum.
Knnge, a German cliemist, has discovered a simple and cheap black writing fluid,
prepared from ciiromate of potash and a solution of locwood, which possesses the
properties of formiuj; no deposit, of adhering strongly to the paper, of being unaf-
fected by exposure to water or acids, aud of neither acting on, nor being acted on
. by steel pens.

Vaiions receipts for indelibis inks have at different times l>een published. Dr
Normandy asserts that the ink obtained by the following combitiation cannot bo
oblilcrat4.'d or defaced by any known chemical agent : Tweniy-fonr pounds of Frank-
furt black (which is supposed to be a charcoal obtained from grape aud vine lees,
peach keniels. and hone-shavings) must be ground with mncilnge, formed by adding
twenty pounds of gum-arabic lo sixty gallons of water, aud the mixture strained
through u coarse flannel; four pounds of oxalic acid are then added, togetlier wUii
as mucli decoction of cochineiil or sulphate of indigo as will give tlie re<iuirrd shade.
Med Inks nre of two kinds, one variety consisting essentially of the tinctorial mat-
ter of Brazil-wood, and the other being prepared from cochineal or cai-mine.
Stephen's red ink, which is one of tlie best of tliese preparations, is obtained as
follows : '* Add to a quantity of common carbonate of potash, soda, or amroonin,
twico its weight of crude argol iu powder. When the effervcsceuce iias ceased, do-

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£?™" 950

cant or filter the Bolatlon from the InsolnlHe matter. To tlil« llnid add by roea^iiro
half Ufl qnautity of oxahite of alamhta, prepart^l by diraolriiig damp, newly nreclpl-
t-iti'd nlnmina in ns aniull u qiniutity as poe.*<ible of a conceniruted M>lntion oc oxalic
«ct(l. The nuxtnre llius preprtn-d Is next colored, when coid, with bruised or i»ow-
di^red cochineal, and after i<tanding for foriy-el>(ht honra, 1h strained, when it la fit
for U!*e." (Mns«pra!t*8 ** Clieraiatry," vol. 11. p. STd.)

Dl\u Inks arc now chiefly made eliher dlrect'y or indirectly from Pmwlau bine,
Stephen's unchangeable blue inic is for ■ ed by dissolving this salt (which i^hoaid be
flrHi well wasliud in a diltite mineral add) iu an aaneoas solnlinu uf oxalic acid, lute
of wliicii Prussiun blue 5s the Iwsls, is unaffected hy any of the nnmcrous phyelcal
causes which operate injuriously on black lulc, unte!*8 it be exposed to a stron? light,
when the iron (which exists as a sesqnloxlde in Prussian blue) becomea deoxidt!*ed,
and causes the color of tills inic to fade; InU on removing the writing from the in-
fluence of light, the color is rc-torcd.

Purpl *, grev^n, and yellow inks have been formed by various chemisls, bat they
are not of miMcient importance to claim a notice in this article.

Sipnpathetic Inks leave no trace of co'or upon the iMipfr, but when exposed to
beat or cliemical action of sotne kind, l)ecouie more or less distinctly appareiiL The
following arc a f<*w of the piinclpal kinds of this class of conimmnda. On writing
with a solution of sugar (acetate) of lead or of temitrate of bismuth, and washing
the papL>r with a soluiion of hydroaiilphuric acid (sulphuretted hydrogen), the letters
come out. black. On writine: with a solution of nitrate of cobalt,*and washing the
pap T with a solution of oxalic acid, the letters come out blu6. On writing with a
BoSutiou of Bubacetate of lead, and washing the pa|>er with a solution of Iodide of
pouissiuin, the 1 'iters come out yellow; or on writing with a dilate solaiiou of
chloride of copper, and gently lienting tlie pa{)cr,tlie letters which were previously
invisibitt assume a beantifal ye^/oio tint, which disappears on coolim;. On \rritiug
with a solution of arsenite of potai^h, and washing the p^per with a f olntion of
nitrate of copper, the letters come but green,

^ Printing Ink is a soft glossy coinponnd, altogether different in Its compoel-
tion from the inks which have byen already described. The following are. nccord-
iiig to Mr Underwood (ill the paper already referred to), the necessarj* conditions of
a t;ond printing ink : I. It ma!*t distribute freely; 8. It must have much gre-.iter
affinity tor the iia|>er than for the ty|»e: 8. It must dry almost iinme<liately on the
paper, but not dry at all on the tyi>e or rollers; lhli< is a great desideratum, espe-
cially for newspapers : 4. It should be literally proof against the effect? of time and
clr.»inic il r^Migents, and slioiild never change color. It Is prepared by boiling the
best liiiHeed oil in an iron pot, kindling and allowing it to burn for a short time ; by
this 0)>cration the oil acquires the iicce5t»:iry drying quality. After licing aeain
botled, roMiii isdissolvexl in it, In order to cominunicate bocly to the fluid, which
now somewhat resembljs Canadian balsam. The coloring matter, which Is lamp-
black for black Ink; camiiue, Inke, vermi.ion, &c., for refrink ; indigo or Prussian
blue for blue ink : lemon and orange chronic (chroinate and bichromate of lead), or
gimlK)ge. for vellow ink, Ac— is then added to the hot mixture, and the whole is
drawn off, and Anally ground into a smooth uniform paste.

In Llthographv, a tcritiHg and ii printing Ink are employed, both of which differ
altogi't her from the compounds already deccrilMvi. The writing ink is composed,
according to Muspratt, cf the follouiiie materials: shell-lac, soap, white wax, ana
tallow m certain proporticms, to which Is added a strong solution of gnnt-sandHntch,
and it is colored with lampblack ; while the prititing ink, which is employeii to take
iinpre8i«ions on paper from engraviKl plates, with ii view to their transference to
the St >nc, i4 composed of tallow, wax, soap, shelUlac, gum-mastic, black pitch, and

I'NKERMANN, a small Tartar village in the Crimea, is situated near the east-
ern cxnemlfy of the harbor of Sevastopol. It is memorable for the tiattle which
took place there, during the lltissiau war, between an army of Russians 60,000
strong, and detachmems of allied force:*, consiHiing of abont 14,000 troops actually
engaged. At al>out six o*ciock on the moniing of the 5tli Noveml>er 1854, the Rus-
sians, wild h.ul marclied westwar*! from SevastojK)!, along the soothem shore of tl»e
harlM>r, and whose movements wer.; concealed by the darkness and a thick. drizsliug
rain, appeared crowding up the slopes of the plateau to the aoath, ou which the al-

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951 tok«m«uv

Jies were posted. Here a Imndfnl of men. about 1400 strong, a portion of the *' Honse*
hold QnardSf-' inado a mo^t heroic sraud for six coiisecoi ivc hours against a bodv of
Russians tliac was ])rob:tbiy ten times us nnmerons. Kcinforcenients, both £ug>
liHh and Freuch, coming np to the rcscac, the ICnssians were finully driven from tii%

INLAND BILL of Exchange means a bill of extiinng:e drawn bv and npon perv
sons living in the same roniiiry. The rules applicable to foreign bills differ in son)«
resiiccts from tho:*e applicuble to iuluiid bills.— By a recent stutnte, nil bills drawn
by persons in EiiKland on persons iu Scotland or Ireland, and vtee vers^ are to bo
treated as inland Dills.

INLATINQ is the art of dccomtlDg flat surfaces by the insertion of similar or
diffi^rent materials ; thus, wood of one color is decorated by inlaying witli others of
different colors : to this kind of inlaying the French ferm marqueleru is now gener-
ally applied. Metai of one kind is inlaid with oilier kinds, and often very beautiful
em>ct8 are produced. When steel is inlaid with gold or brass, it is usually called
Damascene work. One variety produced in India is culled Knft-gori— in this, the
inlaid metal, usually gold, occnnies more of tiie surface than the metal forming the
ground. Another beautiful varietvof Indian inlaying is called 'I'ntcuagno or Bedery
work, which consists in making the article to l>o inlaid, most frtquenily a hookah
bowl, of an alloy consisting of copper one part to |>ewter four parts* This is linrd,
but is easily cut ; the |Mttem is then engraved, imd little pieces ut tliln silver cut to
the desired forms are dexterously hammered into the spaces thus cut out to receive
them. Ivory, pearl, pbell, bone, tortoise-shell, are favorite substances for inlaying
wood ; and stone or marble is inlaid with an immense variety of colored stonis. In
the art of stone-lnhiyiug, the Florentines liave long held the polm ; their favorite
work i» black marble. \^tli inlaid figuri'S of brilliaut*colored stones; Hits work is
called pietra duroj or Florentine woi^. Very Ix-antitul work of this kind, excelling
the Florentine, is now made In the Imperial works at St Peterrburg, where the art
has of late been sedulously cultivated by the Kussian government. This art was
always a favorite one in Delhi and Agni, wlieie some of the most exquisite woik is
still produced. Usually, in the Indian work, white marble fomis the groundwork,
and the figures are formed of carnelian, jasper, n^ate, jwlo, lapis hiculi. and other
costly hard 8ton<-s. No stone-inlaying Inis ever rivalled the iiilMld marble walls of
the celebrated Taj Mahal, the tomb of the sultana of Shah Jeliaii, at Agra. 1'he
desii^s are very artistic, the execution almost marvellous, and the harmony of color
produced by the different stones employed is mont l)eantirnl. Many other materials
than those mentioned are usi-d for inlaying; and tlieiv is a style of inlaid work in
which small squares of colored stone, t'lass, or pottery are made to form \)ictorial
and artistic decorations; this is culled Mosaic-work (q. v.).

INLET, an arm of the sea op"n only on one side, ond stretching Into the latid,
is distiiignislted from a Bay (q. v.) only by its smaller size, as a haven if, again, by
still smaller dimensions, distingnishcd from an inlet. Examples of inlets are seen
in the indentations of the west coast of Norway ; aa of buys In the deeper and
wider indentations of the coast of Italy.

INN (ancient (EntM), a river of Germany, the most Important Alpine affluent
of the Danube, rises in the south of the Swiss canton of Urisons, ut a height of
4293 feet above (<ea-Ievel, and flowing north-east through that canton forms the val-
ley of the Engadino. It maintains genemlly a nortli-«'ust course to its junction with
the Danube. Leaving Switzerland, it enters the Austrian dominions ut the village
of FinstcMnunz. flows through the crown-land of Tyrol, and crosses the Fonthea>*t
angle of Bavaria, after which, forming the boimdui-y beiwopii Bavaria and Upper
Ansiriji, it enters the Dannlje at Pansau, after a course of 2S5 miles. Its prim ipnl
affluent is the Salza from the south. It Is reuniarly navigable from the town of
Hall, eit'ht miles t)elow Innsbrnclt. At its jnuctiou with the Danube, the Inu is
broader than the Danube itself.

INN AND INNKEEPER (see Hotel). In point of law, an Inn is merely a
house of entertainment for traveller?, which o m person may set up without licence
like any other trade. It is when excisable liqr. m. are sold tnat a licence Is required.
Public-houses and ale-houses are, however, synonymous terms with inns, for the
innkeeper almost invariably finds it expedient to obtain the necessary licence to

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Innate Q^9

Innocent VO^

Hell Bpiritt and beer. As to theeo licences. Bee Bexb Acts and PuBUO-HOuesa.
Tho rlijiits and dulie? of fuukeepere irrespective of tlie licence will here be noticed.
It may he ob^rvocl, iu tiie flrei place, tfaiat though pubiic-houxies nre ulways iiiu9,
yet beer- houses are uot so, the latter being merely sliops for selling bfcr nud a fear
other liquorii, the distin^ruishiiig characteristic of the pablic-bouse being, that re-
freshinoutus well us lodginjr uuiy bu had on the pruuiises by all comers. Tavt-ms
are chieflv places for the sale of wines and liquorA; victualliug-honses, for thena'e
of vlctnals ; coif ee-houxcs and hotels are also varieties, all of wlilch may or inny
uot be inns, according as they do or do uot hold tlieniselves out to give m(»it. drink,
and lod^;in'is to all travellers; and it is uot ut uU uecessary that auy sigu-board be
put up to disttiugnish the iun.

Qu^ of the incidents of an innkeeper is, that ho is bound to oi)on his honsc to
all travellers without distluctlon, nud has uooptiou (o refuse such refreshment, shel-
ter, and accommodation as he possesses, provided the peri^ou wlio applies is of the
description of a traveller, and able and re:idy to pay the customary hire, and is not
drunk or disorderly, or tainted with infectious disease. He is, of conrw*, bound only
to give such accommodation as he has. If the traveller has a horse and luggage, the
iuiikeeper is bound to receive these also, if he has nccommodution, provided the
tnivuiler himself intends to lodge there as a guest. But the traveller is not entitled
to select whatever room he pleases, and if he will not accept such reasonable accom-
raod;ition as is offered, the innkeeper can order him to leave the house. As K>me
compeusation for this compulsory hospitality, the iunkee|>er is allowed certain privi-
leges ; thus he has a Hen on the horse and carriage or goods of the guest for that
part of the bill or reckoning applicable to each respectively — i. e., he can keep these
aijtil he is paid for the keep, even though they are not the property of the guesL
But he cannot detain tlie iierson of his guest until payment is inndc, for if so, a man
might 1)0 imnrisoned for life without any legal process or adjndication. While,
however, an inukeeper has this remedy for his score, ho is also liable to great re-
sponsibility for the safely of his guests and their goods. By the Roman hiw, under
the edict ndutm, eaupones, stabularii^ he was bound to restore safely whatever eoods
of bis guests were intrusted to him, unless some damnum /ataU^ or some act (» God,
preveuied his doing so. This rule bus been ado^ited by the law of England. Hence,
If the guest be roblied of his goods at the mn, the innkeeper is liable, nnleea
the robbery was caused by the guest's servant or companion, or by his own gross ne^
ligeucu, as, lor example, by leavin^^a box containing money iu the commercial-room,
alter exposing its couteuts to thouystanders. So tlie inukceixsr will be excrscd if
the guest took upon himself the cliargo of his own goods, yet tlie guest does uot
take that charge by merely accept lug from the Iandk>rd the key of the room,
though that luuy be an element in the question. A guest who takc^ all reasouable
precaution— OS for cxamnle. locking his room door— and is yet robl)ed, has therefore
a i;ood claim on the laualord for indemnity ; and the landlord will not escape liability
by putting up a notice in his rooms, (hat ho will not bo answerable for such losses,
otherwise guests would haveuo protection, for they are very much «t the mercy of
thekee|)crs of such houses. It has been attempted to extend the coininou-Ktw lia-
bility of iuukeepers for the safety of the goods of their guests to ordinary lodging*
house keepers, but the courts have held that an ordinary boarding-hoiiso keeper oi
lodging-hou^'e keei>er is only responsible for ordinary care, i. e., such care as he takes
of his own goods. Ho mnnt, it is true, bo careful in selecting his servants, but ht? is
i:ot bound absolutely to return the goods safe merely because they were in his
house along with the lodger.

In Scotlaud, the Uomau rule of hiw as to (ho responsibility of iunkeepers for the
safety of the guest's goods has been also ncopted. and the other heads of law are
substantially the same as in England, ixcept that no indictment wonid lie in Scot-
laud ngaiust an innkeeper for refusing a guest. But tlie substantial remedies are
the same.

I'XNATE IDEAS. See Common Sense.

INNEU HOUSE, the uamo given iu Scotland to the higher divisions of th3 Coort
of Session (q. v.)

INNEB TEMPLE, one of the four Inns of Court in London having the cjcdtuiTe
privilege of calJiug persons to the English bar. See Ijins of Coust.

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INNE8, Thomas, the onthor of ** A Critical B»»ay on the Ancient Inhabitants of
Scotland," was the second fon of JaroeS Innos of Drunigaak, in the parit»h of AlM)yite,
and county of Aberdeen. He was l>om at Drumeask hi the year 1562, and nt the ago
Of IS, wax »cnt by hia father, a zealous Koinan Oatholic, to be cdncated at the nui>
veryily of Paris. lie was ortlained priest In l«»l, and took his degree as Master of
Arts in 1«94. He coutiunod in France for some years, dischaiyring his ecclei=lai»tic!il
duties, and assisting his elder brother, Lewis, Principal of ttie Scots College ntPnrlt*,
in arranging the valuable records which had been defiosited there by Jatiies Benton,
the last Konian Catholic archt)ishop of Glasgow. In 1C98, I. retomed to Scotland,
and officiated as a missionary priest at InveraTon. in the old diocese of Murray. He
again went to Paris in ITOl, and passed the rest of his life at the Scots CoUecre, with

the exception of one or more visits which he made to Britain. The great object of
Ills life was to write the true history of Scotland, and to refute the labnlons narra-

Online LibraryJames OrrChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 6 → online text (page 184 of 196)